Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Invitation to English 3 Solutions Writing Description Textbook Activity Questions and Answers.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class English Writing Description
Descriptions are of two types: factual (or realistic) and impressionistic. For a factual or realistic description, you will have to go looking for descriptions of objects or processes. An impressionistic description, on the other hand, maybe factual in places but it is chiefly concerned with recording the impression produced by the describer of a person, place or object. Above all, there is the description of a person.
Some common words used to describe a person
Words that go with hair: long, wavy, curly, brown, dark
eyes : pale, blue, black, flashing
nose : long, high, fleshy
lips : full, thin
shoulder : broad, drooping
age : mid-thirties
voice : commanding
Important points in connection with the description of the person :
A person’s height (tall/short), lean or fat, age, physical appearance, the shape of the face with its prominent features* eyes (bright/dull/dark), hair, forehead, dress and nature.
Read passage C again. Note that there are some points of description which are not very favourable to the person being described. Can you replace them with more favourable descriptions? Reorganise the passage, starting with the sentence: “She was fair and her face was round.”
She was fair and her face was round. The prominent feature of her face was its sparkle. She was tall and full of youth. She was lean. She had thick hair and her forehead was not that broad. Her nose was long and her cheeks chubby. She was elegantly dressed. She was brimming with confidence.
You met the people in the picture at a party. Describe them to your friend in a letter. (Have a close look at the picture first.)
Satyanagar, Plot No. 121
1st January 20
Yesterday evening I had been to a great party. There was plenty to eat, and numerous games to play but the highlight of it all was the music and dance with which the party closed. Besides the music, we had a dance competition in which the best couple was chosen. The dance went on for an hour. Mr and Mrs Das were adjudged the best couple. They were a perfect match for each other. Mr Das was dressed in a black suit, white shirt and a black bow. He was tall, dark and handsome and he held himself elegantly as he held his wife.
His jet black hair, thick moustache and long sharp nose showed forth a man of character. Mrs Das just a shade shorter than her husband was a cute-looking lady. Her hair was tied in a chignon, her eyebrows were shaped like thin orange pieces. She too had a sharp nose, and a face as clear as glass. She was fair, slim and tall. She sported a short sleeveless gown and a plain slip-on. She also held a dupatta in her hand. She looked really chick and beautiful. They deserved the prize. Well, the party was over at around 4.00 a.m. in the morning. I really enjoyed the party even though it was exhausting.
Please write back.
Describe the person in the picture below as interestingly as you can.
He wore a long full-sleeved magenta gown and long loose magenta trousers to go along with it. The gown opened onto a large star-shaped neck which was shining black with confetti pasted onto it. His face he had put on a mask with his face farded with cosmetic paint. He had a huge bulbous nose painted in red, large lips painted again in red. He wore no shoes but grey socks which looked extremely funny. In his hand, he held a conical hat which had feathers on its top.
Here is a short dialogue between two friends. They are talking about a mutual friend whose name is Prabhakar. Read the dialogue carefully and write a short description of Prabhakar.
Asaf : You remember Prabhakar? He has become a doctor. He is doing very well, in fact.
Krishna : Prabhakar? The name is familiar, but I don’t remember who you are talking about. What did he look like?
Asaf : He was that short chap with a shining pink face. Always dressed in white. He had long hair, like a girl’s. We used to call him Prabhavati, and how he used to blush then!
Prabhakar is a short chap with a shining pink face. He sported long hair like a girl and was always clad in white.
(a) A stranger visited your house during your father’s absence. You received him and talked to him. When your father returned, he wanted to know if any visitor had come while he was away. Describe the visitor to your father so that he can know who you are referring to.
(b) Your mother is looking for a bride for your elder brother. You have seen a girl who, in your opinion, will be ideal for your brother. Describe her to your mother.
(a) Dad, this man was around six feet high and darkly complexioned. He had peculiar hairstyle which was parted right in the middle like a girl’s. He also wore ear¬rings in both ears and four stone rings of different colours on his right hand. Two of his toes on the right also had rings in them. He was carrying a shoulder bag and putting on a white dhoti as well as white kameez. There was a long tilak on his forehead. He spoke in the Sambalpuri dialect and he is perhaps in his thirties. I hope you recognise him.
(b) She is very fair and has eyes shaped like petals of a rose, eyes-lashes thin and long like leaves of the touch-me-not. Her hair is thick and black, falling down even below the knees. Her face is spotlessly clean and has a soft look. She is twenty-four but looks like she is in her teens. There is a black birthmark on her chin which adds to the beauty of her face. Her sharp nose and jaw looked as if it was sculpted like a Grecian statue. Her height is about five-feet and she is slim. On the whole, she looked like a model.
Here is a picture of a rhinoceros. Write a short description of the animal for a friend who has not seen a rhinoceros.
The very look of it is ferocious. It is a huge mammal, 4 feet high and perhaps 5 feet long, that is bigger than a cow and smaller than an adult elephant. Just like a cow, it has a long face with the snout protruding forward, underneath which is a large mouth. The lower jaw looks like a concave plateau. Its most remarkable features are two 1 horns protruding right out from the snout. Moreover, it has three toes on each of its legs. Its skin is so thick that they look like shielding pad. Besides this, it has a short tail. It is found mostly in Asia and Africa and it is a herbivore.
Here is the description of a particular dog. All the details are present, but not in order. Rewrite the description. Begin with the general appearance and size, then describe the features of the animal, which you find most striking.
(a) He has huge paws, with joined fingers and retractable claws.
(b) Achilles isn’t an ordinary dog.
(c) But the most incredible characteristic is his face, which looks sad and solemn.
(d) Firstly, he is larger than any dog I have ever seen, and he is more like a wolf.
(e) It seems as if he can almost speak if he is given the chance.
Achilles isn’t an ordinary dog. He is larger than any normal dog and looks more like a wolf. He has huge paws, with jointed fingers and retractable claws. But the most incredible characteristic is his face, which looks solemn and sad. It seems as if he can speak, if he is given a chance.
Write short descriptions of the following animals. A few questions are given to help you organise your descriptions.
(a) A giraffe How tall is it? What makes it look so tall? Where is it found? What does it eat and how? How does it fight other giraffes and enemies? What kind of sound does it make?
(b) A tiger Where is it found? How tall/long/heavy is it? What is its colour? What is its food? What are man-eaters? How long does a tiger live (life span)? How do tiger cubs look?
(a) A giraffe :
Excepting the now extinct Dinosaurs, the giraffe is the tallest mammal found originally on the African continent. Its most characteristic feature is its long neck that protrudes out angularly from its body and is usually about 4 feet to 6 feet long. Besides, just like the leopard, it has black spots spread all over its body which is white-skinned. It is due to this that it was formerly called a came lopard. The giraffe is herbivorous and lives on the leaves of plants which it can easily reach due to its height. It has a very long stride and therefore it is difficult for any preying animal to catch it.
(b) A tiger :
The tiger is a savage and cruel animal. We say, “As cruel as a tiger”. It is really a great cat. It is a large, strong, and fine-looking animal. Its hair is yellow, marked with black stripes. It is shaped like a cat, with a long tail, round head, and thickly padded feet. It has sharp claws and strong teeth. The tiger is an Indian animal. There are many in the jungles of Bengal. Like cats, tigers hunt at night. They kill big animals, like deer, cows, sheep and goats. They attack men, too. Some become “man-eaters”. They like men’s flesh best to eat. Tigers are feared by farmers. They come at night to steal their sheep and cows. Its average lifespan is 17 years and its cubs look like domestic cats with shining black eyes.
Rewrite passage (c), using your own words as far as possible. Divide your description into two paragraphs.
A telephone comes with a bell which can ring, a microphone which converts human speech into electrical signals, an earphone which converts incoming electrical signals back into speech, and a dial which is used to send electrical pulses along the line to an automatic exchange.
When we want to make a call, we must lift the handset and then dial the number we want to call. Immediately after we dial the number an automatic selector connects us to an outgoing junction cable that is linked to the exchange we want. A ringing bell indicates the fact that a telephone has come. Then the operation starts. The exchange first connects our phone to automatic selector equipment which in turn connects us to an outgoing cable linked to the exchange that is connected to the number we rang. Finally, this exchange connects us to the phone we are interested in.
Add a short paragraph to passage (d). The hints below will help you in writing the paragraph.
Butter is a rich food made from the cream of milk. It is usually eaten as a spread on bread, but cooks may use butter for frying and making cakes and pastries. Butter contains about 80 per cent fat, the remainder being water, salt and protein. Butter is made from cream, by churning the cream so that the fat [ is separated out. For many centuries, farmers have made butter from cream by churning it by hand in a wooden vat. Nowadays, however, butter is made by machines. First, the milk is whirled in a centrifuge to separate the cream. The l cream is then pasteurised by heating it and then cooling it quickly. This action kills germs in the cream and prevents the butter from going rancid quickly. The pasteurised cream is then churned in huge revolving drums, which separate fat from the liquid in the cream. When the liquid, called the buttermilk, is ‘ drained away, the resulting mass of butter is then cut into pieces and packed.
Hints : How does butter feel when you touch it? Is it tasty to eat? / Is it expensive? j How is butter used in India? etc.
Butter is hard but smooth to the touch because it is kept mostly in the refrigerator. Of course, it is tasty but expensive. A mere hundred grams cost thirteen rupees. It is mostly used in cakes and as a spread on bread sandwiches. Sometimes it is used to fry almonds and cashew nuts. However, its use is limited and common people seldom buy it.
Here is a conversation in which an uncle describes a saw to his nephew. Read through the conversation and write a paragraph describing a saw.
Boy : What is a saw, uncle?
Uncle: It’s something we use to cut a piece of wood into two.
Boy : You mean it’s a sort of axe, uncle?
Uncle: No, not an axe, This one has a thinner blade and a short ring-like handle of wood.
Boy : Oh, I know what it is. It’s like a sword.
Uncle: Not really. A saw has one edge sharp. The other edge does not cut.
Boy : Like a big knife?
Uncle: Partly, but the sharp edge does not cut like a knife. There are teeth on the sharp edge. When you press the blade against the wood and move it forward and backwards, like the bow of a violin, the wood gets cut along that line. There are big saws, too, which two people hold at either end to make cuts along the whole length of a log.
A saw is an instrument made of either iron or steel with curved teeth on one side or both. The blade of a saw is thin but strong. There is a ring-like wooden handle fitted to one end of the instrument held during sawing wood or wood planks. When it is pressed against the wood, the wood gets cut along that line. Nowadays, the saw has developed a lot from its crude form to a sophisticated one.
Write a short description of the following objects :
(a) A football
(i) Size, shape and colour
(ii) Is it smooth, rough or soft to the touch? Is it hard? Is it light or heavy?
(iii) How does it smell?
(iv) Does it bounce? How high?
(b) A ripe mango
(i) Size, shape, colour and smell –
(ii) How does it feel to the touch?
(iii) What happens when you press it hard?
(iv) How does it taste?
(c) A pressure cooker
(i) What is it? (Definition)
(ii) What does it look like? (parts, size, make, etc.)
(a) A football :
A football is a spherical object made of hexagonal leather pieces of alternately white and black colour or plain grey. It has a bladder inside which is inflated by air to give it a round shape. The leather is smooth and soft in the evening but gradually becomes rough because of wear and tear as a result of frequent use. It is light when inflated and bounces up to a height of 15 feet to 20 feet depending on how much it has inflated and how hard it is hit.
(b) A ripe mango :
It is a tropical fruit which consists of a hard kernel, a central core around which is a fleshy pulp. It is yellowish-red in colour and in ovalish in shape. The mango smells sweet and is soft and smooth to the touch; when pressed hard the outer pulp along with the juice comes out. It has a very sweet taste to it.
(c) A pressure cooker :
A pressure cooker is a vessel in which food is cooked in steam under pressure. It consists of a very strong vessel, made of aluminium alloy with a lid that fits tightly on the top. The lid can be sealed onto the vessel by means of a rubber ring. At the centre of the lid, there is a vent or hole through which steam can escape. The food to be cooked is placed in a smaller vessel inside the cooker and a little water is poured into the outer vessel.
Water boils in the vessel and steam begins to escape through the vent. Then we stop the steam by placing a weight on the vent. Steam pressure inside increases and the temperature rises. So the food gets cooked at a higher temperature. This takes only one-third of the time taken by the ordinary method.
Describe the following objects :
(a) A bicycle
(b) A teapot
(c) A fountain pen
(d) A gold necklace
(a) A bicycle :
A bicycle is the cheapest and simplest form of transport on wheels. It consists of the main frame and a secondary frame both joined together and triangular in shape. The main frame has a head tube in its front. The handle of the bicycle protrudes out from the upper end of the head tube while the fork protrudes out from the lower end of the head tube. An inner bolt holds both the handle and the fork in place. At the lower end of the fork is the front axle which holds the wheel.
At the opposite end of the upper end of the head, the tube is a tube that protrudes out of the hollow of the main frame. This has a nut-bolt arrangement to hold the seat. Similarly, the peak of the triangular main frame has a hole and axle arrangement to which the crank is connected. The secondary frame has a seat stay which serves as a support for the weight on the seat. The upper end of the seat stay is joined to the main frame while the lower end forks out into two legs which hold the rear wheel in place.
The wheels consist of a central spoke holder from which spokes radiate out into the rim of the wheel where it is screwed. The spokes keep the rim in shape and support it. Besides this, the wheel has an inflatable tube and an outer tyre. The tube has a valve through which air is pumped into it. This valve emerges on to the outer side of the rim through a hole in it. The crank is held by the main frame while the rear frame holds a sprocket wheel. A chain extends from the crank and is wound around the sprocket wheel. The chain is fitted onto them and locked.
The crank further has two pedals joined to it. When force is applied to the pedals, the crank turns and this chain transmits this force applied to the sprocket wheel which is attached to the rear wheel, thereby moving it. Consequently, the cycle moves. To facilitate proper control of the bike, there are brakes. Brake levers are attached to the handle and have brake brackets with rubber on them which are fitted close to the rear and front wheels. Besides this mudguards are provided for both wheels. Finally, a bell and a stand complete the bike. The stand serves as a prop to keep the bicycle standing.
(b) A teapot:
A teapot is a vessel used to brew tea. It can be of various shapes and sizes but most often it is cylindrical in shape with a hollow inside. It is open at one end and this top end has a lid which can be closed or opened as required. The lid is attached to the body of the teapot. The teapot also has a snout with an opening in it from which brewed tea is poured. In teapots of other kinds, instead of a snout, there is a long neck with a mouth at one from which the tea is to be poured. The teapot can be made of various materials like clay, bone china, wood, steel or copper.
(c) A fountain pen:
A fountain pen has two parts. A hollow cylindrical lower part two inches in diameter and a nib holder that is screwed onto it. Besides this, it has a cap with which to cover the nib and protect the ink from spreading. The lower cylindrical half of the pen is filled with ink. This ink passes to the nib which has a sharp pointed end to which it drips. It is with this pointed end of the nib that one writes.
(d) A gold necklace :
Gold is the most precious of all metals. Its bright yellow colour is very pretty. It takes fine polish. Gold is used to make many ornaments out of which a necklace is one. The goldsmith artistically makes it. It is of different sizes and designs. Each gold necklace has a beauty of its own. It is studded with rare stones and diamonds. This necklace is made by hand as well as by machine.
Your father has bought the item in the picture for you. Write a letter to your sister describing what it is, how it looks and what you are going to do with it.
7 August 20
Dad presented me with a very useful gift. I really needed it. Well, don’t hazard any guesses because you might think of the wrong thing. It is a wall clock. The clock is a fairly big one. It has a huge round dial which is fixed onto a round plastic case. This in turn is encrusted into a squarish plastic body. The glass on the dial case is spotlessly clean. One significant feature of the watch is its radium-coated hands.
These shine in the darkness and allow me to know the time even though the lights are off. Besides this, the clock has an alarm system. This serves the purpose of waking up a lazy boy like me. Nowadays I use the alarm to wake up at 5.00 a.m. to go out jogging. That is a thoughtful present from dad, isn’t it? I am writing to him separately to thank him but do tell him how useful it is to me. Thanks for sending cakes and biscuits through your classmate Suneeta.
Your loving brother,
Read through the following paragraph and answer the following questions.
Coal mining-digging coal out of the earth – is a very big industry. Some coal is mined on the surface, but most of it has to be mined deep underground. Both forms of mining are now highly mechanised. On or near the surface, coal is mined by the open-cast method. Huge power shovels first strip off the earth’s overburden above the coal seam. Then the coal is broken up by explosives and shovelled into trucks.
Underground mining is more complicated, more expensive, and more dangerous. Shafts are sunk down into the earth and tunnels are struck outwards from the shafts to the coal seams. Then a machine, called a continuous miner, rips coal from the mine face and loads it onto a conveyor belt, which carries the coal up.
Now answer the following questions :
(i) What is the paragraph about?
(iii) The sentences below give us a simple description of the process of surface ( mining, but they are not in order. Rewrite them in the proper order and use the connectives “first,” “second”, “third” and “finally”. “The coal is thus broken up. Explosives are detonated. The earth above the coal seam is removed. It is loaded into the trucks”.
(iii) There are certain steps involved in underground mining. Write down the steps in proper order. The first one is given to you as an example.
a. Shafts are sunk down in the ground.
c. Coal is __________________
d. The coal is _______________
e. Then it is ________________
(i) The paragraph defines coal mining and enumerates the two kinds of mining. The paragraph also describes the open-cast method of mining.
(ii) Firstly the earth above the coal seam is removed. Secondly, explosives are detonated. Thirdly, the coal is thus broken up. Finally, it is loaded into trucks.
(iii) (b) Tunnels are struck outward from the shafts to the coal seam.
(c) Coal is then ripped from the mine face by a machine called a continuous miner.
(d) The coal is broken up by explosives and shovelled into trucks.
(e) Then it is loaded onto a conveyor belt which carries the coal up.
Here is a description of an experiment demonstrating the process of photosynthesis in green leaves. Read it carefully and note the steps in the experiment.
Two leaves are removed from a de-starched plant. The upper side of one and the lower side of the other are greased with vaseline. The stalk of ‘ each leaf is dipped in water and the leaves are left in the light for four hours so that photosynthesis takes place. Most of the vaseline is wiped off and the leaves are placed in a solution of potassium iodide. The leaf greased on the upper side develops a blue colour, showing that starch has formed by photosynthesis from carbon dioxide, which entered through the leaf pores which are mainly on the underside. No colour develops in the other leaf in which vaseline blocked the pores.
Have you understood the steps involved in the experiment? Can you now help your younger sister conduct this experiment? For this, you may have to give her instructions and let her do the experiment. Give her instructions step by step. You may proceed like this :
1. Take two leaves from a de-starched plant.
2. Grease one leaf on the upper side.
Continue the instructions till the experiment is over.
1. Take two leaves from a de-starched plant
2. Grease one leaf on the upper-side
3. Grease the other on the lower side
4. Dip both leaves in water
5. Then leave it under light for four hours so that photosynthesis takes place.
6. After this wipe off vaseline from the leaves and place it in a solution of potassium iodide.
7. You will now notice that the leaf greased on the upper side develops a blue colour.
8. This shows that starch has formed photosynthesis from carbon dioxide which entered through the leaf pores on the underside of the leaf.
9. No colour develops on the leaf in which vaseline blocked the pores. Structural items used in the passages. We use technical writing while describing the processes etc. These technical writings are commonly impersonal and formal. In this type, the action referred to is more important than the doer of that action. Hence, we express this importance using active voice. Try to fill in the blanks.
1. Coal is mined ___________.
2. Both forms ________ are now highly mechanised.
3. Then the coal is broken up ________ and shovelled
4. Shafts are sunk ________ and tunnels are stuck ________.
5. Two leaves are removed ___________.
6. ________ are greased with vaseline
7. Stalks are dipped __________.
8. Leaves are left ____________.
1. Coal is mined on the surface. but most of it has to be mined deep underground.
2. Both forms of mining are now highly mechanised.
3. Then the coal is broken up by explosives and shovelled into trucks.
4. Shafts are sunk down into the earth and tunnels are stuck outwards from the shafts to the coal seams.
5. Two leaves are removed from a de-starched plant.
6. The upper side of one and the lower side of the other are greased with vaseline.
7. Stalks are dipped in water.
8. Leaves are left in light for four hours.
Here is a set of instructions for an experiment on transpiration in plants. Rewrite the description in the passive voice. Select a potted plant and water it sufficiently before the experiment. Cover the soil surface by means of oil paper and check the ordinary evaporation of water. Put the pot on the workbench of the laboratory and cover it with a bell jar. Allow the experimental set-up to continue for one hour. Observe that drops of water stick to the inner wall of the bell jar.
Hint: A plotted plant is selected and it is watered sufficiently before the experiment. (Continue)
A potted plant is selected and watered sufficiently before the experiment. Then its soil surface is covered by an oil paper to check ordinary evaporation of water. After this, the pot is put on the workbench of the laboratory and covered with a bell- jar. This experimental setup is allowed to continue for an hour. It is observed that drops of water stick to the inner wall of the bell jar.
The following sentences are from a passage, which tells us about the ideal temperature necessary for the growth of plants. But the sentences are not in order. Put them in order.
1. At lower temperatures the activity of enzymes is reduced; therefore, the growth is also retarded.
2. Most plants grow well between 20-30 degrees centigrade, which may be called the optimum temperature range.
3. The effect of temperature on growth may be indirectly related to the activity of enzymes.
4. But some plants grow well at temperatures lower than 20° C, while other plants grow best at temperatures higher than 30° C.
5. At higher temperatures, the activity of the enzymes in the plant is considerably increased, leading to a kind of ‘exhaustion’ of the plant. Beyond 40° C, the enzymes themselves are destroyed.
Most plants grow well between 20°-30° centigrade, which may be called the optimum temperature range. But some plants grow well at temperatures lower than 20° C while other plants grow best at temperatures higher than 30° C. At higher temperatures, the activity of enzymes in the plant is considerably increased, leading to a kind of ‘exhaustion’ of the plant. Beyond 40° C, the enzymes themselves are destroyed. At lower temperatures the activity of enzymes is reduced; therefore, growth is also retarded. Thus the effect of temperature on growth may be indirectly related to the activity of enzymes.
Given below is a diagram which describes how water mixed with solid substances or impurities is distilled. Write a description of the process of distillation.
The water mixed with solid substances or impurities is first put into a round-bottomed flask. This flask is then placed on a tripod stand. A rectangular glass tube is then put into the flask through the hole in the cork covering the flask. The tube must reach down to the depth of the water level in the flask. The other hand of the tube must be kept under an empty glass beaker. After this, the flask is to be heated by a glass flame. As the flask is heated, it gradually reaches boiling point and water starts turning into water vapour.
This steam passes through the rectangular tube. As it passes through the tube, the water vapour condenses and droplets of water start falling into the glass beaker. They quicken the process of condensation and the rectangular tube can be attached to a condenser tube through which cold water passes. As all the water in the flask evaporates, the impurities or the solid substance will remain behind in the flask and pure water will be deposited in the beaker.
(a) In ironing a shirt, you first press the cuffs and the sleeves. You then press the collar, inside and outside. After that you ……………….
While ironing a shirt, first we press the cuffs and then the sleeves. We then press the collar on both sides with the iron. Then we can press the front part and then | the back ……………….
Describe the following simple processes.
(a) how to make a glass of lassi
(b) how to make a booking for a berth in a reserved compartment (on a train)
(c) how to clean and polish your shoes
(d) how to cook rice
(e) how to send a letter by registered post
(a) how to make a glass of lassi:
1. First, take the required amount of curd and milk.
2. Pour them into the jar of the mixer.
3. Add ice cubes and sugar (to your own taste) to it.
4. Then churn and grind it in the mixer using the whipper till the mixture of curd, milk sugar and ice, foam is.
5. Pour it back into a glass.
6. Top ft with garnished coconut, cream, ground cashew nut, bournvita powder or cocoa powder and dried grapes.
7. The lassi is now ready.
(b) how to make a booking for a berth in a reserved compartment (on a train):
1. Procure a reservation slip/form from the reservation counter at the railway station or city booking centres.
2. Fill in the form giving details of the train you want to travel, the class you want to travel to, the date of your journey, your name, age, sex and preference for lower, middle or upper berth.
3. Then give this reservation slip/form to the reservation clerk.
4. The clerk will then check on his computer to find out whether a berth is available on the train and on the particular date you asked for.
5. After finding the availability if it is available, he will print the details on the ticket and pass it to you asking you the fee for it.
6. If the clerk finds that no berth is available, he will tell you what other options are available and you can fill out a new reservation slip with the options available and thereby start the whole process again.
(c) how to clean and polish your shoes:
1. First bring a cherry blossom or a polishing cream (white or black).
2. Use a soft polishing brush for cleaning the dust and dirt.
3. Apply the cherry cream on the brush.
4. Polish the shoes slowly and continuously for some time so as to give them a shining colour.
5. Then apply the cream for a better glaze on the shoes.
(d) how to cook rice:
1. Clean the rice off stones, chaff and burnt rice.
2. Then clean it with water.
3. After this take water that is twice the volume of rice you have taken and set it to boil on the stove in a pot or vessel.
4. When you notice the water boiling, pour the rice into it.
5. Keep it over the fire till the grains of rice become soft.
6. Then drain the water from the pot, so that the cooked rice is left behind ready for consumption.
(e) how to send a letter by registered post:
1. Procure an envelope of the size required by you from the stationery shop.
2. Put the letter inside it and seal it with gum or cello tape.
3. Then write the name and address of the person you want to send it to on the right-hand side of the envelope. Add your name and address to the envelope in the left bottom corner.
4. Take it to the post office and hand it to the registration clerk. He will weigh it and tell you how much stamp it requires. Buy the required amount of stamp from him and paste it on the envelope.
5. Then hand it back to him. He will enter it in a registration journal, write the registration number and date on the envelope and put his Initials on it. He will then hand you a receipt for the letter he received from you.
6. The registration work is done.
Read the following description of a hill station.
(a) Ootacamund, or Ooty (as it is popularly known), which nestles in the Nilgiri Hills, lies on the borders of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Tourists from both home and abroad flock to this beautiful little hill station for a holiday. The most prominent attraction for them is the Botanical Garden, which was established in 1847. A variety of exotic and ornamental plants adorn this garden. The chief attraction of the garden is a fossil tree trunk which is 20 million years old. A small lake runs through the garden. The government organises in this garden a flower festival in May every year.
(i) What is Ootacamund’s other name? Where is it situated?
(ii) What is its main attraction?
(iii) Where is the lake?
(i) Ootacamund’s other name is Ooty. It is situated in the Nilgiri Hills which . “ lies on the borders of Kerala, Tamilnadu and Karnataka.
(ii) The most prominent attraction is the Botanical Garden, which was established in 1847.
(iii) The lake runs through the Botanical Garden of Ooty.
Can you draw up an outline of the passage above and how the description progresses?
Paragraph 1: Popular name and location of Ooty – a tourist spot.
Paragraph 2: The Botanical Garden – the most prominent tourist spot.
Paragraph 3: The lake and the flower festival
Now read another description of a place of tourist interest in India.
(b) Junagadh is an ancient city in Gujarat. It is situated among the shadows of Mount Gimar. The name “Junagadh”- Juna (old) and Gadh (fort)- literally means “old fort”. On the outskirts of the city, there is a dark basalt rock. It stands on the way to Mount Gimar. The rock holds the inscriptions of three mighty dynasties. They include the Maurya and Gupta dynasties. The inscriptions are in Sanskrit.
Notice some keywords and phrases used in the descriptions.
existence: Ooty lies on the borders of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka,
location: on the outskirts of the city there is a dark basalt rock.
Describe the following places, highlighting their size, location and type. Also, mention the interesting or outstanding features of each place.
(a) Your home town or village
(b) An important place you have visited
(c) Your college
(a) My Village :
My village, Mahendragiri is situated in the Gajapati district. It is one-hundred and eighty km away from the silk city, of Berhampur. To reach my village one has to take a bus from Berhampur and after the Tapta Pani Ghat take the route leading to Ramgiri Udayagiri. This place was in the news recently because of communal clashes. Mahendragiri is just 60 km away from R. Udaygiri. The village is situated at the foot of the Mahendra Hills and hence it is called Mahendragiri.
The whole village consists of a cluster of huts, asbestos roof houses and a few concrete buildings. It has only two sahis namely the Nuasahi and the Puranasahi. These sahis are situated one after the other. When one approaches Mahendragiri from R. Udayagiri, one will first see the Nuasahi and after that the Puranasahi. Each ship has rows of houses facing each other. Thus in Nuasahi, we have two rows of houses facing each other and in Puranasahi too there are two rows of houses facing each other.
There are only 200 families living in the whole village. The village has only one main road, the state highway which comes from Berhampur goes past R. Udayagiri to our village Mahendragiri and then continues upto Parlakhemundi, the district headquarters of Gajapati district, which is just 20 km from our village. Nuasahi which is in the south of Berhampur is surrounded by a huge mango grove and tamarind trees.
Puranasahi which is on the north of Parlakhemundi is bordered by cashew-nut plantations. Beyond the mango grove and the cashew, plantation lie the hills. On the top of a hill is a Shiva temple. It can be reached after climbing 480 steps. The temple is a very ancient one. It is now almost in ruins because of a lack of maintenance. Nevertheless, one can see the crude Shiva Lingam in the inner sanctuary always covered with fresh flowers.
The view from the temple courtyard is thrilling. One can see the streams flowing down on the rear of the hill. The sahis looked like tiny rows of toy houses. T.V. antennas look like minute clothes hangers and the mango grove and casuarina trees look like beds of cauliflowers. 3 km away from the village, on the road to Parlakhemundi is our marketplace. It does not have any permanent shops but only rows of rectangular concrete platforms on which businessmen put up their shops.
The market meets on three days of the week, Monday, Wednesday and Friday. It is a very colourful market where one can get everything necessary. Beyond the market is a thick jungle. On the hills, one can also see patches of barren land. This is because the farmers of our village practice shifting cultivation. Some of the plants on the hill are seen as half burnt. Some are already yellow with the flowers of the mustard.
(b) An important place I have visited :
One of the most important and unforgettable places that I have ever visited is the Taj Mahal at Agra. I have not seen anything else that surpasses the beauty of this marble mausoleum. Built by Shah Jahan, as a tomb for his wife and as an enduring symbol of his love, the Taj Mahal is true “an elegy in stone.” It has a gateway of red stone with verses from the Quran inscribed on it.
The gateway leads to a garden with three pathways. Besides that, there are fountains and pillars that lead to the marble platform at whose four comers are four towers or minarets. In the middle is the main dome with two smaller domes flanking it on either side. The red and white marble walls are decorated with stones of various colours encrusted in them. Their insides too are covered by flowers wrought in stone and lace work of green foliage.
The hall of death has a verse inscribed on it. Words cannot describe the splendour of the Tajmahal in the moonlight. It glitters and appears radiant as a bride. Moreover, the large rooms, cool ambience and solitariness about it, give it a sober air whereby one becomes reverential and meditative.
(c) My college :
My college is situated on the National Highway No.5 between Cuttack and Bhubaneswar on the outskirts of our village Kamalpur when proceeding towards Cuttack. It is a red-brick, single-storeyed straight-line building that faces the East. It is constructed only on an acre of land which is marked by a similar red-brick boundary wall that has only one gate which opens onto the highway. The gate has a gravel path which leads to the portico of the college building.
Immediately after the portico is steps which lead to the principal’s office. On the right of the principal’s office is the staff common-room, while to its left is the Administrative Office of the college. All three are housed in single rooms. Beyond the staff common- room and the administrative office on both sides are the stores, the right one storing sports equipment while the left one has stationary. Following the sports store on the right are the classrooms. There are three classrooms in all for 1st Year Arts students.
Similarly on the left beyond the stationeries store are three classrooms for 2nd year Arts students. Beyond the boundary wall, on every side are paddy fields. It is interesting that the college itself has been constructed on an erstwhile paddy field donated by a farmer whose son is one of the teachers in the college. Thus in the rainy season the earth there does not absorb water and as a result, we often have 2-3 ft. of standing water in the College compound. One can even fish inside the college during rainy reason.
Describe the place shown in the picture below.
It was a wonderful and picturesque sight just like a picture postcard. A waterfall nestling among the mountains peopled by the evergreen pines standing tall on the mountains. The water cascaded down the fall spraying itself into the air looking like tiny globules of diamond and then crashing into the rock below where it turns into white foam and then cascades down the mountain forming divergent streams that end up in a rivulet.
Describe the following people of our country and the places they live in.
(a) The Kashmiris
(b) The Sikhs
(c) The Santals
Here are some helpful points for (a)
(i) Live in the valley of Kashmir, fair complexion, tall, long noses, about 5 million people
(ii) Very cold winters – snow, frozen lakes, poorly heated mud houses, individual firepots. Woollen clothes, long gowns and rubber shoes
(iii) Food: meat, fish and rice; fruit (apples, pears, peaches, cherries, etc.); Drink: a lot of tea with or without milk
(iv) handicrafts: carpets, silk, wood carvings, etc.
(v) well-known tourist spots: Shalimar Gardens, Gulmarg, Dal lake, etc.
(a) The Kashmiris:
The Kashmiris are a fair complexioned people most of who live in the valley of Kashmir which lies in the north of India. They usually have tall and long noses. They experience very cold winters because of snow, frozen lakes and badly heated mud houses. To get rid of the cold, they wear woollen clothes, long gowns and rubber shoes. However, most of the population is poor and hence they live in poorly heated mud houses but each of them has separate firepots. The majority of the Kashmiris are Muslims. As a result, most men wear caps while women are veiled. They wear purdah. This is of course more common among the orthodox folk.
The Kashmiris are mostly non-vegetarian people eating meat, fish and rice. They also consume fruits like apples, pears, peaches, cherries etc. and drink a lot of tea. Their main occupation is handicrafts. Whole families including young children are engaged in weaving carpets, silk clothes, wood carvings etc. all of which are exquisitely done. The main revenue, however, comes from tourism. Kashmir which is considered earth’s paradise has many famous tourist spots like the Dal Lake, Shalimar Gardens and the Gulmarg. Terrorism has however decreased tourist trade in recent times.
(b) The Sikhs :
The Sikhs are the residents of Punjab but over the years they have migrated to almost all the states of India and to many countries abroad. Sikhism began as a socio-religious movement which was more interested in fighting evils but in its process of evolution, it was forced by circumstances to become a militant sect. It was Guru Gobind Singh who transformed the Sikhs into a militant sect and created Khalsa. The Sikh people are easily distinguishable by the turban they put on. Every Sikh is bound by the laws of his religion to never have his hair cut.
Men, therefore, tie their hair in a plait, bind it on the head and wear a turban upon it. Besides this, all Sikhs who are part of the Khalsa are armed with a Kirpan and put on a steel bangle called Kada. Most men are dressed in long Kurtas that reach down to the knees and pyjamas. Women are dressed in salwar kameez. The Sikhs are very hard-working and industrious people. They mainly cultivate wheat, rice, maize, gram and pulses. They produce the largest amount of wheat in India.
Unlike other States, the Sikhs use all mechanised equipment for agriculture and adopt the latest techniques and methods of production. Besides this, they are engaged in several industries like bicycle parts, auto parts, sports and leather goods, hosiery, knitwear, footwear, nuts and bolts, textiles etc. Most Sikhs eat roti or parathas along with Makhan, and dal and drink large glasses of milk. They celebrate the birthdays of their Guru by offering prayer and distributing sweets. The important tourist centres and places of worship in Punjab are the Golden Temple at Amritsar, the Durgiana Mandir, the Anandpur Sahib and the Jalianawala Bagh.
(c) The Santhals :
The Santhals or Santals are an indigenous aboriginal tribe inhabiting Bihar and some parts of Orissa. They lend their name to the Santhal Pargana district of Bihar, which is known after them. They are short dark-skinned people having broad noses, thick lips, coarse and curly hair and very prominent cheekbones. Their main occupation is cultivating and cattle breeding. Most of them are uneducated and illiterate and rarely mix with mainstream society. They are also good hunters.
They are animistic in their beliefs and enjoy sexual liberty practising polyandry and polygamy. Their dialect is called Santali. They live in mud houses short in height. But their villages are extremely clean. The Santals have an elaborate tribal structure, with 12 exogamous clans. More over, each village has its cadre of village officials the head of whom is the chief.
Describe how the Money Order which you send reaches the addressee.
The money order form is first filled up and the money to be sent as well as the amount of exchange is given to the postal clerk who gives a receipt in return. It is understood that a customer has commissioned money to be sent to a customer in another place for paying a sum for the service. The postal clerk thus sends this form to the post office where the addressee is to be found. This is taken as a direction by that post office to pay the sum to the addressee, which is done by a postal peon.
Write about 150 words on each of the following :
(a) A peacock
(b) A cat
(c) An elephant
(a) A Peacock :
The male peacock is a beautiful bird. Its neck is covered with lovely blue feathers. Its body is green and blue. Its glory is its long tail. It can open its tail like a great fan. The colours are blue and green and gold. The bird is very proud of its tail. It opens it, and struts about to be admired. The peacock stands for pride. We say, “as proud as a peacock”. The lady peacock is a plain brown bird. She has no tail like her husband. He has all the beauty.
In India, peacocks are sacred birds. The peacock is called the mount of Saraswati, the goddess of learning. So it is very wrong to kill a peacock. But peacocks are great thieves. They do great damage to growing crops. Some people say that peacocks kill snakes. Some say they can smell the coming rain. Then they give harsh screams.
(b) A Cat :
People keep cats as pets. Cats are pretty animals, covered with soft fur. They are of different colours. Some are black, some white, some grey, and some brown. Kittens, or young cats, are very playful. They will play for hours with little balls, fallen leaves, or bits of string. The chief use of cats is to catch mice and rats. Like their big cousins, lions and tigers, cats can see in the dark. They hunt for mice at night. Mice are a great pest in a house. A cat will soon kil them, or drive them away.
Cats have been tamed for thousands of years. They were kept as pets in ancient Egypt. Cats are very different from dogs. Dogs love persons, but cats love places. A dog will follow his master anywhere. But a cat loves the comfort of the house and stays at home. Their love is what we call “cupboard love”.
(c) An elephant :
The elephant is the largest of all animals. It is a strange animal to look at. It has thick legs, huge sides and back, large ears, small eyes, a short tail, and great white tusks. Its long nose, or trunk, is the strangest thing about it. It uses its trunk like a hand. It picks things up with its trunk and puts them into its mouth. It sucks up water with its trunk and squirts it into its mouth for drinking.
Elephants are very strong. And they are very clever. So tame elephants are very useful. They are trained to draw heavy loads. They are taught to carry logs of wood on their tusks and pile them up in perfect order. They are used, too, in hunting tigers in the jungle. In old days they were used in battle. And Indian Rajas ride on elephants in state processions.
Write short paragraphs on :
(a) A refrigerator
(b) A screwdriver
(c) A motorcycle
(a) A refrigerator :
A refrigerator is a common household electrically powered equipment/appliance that is used to chill or freeze food items for preservation. It consists of an outer metal cabinet or box, rectangular in shape and an inner polyurethane foam lining (pdf) to ensure zero gaps, insulation and provide no space for insects to breed. Its size ranges from 165 litres to 310 litres. Its inside can be cooled to temperatures as low as – 16°C.
The cooling is affected by a thermostat which controls the temperature inside the refrigerator as well as of the freezer compartment. The cabinet contains a separate freezer compartment in which ice can be formed and food kept frozen. The freezer also has ice trays with which ice cubes are made. Below it is the chill tray which is used to store soft drinks as well as milk jackets for quick cooling. Besides, the cabinet may have adjustable shelves, which are found mostly in domestic refrigerators.
In which vessels of different sizes can be accommodated to store cooked food, jellies, pies etc. Right below is the San crisper which is a compartment for storing leafy vegetables and fresh fruits. The door inside also has a dairy compartment for cheese and butter, removable egg racks and adjustable bottle racks. Today frost-free refrigerators are available.
(b) A screwdriver:
A screwdriver is a common tool used for turning screws. It consists of a metal rod that is fixed in a wooden, plastic or rubber groove that has been moulded into a handle grip. The rod is chiselled in the front to facilitate its getting into the groove of the screw. The rod varies in length and diameter.
(c) A motorcycle :
Motor cycle is one of the most popular means of conveyance. Now different brands are manufactured by different companies. Each of them has a distinctive feature. The motorcycle consists of various parts, such as a handle, brake, fuel tank, silencer pipe, engine (two-stroke/four-stroke) carburettor, clutch lever, speedometer, two tyres, indicator (front and rear), and battery compartment. These parts are systematically set in the bike’s comfortable seat, headlight, shock absorber and so on.
Four-stroke motor-bike is superior to a two-stroke one because the former has smooth pick-up. Besides, it doesn’t produce defeaning sound. On the other hand, the motorbike has a two-stroke engine that doesn’t have that smooth pick-up. It produces sound. The fuel consumption of a four-stroke engine is better than that of a two-stroke engine. The former is economical. Replacement of engine oil at the scheduled time is of great importance. Now wherever we notice, we see varieties of wonderful bikes playing on the road.