## CHSE Odisha 11th Class Math Book Solutions | Elements of Mathematics Class 11 Solutions CHSE Odisha Pdf Download

CHSE Math Solution Class 11 Pdf Chapter 1 Mathematical Reasoning

Elements of Mathematics Class 11 CHSE Odisha Solutions Chapter 2 Sets

Elements of Mathematics Class 11 Odisha Pdf Download Chapter 3 Relations and Functions

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Math Book Pdf Download Chapter 4 Trigonometric Functions

+2 1st Year Science Math Book Pdf Chapter 5 Principle of Mathematical Induction

Elements of Mathematics CHSE Solutions Class 11 Chapter 6 Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations

Elements of Mathematics Class 11 Book Solutions Chapter 7 Linear Inequalities

Elements of Mathematics Vol 1 Solution Pdf Download Chapter 8 Permutations and Combinations

Class 11 Elements of Mathematics Book Pdf Chapter 9 Binomial Theorem

Elements of Mathematics Class 11 Solutions CHSE Odisha Chapter 10 Sequences and Series

Elements of Mathematics Class 11 CHSE Odisha Chapter 11 Straight Lines

Elements of Mathematics Class 11 Odisha Chapter 12 Conic Sections

CHSE Math Solution Class 11 Pdf Chapter 13 Introduction to Three-Dimensional Geometry

Elements of Mathematics Class 11 CHSE Odisha Solutions Chapter 14 Limit and Differentiation

Elements of Mathematics Class 11 Solutions CHSE Odisha Pdf Download Chapter 15 Statistics

Elements of Mathematics Class 11 CHSE Odisha Pdf Download Chapter 16 Probability

### CHSE Odisha Class 11 Maths Syllabus (+2 1st year)

Mathematics (+2 First Year)
Course Structure

 Unit Topic Marks No. of Periods I Sets and Functions 29 60 II Algebra 37 70 III Co-ordinate Geometry 13 40 IV Calculus 6 30 V Mathematical Reasoning 3 10 VI Statistics and Probability 12 30 Total 100 240

Unit I Sets and Functions

Chapter 2 Sets
Sets and their representations. The empty set, Finite and Infinite sets, Equal sets, Subsets, Subsets of a set of real numbers especially intervals (with notations), Power set, Universal set, Venn diagrams, Union and Intersection of sets, Difference of sets, Complement of a set, Properties of Complement of Sets, Practical Problems based on sets.

Chapter 3 Relations & Functions
Ordered pairs, Cartesian product of sets. The number of elements in the Cartesian product of two finite sets. Cartesian product of the sets of real (upto R × R). Definition of relation, pictorial diagrams, domain, co-domain, and range of a relation. Function as a special kind of relation from one set to another. Pictorial representation of a function, domain co-domain, and range of a function. Real valued functions, domain, and range of these functions: Constant, identity, polynomial, rational, modulus, signum, exponential, logarithmic, and greatest integer function, with their graphs Sum, difference, product, and quotients of functions.

Chapter 4 Trigonometric Functions
Positive and negative angles. Measuring angles in radians and in degrees and conversion of one into other. Definition of trigonometric functions with the help of unit circles. Truth of sin2x + cos2x = 1, for all x. Signs of trigonometric functions. Domain and range of trigonometric functions and their graphs. Expressing sin(x±y) and cos(x±y) in terms of sin x, sin y, cos x & cos y and their simple application.
Deducing identities like the following:
tan(x±y) = $$\frac{\tan x \pm \tan y}{1 \mp \tan x \tan y}$$
cot(x±y) = $$\frac{\cot x \cot y \mp 1}{\cot y \pm \cot x}$$
sin x + sin y = 2 sin $$\frac{x+y}{2}$$ cos $$\frac{x-y}{2}$$
sin x – sin y = 2 cos $$\frac{x+y}{2}$$ sin $$\frac{x-y}{2}$$
cos x + cos y = 2 cos $$\frac{x+y}{2}$$ cos $$\frac{x-y}{2}$$
cos x – cos y = -2 sin $$\frac{x+y}{2}$$ sin $$\frac{x-y}{2}$$
Identities related to sin 2x, cos 2x, tan 2x, sin 3x, cos 3x, and tan 3x. Trigonometric equations Principal solution, General solution of trigonometric equations of the type sin x = sin y, cos x = cos y, and tan x = tan y. Proof and Simple applications of sine and cosine formulas.

Unit II Algebra

Chapter 5 Principle of Mathematical Induction
Process of the proof by induction, motivation the application of the method by looking at natural numbers as the least inductive subset of real numbers. The principle of mathematical induction and simple applications.

Chapter 6 Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
Need for complex numbers, especially to be motivated by inability to solve some of the quadratic equations; Algebraic properties of complex numbers. Argand plane and polar representation of complex numbers. Statement of Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, solution of quadratic equations in the complex system. The square root of a complex number, cube roots of unity, and its properties.

Chapter 7 Linear Inequalities
Linear inequalities. Algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one variable and their representation on the number line. Graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables. Graphical solution of a system of linear inequalities in two variables.

Chapter 8 Permutations and Combinations
The fundamental principle of counting, factorial n. (n!), Permutations and combinations, derivation of formulae and their connections, simple applications.

Chapter 9 Binomial Theorem
History, statement, and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices. Pascal’s triangle, General and middle term in binomial expansion, simple applications.

Chapter 10 Sequence and Series
Sequence and Series, Arithmetic Progression (A.P.). Arithmetic Mean (A.M.) Geometric Progression (G.P.), general term of a GP, the sum of n terms of a GP., Arithmetic and Geometric series, infinite G.P. and its sum, geometric mean (G.M.), Harmonic (mean) relation between A.M., GM. and H.M., Formula for the following special sum: Arithmetic-Geometric Series, Exponential Series, Logarithmic Series, Binomial Series.

Unit III Co-ordinate Geometry

Chapter 11 Straight Lines
Brief recall of two-dimensional geometry from earlier classes. The slope of a line and the angle between two lines. Various forms of equations of a line: parallel to axis, point-slope form, slope-intercept form, two-point form, intercept form, and normal form. General equation of a line. Equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines. Distance of a point from a line, Shifting of Origin.

Chapter 12 Conic Sections
Sections of a cone: circles, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola; a point, a straight line, and a pair of intersecting lines as a degenerated case of a conic section; Standard equations and simple properties of Circle, parabola, ellipse, and hyperbola.

Chapter 13 Introduction to Three-dimensional Geometry
Coordinate axes and coordinate planes in three dimensions. Coordinates of a point. Distance between two points and section formula.

Unit IV Calculus

Chapter 14 Limits and Derivatives
Derivative introduced as rate of change both as that of distance function and geometrically. The intuitive idea of limit. Limits of polynomials and rational functions, trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions. Definition of derivative, relate it to the slope of the tangent of a curve, a derivative of the sum, difference, product, and quotient of functions. The derivative of polynomial and trigonometric functions.

Unit V Mathematical Reasoning

Chapter 1 Mathematical Reasoning
Mathematically acceptable statements. Connecting words/phrases-consolidating the understanding of “if and only if (necessary and sufficient) condition,” “implies”, “and/ or”, “implied by”, “and”, “of’, “there exists” and their use through a variety of examples related to real life and Mathematics. Validating the statements involving the connecting words, the difference between contradiction, converse, and contrapositive,

Unit VI Statistics and Probability

Chapter 15 Statistics
Measures of dispersion; Range, mean deviation, variance, and standard deviation of ungrouped/ grouped data. Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances.

Chapter 16 Probability
Random experiments; outcomes, sample spaces (set representation). Events; occurrence of events, ‘not’, ‘and’ and ‘or’ events, exhaustive events, mutually exclusive events, Axiomatic (set theoretic) probability, connections with the theories of earlier classes. Probability of an event.Probability of ‘not’, ‘and’ ‘or’ events.

Books Recommended:
Bureau’s Higher Secondary (+2) Elements of Mathematics, Part-I, Published by Odisha State Bureau of Text Book Preparation and Production, Bhubaneswar.

M&MFIN Pivot Point Calculator

## CHSE Odisha Class 12 Foundations of Education Unit 3 Current Issues in Education Objective Questions

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 Foundations of Education Solutions Unit 3 Current Issues in Education Objective Questions and Answers.

## CHSE Odisha 12th Class Foundations of Education Unit 3 Current Issues in Education Objective Questions

Multiple Choice Tests

Question 1.
What is the class range of Elementary Education?
(a) Ito V
(b) I to VI
(c) I to VIII
(d) I to XI
(c) I to VIII

Question 2.
What is the present structure of education in India?
(a) 10+3+2
(b) 10+2+3 .
(c) 11+2+3
(d) Noen of the these
(b) 10+2+3

Question 3.
Which committee explored to Wastage in Education?
(a) Kothari Commission
(b) Ishwar Bhai Patel Committee
(c) Mudaliar Commission
(d) Hartog Committee
(d) Hartog Committee

Question 4.
Which article of the Indian Constitution provides for free and compulsory elementary education?
(a) Article 29
(b) Article 45
(c) Article 46
(d) Article 49
(b) Article 45

Question 5.
In which amendment of the constitution compulsory education 6-14 age group is accepted?
(a) 90th
(b) 96th
(c) 92nd
(d) 93rd
(d) 93rd.

Question 6.
In which stages of education there is maximum wastage and stagnation?
(a) Higher Education
(b) Secondary Education
(c) Higher Secondary Education
(d) Primary Education
(d) Primary Education

Question 7.
In which category there is maximum wastage and stagnation?
(a) Aristocratic
(b) Physically disabled
(c) Tribal
(d) None
(c) Tribal

Question 8.
Operation Black-board means:
(a) Qualitative development in primary education.
(b) Qualitative growth on secondary education.
(c) Progress in higher education
(d) None of the above
(a) Qualitative development in primary education.

Question 9.
In which article education is given fundamental rights?
(a) 19
(b) 21(1)
(c) 29
(d) 45
(b) 21(1)

Question 10.
Who recommended free and compulsory education in India first?
(a) Gandhi
(b) Hartog Committee
(c) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
(d) None of the above
(c) Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

Question 11.
Who identified wastage and stagnation first?
(a) Mudaliar Commission (1952-53)
(b) Sampumananda Committee (1961)
(c) Hartog Committee (1929)
(d) Ishwar Bhai Patel Committee (1968)
(c) Hartog Committee (1929).

Question 12.
Which committee recommended for religious and spiritual values in education?
(a) Kothari Commission
(b) Mudaliar Commission
(c) Sri Prakash Committee
(d) None of the above
(c) Sri Prakash Committee

Question 13.
Which authority works in Odisha for universal primary education?
(a) DPEP
(b) OPEPA
(c) SCERT
(d) None of the above
(b) OPEPA

Question 14.
Which committee recommended SUPW in school education?
(a) Hartog Committee (1929)
(b) Ishwar Bhai Patel Committee (1968)
(c) Hanter Committee (1882)
(d) Mudaliar Committee
(b) Ishwar Bhai Patel Committee (1968).

Question 15.
‘No religious education to be imparted’ in which article is mentioned?
(a) Article -45
(b) Article -29
(c) Article -15
(d) Article 21(l)
(b) Article – 29

Question 16.
When SCERT was established?
(a) 1988
(b) 1978
(c) 1968
(d) None
(b) 1978

Question 17.
What is the major obstacle in the way of universalization?
(a) Social causes
(b) Economic causes
(c) Wastage and Stagnation
(d) Conservatives
(c) Wastage and Stagnation

Question 18.
When Sampumananda Committee was setup?
(a) 1951
(b) 1961
(c) 1971
(d) 2013
(b) 1961

Question 19.
To which Sampumananda Committee is related?
(a) Emotional and N.I.
(b) National Security.
(c) International Understanding.
(d) Universal Education.
(a) Emotional and N.I.

Question 20.
When UNO was formed?
(a) 1937
(b) 1947
(c) 1945
(d) 1915
(c) 1945

Question 21.
When 10+2+3 got its Parliamentary approval?
(a) 1986
(b) 1992
(c) 1968
(d) 1966
(c) 1968

Question 22.
What feeling is created by singing National Anthem?
(a) International understanding.
(b) National integration
(c) Sense of egoism.
(d) None of these
(b) National integration.

Question 23.
From which year D.P.E.P. worked out in Odisha?
(a) 1986
(b) 1990
(c) 1922
(d) 1994
(d) 1994.

Question 24.
For Which Category I.E.P.C. Is Worked Out in Odisha?
(a) Scheduled Castes.
(b) Scheduled Tribe,
(c) Physically Disabled.
(c) Physically Disabled.

Question 25.
What indicates: “Fatherhood of God and brotherhood of man”?
(a) Spiritual values.
(b) Moral values.
(c) Social values.
(d) Democratic values.
(a) Spiritual values.

Question 26.
Which type of value is social efficiency?
(a) Moral values
(b) Spiritual values
(c) Social values
(d) None.
(c) Social values

Question 27.
Which value is “Idealistic philosophy”?
(a) Social values
(b) Moral values
(c) Spiritual values
(d) Internal values
(d) Internal values

Question 28.
Which values help to lead a peaceful life in society?
(a) Social values
(b) Religious values
(c) Moral values
(d) None
(a) Social values

Question 29.
Who told education has responsibility in creating national spirits?
(a) Sardar Patel Committee
(d) Sampumananda Committee

Question 30.
(a) 1961
(b) 1968
(c) 1951
(d) 1967
(b) 1968

Question 31.
Which type of value is social efficiency?
(a) Moral values
(b) Spiritual values
(c) Social values
(d) None
(c) Social values

Question 32.
Who was the chairman of Indian Education Commission?
(c) D.SKothari
(d) Ramaswamy
(c) D.S Kothari

Question 33.
Why do we observe National days?
(a) To recall it
(b) It tastes well
(c) To observe Holiday
(d) To evoke national spirits
(d) To evoke national spirits

Question 34.
Asperto constitution by which year the nation would have provided free and compulsory primary Education?
(a) 1950
(b) 1960 .
(c) 1970
(d) 2000
(b) 1960

Question 35.
On which day we observe Environment day?
(a) June 4
(b) June 5
(c) December 5
(d) May 4
(a) June 4

Question 36.
Which one of the following necessary photosynthesis?
(a) Air
(b) Sunlight
(c) Water
(d) All of these
(d) All of these

Question 37.
World Water day is observe on:
(a) 8th March
(b) 23rd March
(c) 14th March
(d) 18th March
(b) 23rd March

Question 38.
ENVIRONER is a word of_____.
(a) English
(b) French
(c) Hindi
(d) None
(b) French

Question 39.
Environmental education is given in the schools by?
(a) Speech
(b) Writing
(c) Playing
(d) Using oneself
(a) Speech

Question 40.
Social development of a child initially depends on :
(a) Parents .
(b) Environment
(c) School
(d) Socity
(b) Environment

Question 41.
Environment Education means
(a) To develop the knowledge and skills about Environment
(b) To prevent Environmental Education
(c) To recognise the crisis of Environment
(d) To develop Environment Technique
(a) To develop the knowledge and skills about Environment

Question 42.
The first Environmental conference on Environmental education was held in:
(a) India (New Delhi)
(b) France (Paris).
(c) Russia (Trulise)

Question 43.
Syllabus of Environmental education should be:
(a) Same
(b) According to the age
(c) According to the educational stage
(d) According to age and educational stage
(d) According to age and educational stage

Question 44.
Which of the following greenhouse gases has the greatest heat-trapping ability?
(a) Carbon dioxide
(b) Carbon monoxide
(c) Chlorofluro Carbon
(d) Methane
(c) Cholorofluro carbon

Question 45.
Which of the following not a major greenhouse gas?
(a) Carbon dioxide
(b) Calcium carbonate
(c) Methane
(d) Water vapour
(a) Carbon dioxide

Question 46.
Which is the harm from the depletion of earth ozone layer?
(a) The average temperature of earth surface will increase gradually.
(b) The oxygen content of the atmosphere will decrease.
(c) Increased amount of ultraviolet will reach earth’s surface.
(d) Sea level will rise as the polar is ice caps will gradually melt.
(c) Increased amount of ultraviolet will reach earth’s surface.

Question 47.
Acid rain is formed due to contribution from the following pain of gases?
(a) Methane and ozone.
(b) Oxygen and Nitrous oxide.
(c) Methane and sulphur dioxide.
(d) Carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide.
(b) Oxygen and Nitrous oxide.

Question 48.
Envirnor belong to which language?
(a) English
(b) French
(c) Hindi
(d) None
(b) French

Question 49.
The prime health risk associated with greater U. V. radiation due to depletion and stratospheric zone.
(a) Damage to digestive system.
(b) Increased liver cancer.
(c) Neurological disorder.
(d) Increased skin cancer.
(b) Increased liver cancer.

Question 50.
Which of the following problem is not created by noise pollution?
(a) Deafness
(b) Irritation
(c) Diarrhoea
(d) Hypertention
(c) Diarrhoea

Question 51.
If waste materials contaminate the source of drinking water, which of the following diseases will spread?
(a) Scurvy
(b) Typhoid
(c) Malaria
(d) Anemia
(b) Typhoid

Question 52.
When Yana Mahatsob is held?
(a) 2nd. October
(b) 1st. December
(c) 1st. July
(d) 15th. August
(c) 1st. July

Question 53.
When World Environment day is observed?
(a) July 5
(b) June 5
(c) October 5
(d) January 5
(b) June 5

Question 54.
Dicomposers include
(a) Bacteria
(b) Bacteria and fungi
(c) Animals
(d) None
(b) Bacteria and fungi

Question 55.
Concentration of which gas is highest in our environment?
(a) Oxygen
(b) Hydrogen
(c) Nitrogen
(d) Carbon dioxide
(c) Nitrogen

Question 56.
Biotic environment include :
(a) Producer
(b) Consumers
(c) Decomposers
(d) All of
these
(d) All of these

Question 57.
ABACUS was developed in?
(a) Japan
(b) India
(c) China
(d) U.S.A.
(c) China

Question 58.
Who was the ‘Father of Computer Science?
(a) Charles Babbage
(b) Gottrified Leihritz
(c) Dr. Jon Vincent
(d) Blaise Pascal
(a) Charles Babbage

Question 59.
The demonstration of the first programme of ENIAC was held in:
(a) 1947
(b) 1948
(c) 1949
(d) 1950
(c) 1949

Question 60.
Which computer is used for counting?
(a) Digital
(b) Analog
(c) Mini
(d) Superframe
(a) Digital

Question 61.
Which computer is used for education?
(a) Hybrid
(b) Digital
(c) CAI
(d) CAT
(c) CAI

Question 62.
Who is the founding father of computer?
(a) Sir Ronald
(b) Charles Babbage
(c) Gottrified
(d) John Vincent
(a) Sir Ronald

Question 63.
ABACUS is more essential in the work of:
(a) Housework
(b) Washing
(c) Education
(d) None
(c) Education

Answer in single word / single sentence

Question 1.
The best element of National Integration?
Education

Question 2.
The present structure of Education in India?
10+2+3

Question 3.
The class range of Elementary Education?
1 to VIII

Question 4.
When N.P.E. 1986 was revised?
1922

Question 5.
Give three meanings of Education.
Man, nature and things.

Question 6.
Which day we observe the Environment Day?
June 5

Question 7.
Premature withdrawal of students from school before the completion of primary education?
Wastage

Question 8.
Retention of a child in a class more than one year is called?
Stagnation

Question 9.
When man develops social efficiency called?
Social Value

Question 10.
Which has value in use and value in utility, what we call it ?
Social Value

Question 11.
Full form of NIEPA?
National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration.

Question 12.
The Philosophy of Idealism called?
Instrinsic value.

Question 13.
Full form of DPEP?
District Primary Education Programme.

Question 14.
The realization of Fatherhood of God and Brotherhood of Man is?
Spiritual value.

Question 15.
Full form of EGS is?
Education Guarantee Scheme.

Question 16.
What is the meaning of Operation Blackboard?
Qualitative Development of Education.

Question 17.
What is the aim of National Policy of Education?
Planning of Education for all.

Question 18.
Which committee recommended Vocational Education for Secondary Education?

Question 19.
Who identified wastage and stagnation first?
Hartog Committee 1929.

Question 20.
Who brought proposal in Centre Cabinet in 1910 for the Compulsory Education?
Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

Question 21.
In which caste wastage arid stagnation maximum?
Scheduled Tribe.

Question 22.
What is the chief aim of 10+2+3 pattern of education?
To emphasize the Vocational Education.

Question 23.
Give an aim of NPEI 1986.
Scientific and Technological Development.

Question 24.
What do you mean by N.I.?
Unity in Diversity is N. I.

Question 25.
Mention the utility of observation of National Days.
Create the feeling of Nationality.

Question 26.
What do you mean by 3 R’s?
In the past, the objective of Primary Education was 3R’s (Training of Reading, Writing and Arithmetic).

Question 27.
Mention die age range of universalization?
6 to 14

Question 28.
Who provides funds for population education in Odisha?
World Bank.

Question 29.
What is the main instrument of N.I.?
Education

Question 30.
From which levels there is provision of the teaching Environmental Education in Odisha?
Primary

Question 31.
Which organisation manages +2 Education in Odisha?
C.H.S.E.

Question 32.
When U.GC. was set up?
28th. December 1953.

Question 33.
Full form of SIET?
State Institute of Educational Technology.

Question 34.
What do you mean by Operation Blackboard?
Qualitative Development of Primary Education through the use of Aids and materials.

Question 35.
What is Emotional Integration?
Emotional Integration refers to creating a sense of oneness among the people of the country through the training of mind and heart.

Question 36.
What is the need of National Integration?
For internal discipline of the state for social economic development, emotional unity and cultural consciousness among the people.

Question 37.
What is the normal age for admission?
5+

Question 38.
Why do we observe National days in schools?
To inculcate National Unity among the people.

Question 39.
What is Abiotic factors?
The abiotic factors are non-living components such as physical or chemical factors which includes temperature, light, types of building, location etc.

Question 40.
Classify Biotic factors?
Biotic factors are living components such as teacher, students, and the administrators.

Question 41.
How the environment is polluted?
Environment is polluted by industrial wastes, washing and bathing, pesticides and biotics, fertilizers, detergents, smoke as air pollution, fuel, deforastation etc.

Question 42.
What is atmosphere?
It is the mixture of gases that surround the earth surface like an envelope.

Question 43.
What is the average temperature at the top of troposphere?
16 degree C. is the average temperature at the top of the troposphere.

Question 44.
What is the constitutional gas at stratosphere?
Ozone is the constitutional gas of stratosphere.

Question 45.
In Which layer of atmosphere tele communication takes place?
In ionosphere of the atmosphere tele – communication takes place.

Question 46.
What is the average % of nitrogen gas on atmosphere?
The average % of nitrogen in atmosphere is 78 %.

Question 47.
What is Biosphere?
The whole of the region on the earth’s surface the air and the sea that is inhabited by living organisms is known as Biosphere.

Question 48.
What are the non-living components of Biosphere?
Three non-living components of Biosphere are:
l) Lithosphere
n) Hydrosphere
in) Atmosphere

Question 49.
Define lithosphere?
The soil and rocks on earth’s surface as well as below water bodies from the solid components called lithosphere.

Question 50.
What is producer?
The green plant and photosynthetic bacteria that have the capability to utilise sunlight and water minerals from soil to prepare organic food materials are called producer.

Question 51.
Define pollution?
Pollution is defined an undesirable changes in the physical, chemical and biological properties of air,water, soil that affects the living organism adversely.

Question 52.
What is Global Village concept?
Because of the development in science the whole world becomes a small village which is called ‘Global Village Concept’.

Question 53.
How many education circle and education district in Odisha?
There are 65 education districts and 19 education circles in Odisha.

Question 54.
Which committee explored wastage and stagnation?
In 1929 Hartog Committee explored the wastage and stagnation.

Question 55.
What is the literacy rate as per 2001 census?
63.61

Question 56.
What is literacy rate to 1991 census?
49.01

Question 57.
What is the aim of education in 1952-53 Commission?
Attainment of Vocational Efficiency.

Question 58.
When vocational education at+2 level implemented in Odisha?
1986.

Fill in the Blanks with Appropriate Words

Question 1.
In_____stage wastage and stagnation is maximum?
Primary.

Question 2.
______ told ‘the destiny of India is constructed in the classroom’.
Kothari Commission.

Question 3.
In 1986 Education Policy ______ project worked out.
Operation Black-Board.

Question 4.
The wastage rate is high in ______ children.
Tribal.

Question 5.
The provision of admitting children in primary class at 5+years is known as______.
Universal Enrolment.

Question 6.
The enrolment age of Navodaya Vidyalaya is______.
9 to 13

Question 7.
______ committee recommended S.U.P.W. curriculum.
Ishwar Bhai Patel Committee.

Question 8.
In ______ D.P.E.P. worked out in Odisha.
1994

Question 9.
Sampumananda Committee is related to ______.
Emotional Integration.

Question 10.
______gas has heat absorbing capacity is Maximum?
C.F.C. (Chlorofluro carbon).

Question 11.
I.E.P.C. is meant for_____in our state.
Physically disabled.

Question 12.
______ committee recommended for religions and spiritual education in Educational Institutions.
Sri Prakash Committee.

Question 13.
______qualities helps man to lead a peaceful life in the society.
Social values.

Question 14.
______authority is working in Odisha for Universalization
OPEPA.

Question 15.
The steps taken our state for Universalization is ______.
Mid Time Meal (MDM).

Question 16.
In______article Education is given Fundamental right.
21(1).

Question 17.
In article Primary Education Universalization is given a direction by constitution.
Article-45.

Question 18.
In______year 10+2+3 pattern of Education got parliamentary approval.
1968.

Question 19.
SCERT established in_____
1978.

Question 20.
The three sizes of Education are ,______,______,______.
Nature, Man, Things.

Question 21.
The present structure of Education is _______
10+2+3.

Question 22.
______ Committee recommended Vocational Education in Secondary Education.
Secondary Education.

Question 23.
To _____ by bricks and hammer National Integration cannot be constructed but by
education it can be touch all slowly.

Question 24.
By _____ the spirit of National Integration can be created among the students.
Pen Friendship.

Question 25.
______ is a co-curriclur activity to establish N.I. ?
Observing National Days.

Question 26.
National Integration means ______?
National Unity.

Question 27.
In _____ the first World Environment Conference was held.

Question 28.
Cutting of forests means _____.
Deforestation.

Question 29.
Van Mahostab is observed in ______.
July, 1.

Question 30.
The first Environmental Education Conference was held in 1977 in ______.
Russia

Question 31.
Establish relationship between _____ and _____ is the aim of Environmental Education
Plant and Animals.

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## CHSE Odisha Class 12 Psychology Unit 5 Questions and Answers

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 Psychology Solutions Unit 5 Questions and Answers.

## CHSE Odisha 12th Class Psychology Unit 5 Questions and Answers

Question 1.
The measures of central tendency are:
(a) mean
(b) median
(c) mode
(d) all the above
(d) all the above

Question 2.
_____is the middle score in a set of scores that have been ranked in numerical order.
(a) mode
(b) median
(c) range
(d) mean
(b) median

Question 3.
_______is the best method of central tendency to use when describing skewed
data.
(a) mode
(b) median
(c) range
(d) mean
(b) median

Question 4.
_____ is simply the most frequently occurring score in a data set.
(a) median
(b) range
(c) mean
(d) mode
(d) mode

Question 5.
The two-mode are :
(a) binodal
(b) multimodal
(c) only (a)
(d) both (a) and (b)
(d) both (a) and (b)

Question 6.
The informative measure of variability I_____.
(a) variance
(b) median
(c) only(b)
(d) none of the above
(a) variance

Question 7.
______statistics is the name given to the procedure used to collect classify, summarize and present data.
(a) variance
(b) median
(c) descriptive
(d) only (a)
(c) descriptive

Question 8.
The highest and lowest scores in a distribution and it founding by subtracting the lowest force him the highest score is called_____
(a) range
(b) mode
(c) median
(d) variance
(a) range

Question 9.
Standard deviation is the root of _____.
(a) variance
(b) range
(c) mode
(d) none of the above
(a) variance

Question 10.
The measures of variability used by researchers include the
(a) range
(b) variance
(c) standard deviation
(d) all the above
(d) all the above

Answer in single word / single sentence

Question 1.
Mode is simply the difference between the highest and lowest score in a distribution?
True

Question 2.
Mode is useful as a rough guide to the variability demonstrated by a data set?
False

Question 3.
The measures of variability used by researchers include the range the variance and standard deviation?
True

Question 4.
Median is a good measure of central tendency?
True

Question 5.
Mode is the middle score in a set of scores that have been ranked in numerical order?
False

Question 6.
Mean is the arithmetic average of a set of scores?
True

Question 7.
Methods of determining these central values are called measures of central tendency?
True

Question 8.
Four main measures of central tendency?
False

Question 9.
The mean can not affect by external scores?
False

Very Short Type Questions With Answer

Question 1.
What is Mean?
When people talk about averages, they’re often referring to the mean, which is the arithmetic average of a set of scores. You have probably calculated the mean of a set of Psychology scores many times in the past. Every time you sum a set of scores and divide that sum by the total number of scores you have calculated the arithmetic mean of those scores.

Question 2.
What is the Median?
The median is the middle score in a set of scores that have been ranked in numerical order. In cases where there are an even number of scores, the median lies between the two middle scores and is given the value of the midpoint between those scores. Of course, if the middle two scores in an even number of scores are the same, the median has the same value as the two scores themselves.

Question 3.
Range?
The range is simply the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution and is found by subtracting the lowest score from the highest score. This measure of variability gives the researcher only a limited amount of information, as data sets which are skewed towards a low score can have the same range as data sets which are skewed towards a high score, or those which cluster around some central score.

Question 4.
What is Variance?
A more informative measure of variability is the variance, which represents the degree to which scores tend to vary from their mean. This tends to be more informative because, unlike the range, the variance takes into account every score in the data set. Technically speaking, the variance is the average of the squared deviations from the mean.
To calculate the variance for a set of quiz scores:

• Find the mean score.
• Find the deviation of each raw score from the mean. To do this,
• Subtract the mean from each raw score. (Note that deviation scores will be negative for scores that are below the mean.) To check your calculations sum the deviation scores. This sum should be equal to zero.
• Square the deviation scores: By squaring the scores, negative scores are made positive and extreme scores are given relatively more weight.
• Find the sum of the squared deviation scores.
• Divide the sum by the number of scores. This yields the average of the squared deviations from the mean, or the variance.

Question 5.
What is the Median?
The median is the middle score in a set of scores that have been ranked in numerical order. In cases where their art an even number of scores, the median lies between the two middle scores and is given the value of the midpoint between those scores. Of course, if the middle two scores in an even number of scores are the same, the median has the same value as the two scores themselves.

There is no formula for quickly calculating the median Without doing some initial data analysis. Typically, when dealing with large data sets, researchers construct a frequency distribution representing all the scores in the data set. This allows time to use a formula to calculate each measure of central tendency using the information provided by the frequency distribution.

Unlike the mean, the median is a good measure of central tendency to use when describing a heavily skewed set of scores. Returning to our example from above, our student’s median test score would be 94%, which is a much better indication of the student’s overall performance.

Thus, the median is a better representation of the scores within a skewed data set than is the mean. In fact, the median is the best method of central tendency to use when describing skewed data.

Question 1.
What statistical use for psychology?
Much of psychological research involves measuring observations of particular characteristics of either a population or a sample taken from a population. These measurements yield a set of values or scores, and this set represents the findings of the research or data. Often, it is impractical to completely measure, the characteristics of a given population, known as parameters, directly.

Thus, psychologists often focus on the characteristics of samples taken from a population. These characteristics are called statistics. The psychologist then uses these sample statistics to make inferences about population parameters.

In this section, we will focus on a type of statistics known as descriptive statistics. We will begin with an examination of three methods of describing a set of data using scores that seem to be typical of those found in the set. We will then look at three methods of describing how scores within the set vary from these typical scores.

Question 2.
Measures of Central Tendency.
Often, data tends to group itself around some central value. This value may, in turn, be used to describe or represent the data set as a whole. Methods of determining these central values are called measures of central tendency. There are three main measures of central tendency used by psychologists. They are the mean, the median, and the mode.

Mean :
When people talk about averages, they’re often referring to the mean, which is the arithmetic average of a set of scores. You have probably calculated the mean of a set of Psychology scores many times in the past. Every time you sum a set of scores and divide that sum by the total number of scores you have calculated the arithmetic mean of those scores.

As you probably know from experience, the mean can be affected by extreme scores. For example, if a student were to receive five test marks over 90% and one test mark less than 20%, (let us say marks of 98%, 96%, 94%, 94%, 92%, and 18%), the mean of – 497 – the test scores would be (98 + 96 + 94 + 94 + 92 +18) / 6 = 82.

Obviously, the mean, in this case, has been pulled in the direction of the score of under 20%. For this reason, the mean can be a very, misleading description of a set of scores with a heavily skewed distribution.

Median :
The median is the middle score in a set of scores that have been ranked in numerical order. In cases where there are an even number of scores, the median lies between the two middle scores and is given the value of the midpoint between those scores. Of course, if the middle two scores in an even number of scores are the same, the median has the same value as the two scores themselves.

There is no, the formula for quickly calculating the median without doing some initial data analysis. Typically, when dealing with large data sets, researchers construct a frequency distribution representing all the scores in the data set. This allows them to use a formula to calculate each measure of central tendency using the information provided by the frequency distribution.

Unlike the mean, the median is a good measure of central tendency to use when describing a heavily skewed set of scores. Returning to our example from above, our student’s median test score would be 94%, which is a much better indication of the student’s overall performance. Thus, the median is a better representation of the scores within a skewed data set than is the mean. In fact, the median is the best method of central tendency to use when describing skewed data.

Mode :
The mode is simply the most frequently occurring score in a data set. Returning once again to the test scores of our sample student, the mode for this data set is would be 94%, as it occurs twice within the data set. If two scores occur equally often within a data set, the set has two modes and is termed bimodal. Any data set that has two or more modes can be referred to as multimodal.

Like the median, there is no formula for calculating the mode without conducting at least some preliminary data analysis. For small data sets the mode may simply be determined by comparing the number of times the most popular scores appear in the set.
Measures of Variability
Almost all data sets demonstrate Some degree of variability. In other words, data sets usually contain scores that differ from one another. Only under very rare circumstances to researchers encounter data sets that have no variability.

Needless to \$ say, of the few sets of data that demonstrate no variability, fewer still will be of any interest to psychological researchers. The truly interesting observations are those of characteristics that vary within a population or sample. This variability cannot be captured or shown by measures of central tendency.

For. example, if two data sets have the same mean, there is no guarantee that the two – 498 – sets are very similar at all. What is needed are measures of variability which allow the researcher to determine the degree of variation within a population or sample, and thus to determine just how representative a particular score is of the data set as a whole.

This in turn allows the researcher to determine the scope and validity of any generalizations he or she wishes to make based on his or her observations. The measures of variability used by | researchers include the range, the variance, and the standard deviation.

Question 3.
What is Range?
The range is simply the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a
distribution, and is found by subtracting the lowest score from the highest score. This measure of variability gives the researcher only a limited amount of information, as data sets which are skewed towards a low score can have the same range as data sets which are skewed towards a high score, or those which cluster around some central score.

The range is, however, useful as a rough guide to the variability demonstrated by a data set, as it tells the researcher how a particular score compares to the highest and lowest scores within a data set. For example, a student might find it useful to know whether his or her score was near the best or worst on an exam.

Question 4.
What is Variance?
A more informative measure of variability is the variance, which represents the degree to which scores tend to vary from their mean. This tends to be more informative because, unlike the range, the variance takes into account every score in the data set. Technically speaking, the variance is the average of the squared deviations from the mean.
To calculate the variance for a set of quiz scores:

• Find the mean score.
• Find the deviation of each raw score from the mean. To do this,
• Subtract the mean from each raw score. (Note that deviation scores will be negative for scores that are below the mean.) To check your calculations sum the deviation scores. This sum should be equal to zero.
• Square the deviation scores. By squaring the scores, negative scores are made positive and extreme scores are given relatively more weight.
• Find the sum of the squared deviation scores.
• Divide the sum by the number of scores. This yields the average of the squared deviations from the mean, or the variance.

Question 5.
What is Standard Deviation?
More informative still is the standard deviation, which is simply the square root of the variance. You may be asking yourself why not simply use the variance ?’ One reason is that, unlike the variance, the standard deviation is in the same units as the raw scores themselves. This is what makes the standard deviation more meaningful. For example, it would make more sense to discuss the variability of a. set of IQ scores in IQ points than in squared IQ points.

## BSE Odisha 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 8 Air Pollution: A Hidden Menace

Odisha State Board BSE Odisha 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 8 Air Pollution: A Hidden Menace Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

## BSE Odisha Class 10 English Solutions Chapter 8 Air Pollution: A Hidden Menace

### BSE Odisha 10th Class English Air Pollution: A Hidden Menace Text Book Questions and Answers

D. Let’S Understand The Text

Question 1.
What accident took place at Bhopal in 1984?
(୧୯୮୪ରେ ଭୋପାଳରେ କେଉଁ ଦୁର୍ଘଟଣା ଘଟିଥିଲା ?)
The most tragic industrial accident took place at Bhopal in 1984.

Question 2.
Why is it called an industrial accident?
(ଏହାକୁ କାହିଁକି ଏକ ଔଦ୍ୟୋଗିକ ଦୁର୍ଘଟଣା କୁହାଯାଏ ?)
It is called ah industrial accident as it occurred in a chemical plant operated by Union Carbide. Deadly gas from it escaped into the atmosphere for which over 4000 local residents were killed and many others were blind and crippled.

Question 3.
What were the tragic consequences Of it?
(ଏହାର ଦୁଃଖଦ ପରିଣତି କ’ଣ ଥିଲା ?)
The tragic consequences of the most tragic industrial accident in Bhopal were heart-rendering. As a result of the escapement of deadly gas from the chemical plant into the atmosphere, more than 4000 local residents were killed and many others were blind and crippled.

Question 4.
How is air important for man?
(ବାୟୁ କିପରି ମନୁଷ୍ୟ ପାଇଁ ଗୁରୁତ୍ଵପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ?)
Air is highly essential for every living being. Because a man can’t live without breathing even for a minute and for breathing air is essential. So air is important for man. It is estimated that an average adult exchanges 15 kg of air a day, in comparison to 1.5 kg of food, and 2.5 kg of water.

Question 5.
What is the major source of contamination of the human body?
(ମନୁଷ୍ୟ ଶରୀର ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣର ମୁଖ୍ୟ ଉତ୍ସ କିଏ ? )
Air pollution is a major source of contamination of the human body.

Question 6.
What is the composition of air?
(ବାୟୁର ଗଠନ କ’ଣ ?)
Air is composed of 78 per cent nitrogen, 21 per cent oxygen, a little less than 1 per cent argon and 0.03 per cent carbon dioxide. These elements make up 99.9 per cent of dry air.

Question 7.
When is air said to be polluted?
(ବାୟୁ କେତେବେଳେ ପ୍ରଦୂଷିତ ହୋଇଛି ବୋଲି କୁହାଯାଏ ?)
Air is a mixture of gases and its different component gases remain in a definite proportion/ratio. The air is pure so long as that definite proportion of component gases is continued to exist. If the oxygen level gets reduced in air, irritating gases enter the atmosphere, air is said to be polluted.

Question 8.
What fuels do the industries use?
(ଶିଳ୍ପଗୁଡ଼ିକ କେଉଁସବୁ ଜାଳେଣି ବ୍ୟବହାର କରନ୍ତି ?)
Most industries require steam. In order to produce steam they use fuels like coal, coke or furnace oil.

Question 9.
How does the released smoke affect man?
(ନିର୍ଗତ ବାଷ୍ପ ମନୁଷ୍ୟକୁ କିପରି ପ୍ରଭାବିତ କରିଥାଏ ?)
The released smoke of different industries containing obnoxious gases, ash and dust particles mingles with the air and pollutes it. They enter our body through respiration and cause great harm to our lungs without our knowledge.

Question 10.
Why do thermal power stations cause more pollution?
(ତାପଜ ବିଦ୍ୟୁତ୍ କେନ୍ଦ୍ରଗୁଡ଼ିକ କାହିଁକି ଅଧିକ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣ ଘଟାଇଥାଏ ?)
Thermal power stations discharge high amounts of smoke along with ash into the atmospheric air in comparison to other industries. So they cause more pollution than any other industry and chemical plants.

Question 11.
What are the other industries equally harmful to us?
(ଆମ ପାଇଁ ସମପରିମାଣରେ କ୍ଷତିକାର କ ଅନ୍ୟାନ୍ୟ ଶିଳ୍ପଗୁଡ଼ିକ କ’ଣ ?)
Other industries like cement industries, steel industries and ore processing industries and chemical plants are equally harmful to us thermal plants.

Question 12.
Why is the number of automobiles increasing on the road?
(ରାସ୍ତା ଉପରେ ମୋଟରଗାଡ଼ି ସଂଖ୍ୟା ବଢ଼ିଚାଲିଛି କାହିଁକି ?)
The population is increasing at a very rapid rate. So in order to meet the demand of the exploding population, the automobiles on the road are increasing.

Question 13.
How do automobiles contribute to air pollution?
(ମୋଟରଗାଡ଼ିଗୁଡ଼ିକ ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣରେ କିପରି ସହାୟକ ହୋଇଥା’ନ୍ତି ?)
Automobiles release maximum carbon monoxide into the atmosphere so that the air is polluted. It is calculated that automobiles are responsible for 60 per cent of air pollution in different parts of the world.

Question 14.
What are the effects of air pollution on vegetable crops and trees?
(ପନିପରିବା ଫସଲ ଓ ବୃକ୍ଷଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଉପରେ ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣର କି ପ୍ରଭାବ ପଡ଼ିଥାଏ ?)
Car exhaust gases cause a lot of harm to many flower and vegetable crops. They are completely destroyed by air pollution. Trees have been seriously affected and killed by pollution from power plants.

Question 15.
How are buildings affected by polluted air?
(ପ୍ରଦୂଷିତ ବାୟୁଦ୍ଵାରା ଅଟ୍ଟାଳିକାଗୁଡ଼ିକ କିପରି କ୍ଷତିଗ୍ରସ୍ତ ହୁଅନ୍ତି ?)
Air pollution causes harm to buildings. Fine buildings become shabby, and their walls get blackened with soot that has settled on them by air pollution. Building surfaces may actually deteriorate because of polluted air.

Question 16.
What health problems are caused by polluted air?
(ପ୍ରଦୂଷିତ ବାୟୁଦ୍ଵାରା କେଉଁ ସ୍ଵାସ୍ଥ୍ୟ ସମସ୍ୟା ସୃଷ୍ଟି ହୁଏ ?)
Polluted air causes a lot of health hazards. It causes eye irritations, scratchy throats and respiratory illness.

Question 17.
How is air pollution responsible for increasing the temperature?
(ତାପମାତ୍ରା ବୃଦ୍ଧି ପାଇଁ ବାୟ ପଦଷଣ କିପରି ଦାୟୀ ?)
The amounts of air pollutants like carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere are increasing. These gases tend to trap the radiation that reaches the earth from the sun. As a result of which the atmospheric temperature is continuously increasing. This process would eventually lead to global warming.

Question 18.
What harm can refrigerant do?
(ଶୀତଳକାରକ ପଦାର୍ଥ କି କ୍ଷତି କରିପାରେ ?)
A substance that belongs to a group of chemicals and chlorofluorocarbons is used as a refrigerant. The use of this substance may destroy the atmospheric layer that protects us from the harmful rays of the sun.

Question 19.
What is acid rain?
(ଅମ୍ଳବୃଷ୍ଟି କ’ଣ ?)
Acid rain is a kind of precipitation which contains a sulphur oxide, nitrogen oxide and other chemicals. And this acid rain affects everything that it falls on.

Question 20.
How is water affected by acid rain?
(ଅମ୍ଳବୃଷ୍ଟିଦ୍ୱାରା ଜଳ କିପରି କ୍ଷତିଗ୍ରସ୍ତ ହୁଏ ?)
Acid rain makes the water of rivers and lakes poisonous as it contains oxides of sulphur and nitrogen and other chemicals. The water turns acidic and affects aquatic animals and plants. It also affects crops, buildings and drinking water.

Question 21.
What is the impact of acid rain on soil?
(ମୃତ୍ତିକା ଉପରେ ଅମ୍ଳବୃଷ୍ଟିର ପ୍ରଭାବ କ’ଣ ?)
Acid rain changes the soil’s nutrient content. It washes away nutrients like potassium, calcium and magnesium from the upper layer that help trees grow. Acid rain kills large patches of forests leaving behind leafless skeletons of trees.

Question 22.
What are the ways to control air pollution?
(ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣ ନିୟନ୍ତ୍ରଣର ଉପାୟଗୁଡ଼ିକ କ’ଣ ?)
There are three basic ways to control air pollution preventive measures, dispersal measures and collection measures. Preventive measures can be taken by changing the raw materials used in industry or the ingredients of fuel. Dispersal measures can be taken by raising the heights of tall chimneys of the factories. Collection measures can be taken by designing equipment to trap pollutants before they escape into the atmosphere.

Question 23.
How have different countries tried to check it?
(ବିଭିନ୍ନ ଦେଶଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଏହାକୁ ରୋକିବାକୁ କିପରି ପ୍ରୟାସ କରିଛନ୍ତି ?)
Different countries have tried to check air pollution by taking many initiatives such as making laws, setting standards and norms to ensure quality air and burning low-sulphur coal and oil in factories and power plants.

Question 24.
How have the air quality programmes brought us benefits?
(କିପରି ବାୟୁର ଗୁଣାତ୍ମକ ବୃଦ୍ଧି ସମ୍ପର୍କିତ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକ୍ରମଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଆମର ଉପକାର କରିଛନ୍ତି ?)
Air quality programmes have brought us benefits in many areas. For example, burning low-sulphur coal and oil in factories and power plants has lowered pollution in many cities. In order to meet standards, automobile engines are redesigned and new cars have been equipped with devices like catalytic converter which changes pollutants into harmless substances and reduces air pollution.

Question 25.
Why do we still need to find out better ways to control air pollution?
(ତଥାପି ଆମେ କାହିଁକି ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣ ନିୟନ୍ତ୍ରଣ ନିମନ୍ତେ ଉନ୍ନତ ଉପାୟମାନ ବାହାର କରିବା ଦରକାର କରୁଛୁ ?)
Although the formulation of certain laws and set of standards and norms have checked air pollution up to some extent, it hasn’t been completely checked. So we still need to find out better ways to control air pollution. It is not easy to bring about the new development needed to control it. Now physicians, engineers, botanists and meteorologists are carrying out research, seeking new ways to check it. In the future, we can breathe pure air in the cities where the sunlight is no longer blocked by an umbrella of air pollution.

E. Let’S Go Beyond The Text

Question 1.
Why does the oxygen level in the atmosphere get reduced? What could be its consequences?
(ବାୟୁମଣ୍ଡଳରେ ଅମ୍ଳଜାନ ସ୍ତର କମିଯାଇଛି କାହିଁକି ? ଏହାର ପରିଣାମ କ’ଣ ହୋଇପାରେ ? )
The oxygen level in the atmosphere gets reduced for many reasons. Due to deforestation, the photosynthesis process has been reduced and the amount of oxygen gets reduced. Besides burning process also reduces the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere. If it so happens then living beings will be definitely deprived of availing adequate oxygen. Besides, through respiration oxygen gets converted into carbon dioxide which traps radiation that reaches the earth from the sun, as a result, the atmosphere becomes warmer and would eventually lead to global warming.

Question 2.
How do the chemical industries cause dangerous air pollution? What are its far-reaching consequences?
(ରସାୟନ ଶିଳ୍ପଗୁଡ଼ିକ କିପରି ବିପଜନକ ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣ ସୃଷ୍ଟି କରୁଛନ୍ତି ? ଏହାର ସୁଦୂରପ୍ରସାରୀ ପରିଣାମ କ’ଣ ?)
The chemical industries release certain toxic fumes into the atmosphere, along with smoke. It mingles with the atmospheric air and pollutes it. When people inhale that toxic substance, they suffer from serious diseases.

Question 3.
How is acid rain caused?
(ଅମ୍ଳବୃଷ୍ଟି କିପରି ସୃଷ୍ଟି ହୁଏ ?)
Acid rain is a broad term referring to a mixture of wet and dry deposition from the atmosphere containing higher than normal amounts of nitric and sulphuric acid. The chemical forerunners of acid rain formation result from both natural sources such as volcanoes and decaying vegetation and man-made sources primarily emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides resulting from fossil fuel combustion. Acid rain occurs when these gases react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen and other chemicals to form various acidic compounds.

Question 4.
How does polluted air travel from one country to another?
(ପ୍ରଦୂଷିତ ବାୟୁ କିପରି ଗୋଟିଏ ଦେଶରୁ ଅନ୍ୟ ଦେଶକୁ ଯାଇଥାଏ ?)
The polluted air is carried away by the wind from one country to another, often for distances of thousands of miles.

Question 5.
What steps can be taken to reduce the pollution caused by automobiles? Is air pollution a global problem?
(ମୋଟରଗାଡ଼ିଦ୍ଵାରା ସୃଷ୍ଟି ହେଉଥ‌ିବା ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣକୁ କମାଇବାପାଇଁ କି କି ପଦକ୍ଷେପ ନିଆଯାଇପାରେ ? ଏହା ଏକ ଜାଗତିକ ସମସ୍ୟା କି ?)
The pollution caused by automobiles can be reduced by taking certain steps. First of all, the ingredients of fuel used in automobiles should be changed. Secondly, automobile engines should be redesigned and equipped with new devices like catalytic converters which can change pollutants into harmless substances. Yes, air pollution is a global problem. It is a problem for the whole world.

(ii) Given below is a table. Read the text and complete the table.

F. Let’S Do Some Activities

1. Let’s think together :
The text you have read mentions some steps to reduce air pollution. Now work in groups to suggest more steps for dealing with the problem. You can refer to newspapers, and journals and discuss among yourselves to get more ideas (The teacher divides the class into four or five groups for the purpose)(This activity will be done in the class by the teacher.)

2. Let’s speak and listen :
Each group presents its ideas in class regarding the steps to control air pollution. Other groups listen and react to the ideas. After all the groups have presented ideas, commonly agreed aspects should be finalized. (The teacher acts as the observer and coordinator.) (This activity will be done in the class by the teacher.)

3. Let’s write :
Write a letter to the Editor of a newspaper / the Minister, Department of Environment explaining the importance of clean air and suggesting ways to keep it clean and pure. (ପରିଷ୍କାର ବାୟୁର ଗୁରୁତ୍ଵ ଏବଂ ଏହାକୁ ପରିଷ୍କାର ଓ ବିଶୁଦ୍ଧ ରଖିବାର ଉପାୟମାନ ବୁଝାଇ ସମ୍ବାଦପତ୍ରର ସମ୍ପାଦକ/ପରିବେଶ ବିଭାଗର ମନ୍ତ୍ରୀଙ୍କୁ ଏକ ପତ୍ର ଲେଖ ।)

Pubusahi, Khurda
Date ……………………..

To,
The Editor
The Telegraph
Kolkata
Sub – Importance of clean air.

Dear Sir,

I shall be much obliged if you kindly publish this news item in your widely circulated newspaper.
Everybody needs pure and clean air in order to make his body fit. It is essential for the human body. Man can’t live even a moment without air. But it has become a dream now. Every comer of the world is filled with polluted air because of the growing industries of automobiles. When we respire the polluted air we suffer from many harmful diseases. The polluted air has caused a lot of harm not only to living creatures but also to trees and buildings.

All living creatures need pure and clean air so that they can keep themselves fit both physically and mentally. We all have to do something to keep it clean. A large number of trees should be planted every year to neutralize some pollutants. Some of the industries should be disestablished. The raw materials used in factories or the ingredients of fuel should be changed and equipment should be designed in such a way that can trap the pollutants before they escape into the atmosphere. Automobile engines should be equipped with devices that can change pollutants into harmless substances. Above all the government should pass laws to prevent and control air pollution.

Through your much-esteemed paper, I would like to draw the attention of the public as well as the government to do something to check air pollution and ensure a pure air.

Yours faithfully
Sasmita Praharaj

4. Let’s debate:
Some speak ‘for’ the motion and some ‘against’. The teacher acts as Chairperson.
(କେତେକ ପ୍ରସ୍ତାବ ସପକ୍ଷରେ ଓ କେତେକ ପ୍ରସ୍ତାବ ବିପକ୍ଷରେ କହିବେ, ଶିକ୍ଷକ ସଭାପତିଭାବେ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କରିବେ ।)
(i) Use of private vehicles should be banned to control air pollution.
(ବେସରକାରୀ ଯାନବାହନ ବ୍ୟବହାର ନିଷିଦ୍ଧ ହେବା ଉଚିତ ।)
Group — A (For)
Undoubtedly the number of private vehicles used is more than the number of government vehicles. Their contribution to causing air pollution is more. It causes near about 60 per cent of air pollution. Some people misuse their vehicles. Even they take their vehicles to a very short distances. Some people use it as a luxury item. So private vehicles should be banned so that air pollution can be controlled.

Group – B (Against)
Only private vehicles can meet the demand of the exploding population. Though a number of passenger carriers and goods carriers are run by the government, they can’t meet the rising demand of the people. Government can’t provide adequate service transportation. Of course, vehicles are responsible for air pollution. But all private vehicles shouldn’t be banned. A lot of problems will arise if it is done.

(ii) Industries being the major source of pollution need to be disestablished
(ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣର ମୁଖ୍ୟ ଉତ୍ସ ହୋଇଥିବାରୁ ଶିଳ୍ପଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ବିଲୋପ କରିବା ଆବଶ୍ୟକ ।)
Group – A (For)
Most industries spew smoke, ash, dust and other pollutants into the atmospheric air. So the air gets polluted. It affects human beings, aquatic creatures, plants, trees as well as soil. Of course, industries fulfil the demand of the people. But they need to be disestablished to check pollution and save people and others from its ill effects.

Group – B (Against)
Modem society would come to halt without industries. Industrial products fulfil the demand of the people. Everything we use in our day-to-day life is a product of an industry or other. So the industries shouldn’t be disestablished.

G. Lets Enrich Our Vocabulary:

(i) There are some words/phrases in the text used to convey the harmful effects of air pollution on mankind.
(ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣର ମଣିଷ ସମାଜ ଉପରେ କ୍ଷତିକାରକ ପ୍ରଭାବ ଜଣାଇବା ନିମନ୍ତେ ପାଠ୍ୟ ବିଷୟରେ କେତେଗୁଡ଼ିଏ ଶବ୍ଦ|ବାକ୍ୟାଶ ଅଛି ।)
A few examples are given : deadly, irritating gases, a
ଅଳ୍ପ କେତୋଟି ଉଦାହରଣ ଦିଆଯାଇଛି: deadly, irritating gases
Pick out other such words/expressions from the text and write in your copy.
(ସେହିଭଳି ଅନ୍ୟାନ୍ୟ ଶବ୍ଦ/ବାକ୍ୟାଶଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ପାଠ୍ୟ ବିଷୟରୁ ବାଛି ତୁମ ଖାତାରେ ଲେଖ ।)

(ii) toxic fumes, toxic substances, respiratory illness, sensitive tissues, polluted air, dense smoke, scratchy throats, serious diseases
(a)The word ‘respiration’ is the noun form of the verb ‘respire’.
(respiration’ଶବ୍ଦଟି କ୍ରିୟାପଦ ‘respire’ର ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ରୂପ ।)
Now with the help of a dictionary find out verb/noun forms of the following.
(ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନ ଅଭିଧାନର ସାହାଯ୍ୟ ନେଇ ନିମ୍ନଲିଖତଗୁଡ଼ିକର କ୍ରିୟା| ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ରୂପ ବାହାର କର ।)

 Noun Verb Verb Noun Resident Consume Pollution Alter Composition Believe Inhalation Reduce Emission Produce Comparison Operate Knowledge Expect Recovery Represent Destruction Radiate Contamination Illustrate Precipitation Justify Deterioration Prevent

 Noun Verb Verb Noun Resident Reside Consume Consumption Pollution Pollute Alter Alteration Composition Compose Believe Belief Inhalation Inhale Reduce Reduction Emission Emit Produce Production Comparison Compare Operate Operation Knowledge Know Expect Expectation Recovery Recover Represent Representation Destruction Destroy Radiate Radiation Contamination Contaminate Illustrate Illustration Precipitation Precipitate Justify Justification Deterioration Deteriorate Prevent Prevention

(b) Arrange the words provided under noun and verb in the order in which they should come in a dictionary.
( Noun ଓ verb ତଳେ ଦିଆଯାଇଥିବା ଶବ୍ଦଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ସେମାନେ ଅଭିଧାନରେ ଆସୁଥ‌ିବା କ୍ରମରେ ସଜାଅ । )

 Noun Verb Noun Verb Comparison Contamination Deterioration Inhalation Pollution Recovery Alter Consume Illustrate Operate Produce Reduce Composition Destruction Emission Knowledge Precipitation Resident Believe Expect Justify Prevent Radiate Represent

(iii) Read the sentences below :
buildings of Krakow are slowly being destroyed by acidic smog.
Mark the word underlined. Two words, i.e. ‘smoke and fog’ (smoke + fog) have formed the word ‘smog’. Such process of word formation is known as blending. Many new words are being made in this process and are increasingly in use.

Given below is an exercise. Complete it.
Foreign + exchange bank = ………………… bank
………………. + …………….. policy = Exim policy
Slim + tender = ……………..
……………… + …………….. = telecast
Foreign + exchange bank = Forex bank
Export + import policy = Exim policy
Slim + tender = slender

(iv) Given below are some expressions. Use a single word for each expression. Go to the text to find the words.
(ନିମ୍ନରେ କେତେକ ଶବ୍ଦପୁଞ୍ଜ ଦିଆଯାଇଛି । ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ ଶବ୍ଦପୁଞ୍ଜ ପାଇଁ ଗୋଟିଏ ଶବ୍ଦ ବ୍ୟବହାର କର ଶବ୍ଦଗୁଡ଼ିକ ପାଇବା ପାଇଁ ପାଠ୍ୟବିଷୟ ଦେଖ ।)
a great threat
getting worse day by day
things used to make something
a body of laws
one who studies weather conditions
a great threat – menace
getting worse day by day – deteriorating
things used to make something – ingredients
a body of laws – legislation
one who studies weather conditions – meteorologist

H. Let’s Learn Language:

(a) Mark the following sentences used in the text:
(ପାଠ୍ୟ ବିଷୟରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ନିମ୍ନଲିଖୂ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ଲକ୍ଷ୍ୟ କର ।)
(i) …………………..  irritating gases enter the atmosphere.
(ii) every day, every moment we breathe polluted air to become a victim of air pollution.

The words underlined above are known as ‘participle adjectives. Here ‘irritating’ is the present participle adjective and ‘polluted’ is the past participle adjective in the above sentences.
(ଉପର ରେଖାଙ୍କିତ ଶବ୍ଦଗୁଡ଼ିକ ‘participle adjectives’ ଭାବେ ପରିଚିତ । ଉପର ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକରେ ‘irritating’ ହେଉଛି ‘present participle adjective’ ଓ ‘polluted’ ହେଉଛି ‘past participle adjective’ ।)

Find out in the text how many such participles are there and make a list.
(ଏପରି କେତୋଟି participle ପାଠ୍ୟବିଷୟରେ ଅଛି ଖୋଜି ବାହାର କର ଓ ଏକ ତାଲିକା ପ୍ରସ୍ତୁତ କର ।)

Present Participle _______, ________, ________, ________
Past Participle ________, _________, ________, ________
Present Participle — surviving, exploding (population), damaging (effects),drinking, designing, expanding (society), processing
Past Participle — contaminated, increased, industrialised, polluted

Complete the following sentences with appropriate participles of the verbs given in brackets.
(ବନ୍ଧନୀ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ପ୍ରଦତ୍ତ କ୍ରିୟାଗୁଡ଼ିକର ଉପଯୁକ୍ତ participleଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ନିମ୍ନଲିଖ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ କର ।)

1. The beggar is wearing a _______ shirt. (tear)
2. My father bought me a ______ suit. (swim)
3. My friend wanted a _______ instrument. (clean)
4. 1 never like to take a _______ egg. (boil)
5. Air pollution causes ______ problem. (breath)
6. People get deceased in a _______ atmosphere. (pollute)
7. Air pollution has _______ effect on buildings. (damage)
8. Severity of air pollution is more found in _______ countries. (develop)
1. The beggar is wearing a torn shirt. (past participle)
2. My father bought me a swimming suit. (the present participle)
3. My friend wanted a cleaning instrument. (the present participle)
4. 1 never like to take a boiled egg. (past participle)
5. Air pollution causes breathing problems. (the present participle)
6. People get deceased in a polluted atmosphere. (past participle)
7. Air pollution has a damaging effects on buildings. (the present participle)
8. Severity of air pollution is more found in developed countries. (past participle)

(b) Punctuate the following text (ନିମ୍ନଲିଖ୍ ପାଠ୍ୟଟିକୁ ବିରାମ ଚିହ୍ନ ଦେଇ ଲେଖ) :
In the United States, control of air pollution is chiefly the responsibility of the state and local governments all the states have air quality management programmes which are patterned after federal laws the basic federal law dealing with air pollution is the clean air act of 1970 amended in 1990 under this law the federal environment protection again sets standards for air quality what are the standards.
In the United States, control of air pollution is chiefly the responsibility of the state and local governments. All the States have air quality management programmes which are patterned after federal laws. The basic federal law dealing with air pollution is the Clean Air Act of 1970 amended in 1990. Under this law, the Federal Environment Protection Agency sets standards for air quality. What are the standards?

I. Let’S Prepare A Project

You live in a locality. You might have experienced some sort of pollution in your locality. It might be pollution of air or water or soil or could be noise pollution. Survey your area with a focus on the nature of pollution, its ill effects, causes of pollution and measures to control the same. Analyse and interpret the data/information collected. Write all these in a project format.
(It could be an individual or group project.)
(ତୁମେ ଏକ ଅଞ୍ଚଳରେ ବାସ କରୁଛ । ତୁମ ଅଞ୍ଚଳରେ କେତେକ ପ୍ରକାର ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣର ଅନୁଭୂତି ତୁମର ଥାଇପାରେ । ଏହା ବାୟୁ ବା ଜଳ ବା ମୃତ୍ତିକା ବା ଶବ୍ଦ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣର ହୋଇଥାଇପାରେ । ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣର ପ୍ରକୃତି, ଏହାର କୁପ୍ରଭାବ, ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣର କାରଣ, ଏହାର ନିୟନ୍ତ୍ରଣ ଉପାୟ ଆଦି ଉପରେ ନଜର ରଖ୍ ତୁମ ଅଞ୍ଚଳ ସର୍ବେକ୍ଷଣ କର । ସଂଗୃହୀତ ତଥ୍ୟକୁ ବିଶ୍ଳେଷଣ ଓ ବ୍ୟାଖ୍ୟା କର ।) (ଏହା ବ୍ୟକ୍ତିଗତ ବା ଦଳଗତ ଯୋଜନା ହୋଇପାରେ ।)
Title of the Project:
Air Pollution in Choudwar – Causes and Impacts on Environment.

Purpose of the study :
To find out the causes and bad effects of air pollution on the human population in Choudwar and to suggest control measures.
1. Air is the life breath of living beings but polluted air stands in the way of life.
2. Growing industrialization and deforestation are the causes of air pollution.

Methodology:
A survey method by sampling was adopted to carry out this study. Data from the field were collected on the following parameters covering a period of the last five years.

• Number of industries
• Running of vehicles/bikes etc., traffic jam
• No. of trees existing, cut down or newly planted trees during the year 2002-2006.
• Use of pesticides in the agricultural fields
• Use of LPG instead of firewood.
• Use of air conditioners, and coolers like electronic machinery.

Findings :
The entire area chosen for the study was surveyed and data were collected by direct observation from Government records, by interviewing senior citizens and local people including farmers. The collected year wise data are presented in the following tables.
Number of industries in Choudwar during the years 2002-2006

 Type of industry 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Textile industry 01 01 03 05 10 Paper industry Nil Nil Nil 01 02 Scrap Iron industry 02 02 04 04 06 Plastic industry 01 03 03 06 06 Sugar industry Nil Nil Nil 01 01 Cement industry Nil Nil Nil Nil 01 Total 04 06 10 17 26

Number of vehicles plying on the highway passing through Choudwar at a particular hour during the years 2002-2006

 Type of vehicles 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Two-wheelers 10 25 48 55 70 Cars, jeeps, etc. 04 07 15 21 35 Three wheelers 07 19 27 35 45 Buses and trucks 05 12 25 30 42

Number of big trees existing, cut down and newly planted in Choudwar during the years 2002-2006 (Collected from records of Office of the Forest Department,
Govt, of Odisha)
Number of Trees

 Trees 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Existing 700 450 280 200 150 Cut down 50 250 170 80 30 Planted 300 150 90 70 50

Number of farmers using pesticides in their fields during those years Number of farmers in %

 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Pesticide users 5% 15% 30% 55% 85%

Number of families using LPG as fuel for cooking during those years Number of LPG user families (in %)

 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 LPG users 8% 30% 65% 78% 91%

Number of people suffering from health disorders caused by air pollution at Choudwar during years 2002-2006 (Collected from Govt. Hospital records)
Number of people

 Name of the disease 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Respiratory disorders 15 30 58 156 230 Skin disorders 18 25 37 48 115 Eye disorders 25 36 49 65 130 Cancer 02 10 14 22 36 Blood disorders 03 08 11 18 26

From the above data it becomes apparent that the air of Choudwar has been polluted during those years due to an increase in the load of vehicular traffic (Table 2), a number of different industries (Table 1) and a number of pesticides users, lack of required green cover, cutting down a large number of trees, poor plantation drive and above all due to lack of required awareness among people regarding the cause and effects of air pollution.

As a result, disorders of the respiratory system, skin, eyes, blood etc. are on the rise in this area. The only satisfying development is the rise in the number of families using LPG as fuel for cooking. Though it is not possible to install the industrialisation, use of pesticides and number of vehicles used for transportation, the following remedial measures can be taken to reduce the degree of pollution as well as the extent of pollution-related health disorders.

• Industrialists should be cajoled to use smokeless fuels and develop green covers around the factories.
• Industries should be compelled to use precipitators, scrubbers and filters to check the production of particulate matter.
• Industries should be shifted to places far from human habitation.
• Owners of automobiles should use positive crankcase ventilation and catalytic converter to reduce emissions.
• The use of low-sulphur fuel should be made compulsory.
• Antipollution devices and alternate fuels should be used in automobiles.
• No big tree should be cut down further and steps should be taken for adequate – plantation.
• The public should be made aware of air pollution through electronic media, print media, shows, symposia etc.

Conclusion:
Hence a clear and transparent atmosphere is pleasant for leading a smooth life. The presence of smoke and dust in the air irritates the human mind. High population density and a large number of plying automobiles, industries etc. make the air highly polluted. This polluted air contains carbon monoxide, nitrogen, hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide, dust, ashes, pesticide granules etc. which are detrimental to human health. Every citizen should come forward to wipe out the pollution so that we can make the world better.

Let’s Know More

A. Related words.

 Noun Verb Adjective Adverb alteration alter alterable alterably alarm alarm alarming alarmingly contamination contaminate contaminated – death die dead deadly damage damage damaging – disorder disorder disorderly – difficulty – difficult – difference differ different –

 Noun Verb Adjective Adverb pollution pollute polluted origin originate original originally irritation irritate irritating irritatingly industry industrialize industrial industrially explosion explode explosive explosively drama dramatize dramatic dramatically involvement involve involved – improvement improve – – sense sensitize sensitive sensitively strike strike striking strikingly event – eventful eventually prevention prevent preventive – participation participate participative – production Produce productive – acid acidify acidic acidly danger endanger dangerous surety ensure sure surely distance – distant –

B. A single word for the group of words:
1. relating to industry – industrial
2. someone who suffers as a result of something – victim
3. of many different kinds – manifold
4. chemically inactive gas – argon
5. having small holes – porous
6. a mixture of smoke and fog – smog
7. things used to make something – ingredient
8. a person who studies weather conditions – meteorologist
9. a system of sending out smoke-emission
10. a body of laws – legislation
11. rain or snow falling to the ground – precipitation
12. a place where waste materials are left – dump
13. easily feeling pain – sensitive
14. inhaling or exhaling air – respiration
15. polluted by the addition of harmful substances – contaminated
16. act of breathing something in – inhalation
17. the waste materials or rubbish – garbage
18. a person who smokes cigarettes – a smoker
19. the seriousness of something unpleasant – severity
20. great threat – menace
21. going out of steam or smoke from an engine – exhaust
22. first step – an initiative
23. substances causing pollution – pollutant
24. cause discomfort – irritate
25. a person who studies plants – a botanist
26. a tall chimney at a factory – smokestacks
27. getting worse day by day – deteriorating

C. Opposite words (antonyms) of the following words.
local – national
survive – crumple, die
victim – attacker .assailant
obvious – obscure, imperceptible
pure – impure
dense – thin, sparse
knowledge – ignorance
high – low
dangerous – safe
disperse – gather
tragic – glorious, successful
damage – repair
inhale – exhale
contaminate – purify
pollution – purity
equivalent – different, dissimilar
large – small
crucial – unimportant, complimentary
pollute – purify, clean
enter – exit
urban-rural
disappear – appear
slowly – quickly
significant – insignificant, meaningless
expand – contract
difficulty – easiness
death – birth
different – similar
harmless – harmful
easy – difficult
mingle – separate, part
irritate – appease, pacify

### BSE Odisha 10th Class English Air Pollution: A Hidden Menace Important Questions and Answers

Very Short Objective Questions With Answers
Answer The Following Questions In A Word Or A Phrase

Question 1.
When did the industrial accident take place at Bhopal?
on 3 December 1984

Question 2.
From where did the deadly gas escape into the atmosphere?
a chemical plant operated by Union Carbide

Question 3.
How many local residents were killed due to the industrial accident at Bhopal?
over 4000

Question 4.
How much food does an average adult consume a day?
1.5 kg

Question 5.
What do you mean by contaminated food?
impure food

Question 6.
Which gas is the major constituent of air?
nitrogen-78%

Question 7.
What can lead to respiratory disorders?
inhalation polluted air

Question 8.
What is new in air pollution?
the scope and severity

Question 9.
What do industries spew?
dense smoke

Question 10.
Why are fuels burnt in industries?
to produce steam

Question 11.
When is smoke produced?
during burning process

Question 12.
What does polluted air contain?
obnoxious gases, ash and dust particles

Question 13.
Which internal parts of the human body slowly become garbage dumps for pollutants?
our lungs

Question 14.
What do you mean by obnoxious gases?
unpleasant gases

Question 15.
Which industries discharge high amounts of smoke and ash?
Thermal Power Stations

Question 16.
Which industries release toxic fumes into the air?
chemical industries

Question 17.
What amount of pollutants do the automobiles in Kolkata spew every day?

Question 18.
What do automobiles release into the atmosphere?
carbon monoxide

Question 19.
How have trees been killed?
pollution from power plants

Question 20.
What causes rubber tyres on automobiles to crack and become porous?
air pollution

Question 21.
Where were the periods of high levels of air pollution liked to an increased number of deaths?
in the United States and Europe

Question 22.
Which gases tend to trap the radiation that reaches the earth from the sun?
carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide

Question 23.
What may destroy the atmospheric layer?
chlorofluorocarbons

Question 24.
What causes the damage to the water in lakes and rivers?
acid rain

Question 25.
Where have 4000 lakes been affected due to acid rain?
in Sweden

Question 26.
What are the soil’s nutrients?
potassium, calcium and magnesium

Question 27.
Which fish has vanished from the river of Central Wales?
Dipper fish

Question 28.
From where has the Brown Tout vanished?
Norwegian lakes

Question 29.
What harm can acid rain do to the skin?
skin lesions

Question 30.
How are the beautiful buildings of Krakow being destroyed?
by acidic smog

Question 31.
Where is acid rain eating into the marble of its world-famous monuments?
in Athens

Question 32.
How many basic approaches are there to control air pollution?
three

Question 33.
What are the basic approaches to control air pollution?
preventive measure, dispersal measure and collection measure

Question 34.
What do all the industrialized countries have to prevent and control air pollution?
some type of legislation

Question 35.
How are the pollutants carried from one country to another?
by the wind

Question 36.
What has caused damage in Sweden?
acids produced in Britain and France

Question 37.
What has brought improvements in many areas?
air quality programmes

Question 38.
What can change pollutants into harmless substances?
catalytic converter

Question 39.
What do you mean by ‘emission system’?
a system of sending out smoke

Question 40.
What has been made in different countries to check air pollution and ensure quality air?
law, setting standards and norms

Fill In The Blanks With Right Words

1. Air pollution is a hidden __________.
menace

2. The most tragic industrial accident occurred at __________ in 1984.
Bhopal

3. Union Carbide is a ________ plant.
chemical

4. In the most tragic industrial accident __________ people were killed.
4000

5. A man can live without food for ___________.
a month

6. It is estimated that an average adult exchanges __________ kg of air a day.
15

7. A man can intake __________ kg of water in a day.
2.5

8. The quantum of pollutants that enter our body through respiration would be _________ in comparison to food and water.
manifold

9. Air is a mixture of several _________.
gases

10. The percentage of carbon dioxide in the air is __________.
0.03

11. If the composition of air is altered, the oxygen level gets __________.
reduced

12. Polluted air can lead to __________.
respiratory disorders

13. ________ is new in air pollution.
Scope and severity

14. Most industries spew _________ from their chimneys.
dense smoke

15. Industries require __________ to run on.
steam

16. During the burning of the fuels, along with heat, __________ is also produced.
smoke

17. We respire polluted air containing, __________ ash and dust particles.
obnoxious gases

18. ________ are rated the first among the industries that discharge high amounts of smoke and ash into the atmosphere.
Thermal Power Stations

19. All ________ also release toxic fumes into the air, along with the smoke.
chemical industries

20. Automobiles in Greater Kolkata alone spew about _________ tonnes of pollutants into the atmosphere every day.
1500

21. Automobiles are responsible for __________ per cent of air pollution.
60

22. Automobiles release a maximum of _________ into the atmosphere.
carbon monoxide

23. Many flower and vegetable crops suffer ill effects from __________ gases.
car exhaust

24. Building surfaces may actually be because _________ of air pollution.
deteriorate

25. Air pollution causes rubber tyres on automobiles to crack and become __________.
porous

26. In both the __________. periods of high levels of air pollution were linked to an increased number of deaths.
United States and Europe

27. The synonym of ‘intake’ is __________.
consumption

28. The antonym of ‘obnoxious’ is __________.
pleasant/agreeable

29. Obnoxious gases tend to _________ the radiation that reaches the earth from the sun.
trap

30. ‘Chlorof1urocarbon is used as a and a cleaner _________.
refrigerant

31. Acid rain contains oxides of _________ along with other chemicals.
sulphur and nitrogen

32. In Sweden __________ lakes have been positioned due to acid rain.
400

33. Acid rain leaches away __________ from the upper layer of the soil.
nutrients

34. Acid rain poisons __________.
aquatic plants and animals

35. The Pied Flycatcher and Apollo Butterfly are threatened by acid rain in ___________.
Sweden

36. __________ fish has vanished from the river of Central Wales.
The Dipper fish

37. Smoke + fog = __________ (Fill in the blank with a blending word)
smog

38. Krakow is a town of __________.
Poland

39. Changing of raw materials comes under __________ measures.
preventive

40. According to the experts more damage has been done in the past 25 years than in the previous years.
200

41. Raising the heights of smokestacks comes under __________ measures.
dispersal measures

42. the highly industrialized countries of (he world have some type of ___________ to prevent and control air pollution.
legislation

43. Acids produced in Britain and France have caused damage in ___________.
Sweden

44. The death of lakes in Eastern Canada has been caused by acid rain that originated in the ___________.
United States

45. Air quality programmes have brought _________ in many areas.
improvements

46. __________ changes pollutants into harmless substances in new cars.
Catalytic converter

47. The synonym of ‘trap’ is ___________.
retain

48. The persons who research plants are called __________.
Botanists

49. _________ of new cars is a new invention to control air pollution.
Emission system

50. Acid rain can also cause skin _________.
lesions

51. Perhaps the day will come when the sunlight is no longer blocked by __________.
an umbrella of pollution

52. Buildings of Krakow are being destroyed by ___________.
acidic smog

53. Pollution control means ________ prices.
higher

54. A blend of foreign and exchange banks is ___________.
forex bank

55. A blending for export and import policy is __________.
Exim policy

56. A blending word for slim and tender is ___________.
slender

57. When we mix television with broadcast the blending word will be ___________.
telecast

58. Brown trouts have vanished from ___________.
the Norwegian lakes

59. Beautiful buildings in Krakow are being destroyed by __________.
acidic smog

60. The world-famous marble monuments in Athens are being destroyed by ___________.
acid rain

61. It is estimated that an average adult takes ___________. kg air, water and food in a day.
19

62. Without our knowledge our lungs are becoming __________.
dumps

63. Lorries, trucks and goods carriers are called _______ vehicles.
heavy

64. Cars, jeeps and buses are called ________ vehicles.
light

65. A two-wheeler that has no gear system is called __________.
moped

66. Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are inviting ___________.
global warming

67. Air pollution represents a loss of billion of __________ every year.
dollars

68. Acid rain poisons plants and animals that live in __________.
water

69. The levels of air pollution in Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai are ___________.
alarming

70. The upper layer of soil contains potassium, magnesium and __________.
calcium

Question 71.
A person who studies plants is called ___________.
botanist

72. The process of in and exhaling air is called __________.
respiration

73. Acid rain washes away __________ from the upper layer of soil.
nutrients

74. Air pollution from car exhaust can be controlled by using ___________.
catalytic converter

75. Athens is the capital city of ___________.
Greece

76. Coal, coke and furnace oil are called __________.
fuels

77. Bhopal gas tragedy is an example of __________.
industrial accident

78. The byproducts from the smelters are poisoning __________.
cattle

79. Acid rain is leaving behind leafless __________.
skeleton of trees

80. If the trend of automobile exhausts continues, we have to wear __________ in the future.
nasal filters

Pick out the correct alternative.

Question 1.
(B) Bhopai
(C) Patna
(D) Simia
(B) Bhopal

Question 2.
The industrial accident in Bhopal took place in the year ____________?
(A) 1964
(B) 1974
(C) 1984
(D) 1994
(C) 1984

Question 3.
The chemical plant at Bhopal was operated by __________?
(A) Samsung Digital
(B) Union Carbide
(C) Onida Carbide
(D) Maruti Carbide
(B) Union Carbide

Question 4.
How many people in Bhopal were killed due to the industrial accident?
(A) 2000
(B) 3000
(C) 4000
(D) 5000
(C) 4000

Question 5.
Man can’t live without for a minute?
(A) eating
(B) drinking
(C) breathing
(D) bathing
(C) breathing

Question 6.
Every day a large number of pollutants enter our body through __________?
(A) respiration
(B) consumption
(C) operation
(D) legislation
(A) respiration

Question 7.
Air which is a mixture of several gases consists of _________ per cent nitrogen?
(A) 28
(B) 78
(C) 88
(D) 98.
(B) 78

Question 8.
When _________ level is reduced in the air. Do irritating gases enter the atmosphere?
(A) Oxygen
(B) Nitrogen
(C) Argon
(D) Carbon monoxide
(A) Oxygen

Question 9.
If we respire polluted air, it leads us to ___________?
(A) mental disorder
(B) respiratory illness
(C) cardiac disorder
(D) optical disorder
(B) respiratory illness

Question 10.
Most of the industries __________ dense smoke from their chimneys?
(A) sew
(B) spew
(C) flew
(D) exhaust
(B) spew

Question 11.
Coal. coke and furnace oil are called __________?
(A) fuel
(B) fodder
(C) fire
(D) ore
(A) fuel

Question 12.
We respire the air containing obnoxious gases and without our knowledge our lungs become?
(A) garbage carrier
(B) garbage dumps
(C) power stations
(D) spray cans
(B) garbage dumps

Question 13.
Which industries are raced the first among industries that discharge high amounts of smoke and ash into the air?
(A) cement, steel and ore processing industries.
(B) herbal medicine industries
(C) automobile industries
(D) telecommunication industries
(A) cement, steel and ore processing industries.

Question 14.
Do chemical industries release _____________ and smoke into the air?
(A) acidic fumes
(B) toxic fumes
(C) polluted dust
(D) harmful ash
(B) toxic fumes

Question 15.
A person who lives in Kolkata inhales toxic substances equivalent to smoking?
(A) three packets of cigarettes.
(B) two packets of cigarettes
(C) two cups of toxic acid
(D) three bottles of alcohol.
(B) two packets of cigarettes

Question 16.
Lorries and goods carriers are called vehicles?
(A) harmless
(B) light
(C) heavy
(D) invalid
(C) heavy

Question 17.
Do automobiles contribute _____________ per cent of air pollution?
(A) 40
(B) 50
(C) 60
(D) 70
(C) 60

Question 18.
If the trend of automobile exhausts continues, we have to wear _____________ ¡ri future?
(A) ear cover
(B) nasal filters
(C) sunglasses
(D) mouth covers
(B) nasal filters

Question 19.
Pollutants may be carried from one country to another?
(A) the water
(B) the wind
(C) the animals
(D) the birds
(B) the wind

Question 20.
Which programme has brought improvements in the air?
(A) water purification
(B) soil conservation
(C) deforestation
(D) air quality
(D) air quality

Vocabulary
Do As Directed.

Question 1.
Most industries spew dense smoke. the underlined word means ___________?
throw out

Question 2.
Air pollution is nothing new but what is new is the scope and severity of air pollution. the underlined word means _________?
seriousness

Question 3.
The polluted air contains obnoxious gases. Does the underlined word mean __________?
unpleasant

Question 4.
Acid rain leaches away soil nutrients. The underlined phrase means __________?
washes away

Question 5.
At first, we didn’t understand the seriousness of her wounds. (Substitute a single word for the underlined part)
severity

Question 6.
Nowadays a number of cars are plying on road. The meaning of ‘plying’ is ___________?
running

Question 7.
Air pollution is a hidden menace. Here ‘menace’ means __________?
threat

Question 8.
A single bomb can __________ a country in a minute. (Fill in the blank with the verb form of ‘destruction’)
destroy

Question 9.
The _________ of rice is more in our state than any other state. (Fill in the blank with the noun form of ‘consume’)
consumption

Question 10.
Air pollution causes _______ illness. (Fill in the blank with a related word of ‘respire’)
respiratory

Question 11.
Contaminated food causes harm to our bodies. The meaning of the underlined word is __________?
impure

Question 12.
Some countries have some type of legislation to prevent and control air pollution. The underlined word means __________?
a body of law

Question 13.
We respire the polluted air containing obnoxious gases. The underlined word means _________?
unpleasant

Question 14.
Acid rain causes skin ‘lesions’. The underlined word means __________?
injuries

Question 15.
Another concern is acid rain. Here ‘concern’ means _________?
worry

Question 16.
Building surfaces may actually become worse because of air pollution. A single word for the underlined expression will be _________?
deteriorate

Question 1.
What are the basic approaches to control air pollution?
There are three basic approaches to controlling air pollution. Preventive measures can be taken by changing the raw materials used in industry or the ingredients of fuel. Dispersal measures can be taken by raising the heights of smokestacks and collection measures can be taken by designing equipment to trap pollutants before they escape into the atmosphere.

Question 2.
What is acid rain and how does it cause damage in lakes and rivers?
Acid rain is rain that contains oxides of sulphur and nitrogen along with other chemicals released into the atmosphere. It is very harmful to the environment. It makes water in rivers and lakes poisonous. The water turns acidic and affects aquatic animals and plants. It affects crops, trees, buildings, soils, drinking water as well as human beings.

Question 3.
What is the composition of air? When is air said to be polluted?
Pure air doesn’t contain a single element. It is a mixture of several gases. It comprises 78 per cent nitrogen, 21 per cent oxygen, a little less than 01 per cent argon together with 0.03 per cent carbon dioxide. The air is pure and transparent as long as this composition is maintained. If the oxygen level gets reduced or irritating gases enter the atmosphere, the air is said to be polluted.

Question 4.
What are the basic approaches to control air pollution?
There are three basic approaches to controlling air pollution. Preventive measures can be taken by changing the raw materials used in industry or the ingredients of fuel. Dispersal measures can be taken by raising the heights of smokestacks and collection measures can be taken by designing equipment to trap pollutants before they escape into the atmosphere.

Question 5.
What is acid rain and how does it cause damage to lakes and rivers? Or, What are the harmful effects of acid rain?
Acid rain is rain that contains oxides of sulphur and nitrogen along with other chemicals released into the atmosphere. It is very harmful to the environment. It makes the water of the rivers and lakes poisonous. The water turns acidic and affects aquatic animals and plants. It affects crops, trees, buildings, soils, drinking water as well as human beings.

Question 6.
Where and when did the tragic Industrial accident take place? What were its consequences? Or, What accident took place at Bhopal in 1984? What were its tragic consequences?
The most tragic industrial accident took place in Bhopal on 3 December 1984. A deadly gas from a chemical plant operated by Union Carbide escaped into the atmosphere. As a result of it, 4000 thousand local residents were killed and a large section of the city’s surviving population was rendered blind and crippling.

Question 7.
How is smoke produced? Where does it go?
Various industries require steam. In order to produce the steam, they use fuels like coal, coke or furnace oil. These fuels are burnt in industries. During burning, along with heat, smoke is also produced. Of course, it disappears in a short time. But actually, it mingles with the atmospheric air and pollutes it.

Question 8.
How do thermal power stations cause more pollution?
Some of the significant industries contributing to air pollution are cement, steel and ore-processing industries. But thermal power stations are rated the first among them as they discharge high amounts of smoke and ash into the atmospheric air. So they cause more pollution.

Question 9.
What are the effects of air pollution on vegetable crops and trees?
Automobiles release maximum carbon monoxide into the atmosphere. As a result, the air is polluted. Particularly vegetable crops suffer ill effects from car exhaust gases. Many trees have been killed by the pollution from power plants.

Question 10.
How are buildings affected by polluted air?
Polluted air not only affects human beings but also plants as well as buildings. Due to air pollution, fine buildings become shabby, and their walls blackened with soot that has settled on them. Building surfaces may actually deteriorate because of polluted air.

Question 11.
What harm can refrigerant do?
Chlorofluorocarbons are a group of chemicals. They are gaseous compounds of chlorine, fluorine and carbon. These substances are used as refrigerants and cleaners. They can cause damage to the atmospheric layer. They may destroy the atmospheric layer (ozone layer) that protects us from harmful kinds of solar energy.

Question 12.
How is acid rain caused?
Acid rain is caused due to the presence of sulphur oxide, nitrogen oxide and other chemicals in the atmosphere. It occurs when these gases react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen and other chemicals to form various acidic compounds.

Question 13.
Why do we still need to find out better ways to control air pollution?
In spite of the formulation of laws and set of standards and norms, air pollution hasn’t been completely checked. So we still need to find out better ways to control it. Now physicians, engineers, botanists and meteorologists are carrying on research seeking new ways to check it.

Question 14.
What steps can be taken to reduce the air pollution caused by automobiles and factories?
To reduce the air pollution caused by automobiles, the engines have been redesigned and new cars have been equipped with devices such as catalytic converters. They convert pollutants into harmless substances. Because of these new devices, air pollution from car exhaust has been reduced. Burning of low-sulphur coal and oil in factories has lowered pollution in many cities.

Question 15.
How do pollutants travel from one country to another?
Now industrialised countries have taken steps to prevent and control air pollution. But one difficulty is that pollutants may be carried by the wind from one country to another. They often travel distances of thousand of miles. The death of lakes in eastern Canada has been caused by the acid rain that originated in the United States. Acids produced in Britain and France have caused damage in Sweden.

Question 16.
How is air more important for the man than food and water?
A man can live without food for a month, and without water for two or three days. But he cannot live without breathing even for a minute. It is estimated that an average adult exchanges 15 kg of air a day, in comparison to about 1.5 kg of food consumed and 2.5 kg of water intake. So it is clear that air is more important for the man than food and water.

Question 17.
How do automobiles cause air pollution?
The number of vehicles plying on the roads is increasing day by day to meet the demand of an exploding population of the world. Equally a greater number of lorries, and goods carriers are on the move. The use of cars, jeeps, and two-wheelers has increased dramatically along with heavy vehicles. Automobiles release Carbon Monoxide into the atmosphere. Thus they are responsible ’ for about 60 per cent of air pollution in various parts of the world.

Question 18.
How is air pollution responsible for increasing the temperature? Or, What is global warming and how is it caused?
Global warming is the gradual increase in the earth’s temperature caused by high levels of Carbon Monoxide, Methane and Nitrous Oxide in the atmosphere. These gases tend to trap the radiation that reaches the earth from the sun. This process would eventually lead to global warming.

Question 19.
What health problems are caused by polluted air?
The high cost of air pollution is most strikingly illustrated in its damaging effects on the human body. Polluted air causes eye irritations, scratchy throats and respiratory diseases. It also contributes to a number of serious diseases in the human body. The high levels of air pollution were linked to an increased number of deaths in Europe and the United States.

Question 20.
What are the industries that contribute to air pollution?
Our air is being polluted with the by-products of industries. Of all the industries thermal power stations are rated the first, that discharge plenty of smoke and ash into the atmosphere. Besides cement, steel and ore processing industries also contribute to air pollution. Some of the chemical industries also release toxic fumes into the air along with the smoke.

Question 21.
Why does the oxygen level in the atmosphere get reduced?
Various industries have been set up in modern times to meet the growing demand of the exploding population. They release irritating gases along with smoke into the atmosphere. These harmful irritating gases mingle in the atmosphere and pollute the air. So oxygen level in the atmosphere gets reduced and the air is said to be polluted causing respiratory disorders.

Question 22.
How have air quality programmes brought us benefits? Or, What are the air quality programmes made in different countries?
The air quality programmes have brought improvements in several areas. Burning low-sulphur coal and oil in factories and power stations has reduced air pollution in many cities. The automobile engines have been redesigned and new cars are equipped with devices such as catalytic converters, which convert pollutants into harmless substances.

Question 23.
What are the basic approaches to control air pollution?
There are three basic approaches to checking air pollution. They are preventive measures, dispersal measures and collection measures. Preventive measures involve changing the raw materials used in the industries or ingredients of fuel. Dispersal measures are raising the heights of smokestacks. Collection measure is designing equipment to trap pollutants before they escape into the atmosphere.

### Air Pollution: A Hidden Menace Summary in English

If our surroundings get polluted we suffer from many kinds of diseases and sicknesses. If our surroundings get highly polluted our life gets endangered. Many factors contribute to this air getting polluted. Smoke rises from automobiles, workshops, restaurants and hotels pollute our environment. The harmful gas rises from heaps of filth, from the latrines and urinals and from the uncleaned drains also pollutes our environment. This air pollution is a hidden menace and poses the greatest threat to mankind in future. Let’s read this topic and think of ways in which we can ensure that we breathe clean and pure air.

ଉପକ୍ରମ :

ଆମ ଚତୁଃପାର୍ଶ୍ଵ ଦୂଷିତ ହୋଇଗଲେ ଆମେ ନାନାପ୍ରକାର ରୋଗ ତଥା ଅସୁସ୍ଥତାର ଶିକାର ହେଉ । ଯଦି ଆମ ଚତୁଃପାର୍ଶ୍ଵ ବହୁମାତ୍ରାରେ ଦୂଷିତ ହୋଇଯାଏ ତେବେ ଆମ ଜୀବନ ବିପଦଗ୍ରସ୍ତ ହୋଇପଡ଼େ । ବାୟୁ ଦୂଷିତ ହେବା ନିମନ୍ତେ ଅନେକ ଉପାଦାନ ସହାୟକ ହୋଇଥାଆନ୍ତି । ଯାନବାହନ, କଳକାରଖାନା, ରେଷ୍ଟୁରାଣ୍ଟ ଓ ହୋଟେଲ୍‌ରୁ ବାହାରୁଥିବା ଧୂଆଁ ପରିବେଶକୁ ଦୂଷିତ କରିଥାଏ । ଅଳିଆଗଦା, ପାଇଖାନା ଓ ମୂତ୍ରାଗାର ତଥା ଅପରିଷ୍କୃତ ନର୍ଦ୍ଦମାରୁ ବାହାରୁଥ‌ିବା କ୍ଷତିକାରକ ବାଷ୍ପ ମଧ୍ୟ ପରିବେଶକୁ ଦୂଷିତ କରିଥାଏ । ଏହି ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣ ଏକ ଲୁକ୍‌କାୟିତ ବିପଦ ସଦୃଶ ଏବଂ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ ମାନବଜାତି ପାଇଁ ସବୁଠାରୁ ବଡ଼ ଭୟ/ବିପଦ ସୃଷ୍ଟି କରିବ । ଚାଲ ଏହି ବିଷୟଟିକୁ ପଢ଼ିବା ଓ ବିଭିନ୍ନ ଉପାୟ ଚିନ୍ତା କରିବା ଯଦ୍ଦାରା ଆମେ ନିର୍ମଳ ତଥା ଶଦ୍ଧ ବାୟ ସେବନ କରିପାରିବା ବୋଲି ନିଶ୍ଚିତ ହୋଇପାରିବା ।

Paragraphs Explanation

Para: No one can forget one of the most tragic industrial accidents that occurred at Bhopal on 3 December 1984. Deadly gas from a chemical plant operated by Union Carbide escaped into the atmosphere, killing over 4000 local residents and rendering them blind and crippling a large section of the city’s surviving population. Not only Bhopal but now every city, every town, and every corner of the earth is facing such a crucial problem. Every day, every moment we breathe polluted air and may become a victim of air pollution.

ଅନୁବାଦ : ୧୯୮୪ ମସିହା ଡିସେମ୍ବର ୩ ତାରିଖ ଦିନ ଭୋପାଳରେ ଘଟିଥ‌ିବା ସର୍ବାଧ‌ିକ ମର୍ମନ୍ତୁଦ ଔଦ୍ୟୋଗିକ (ଶିଳ୍ପ) ଦୁର୍ଘଟଣାକୁ କେହି ଭୁଲିପାରିବେ ନାହିଁ । ୟୁନିଅନ୍ କାର୍ବାଇଡ୍ଦ୍ୱାରା ପରିଚାଳିତ ଏକ ରାସାୟନିକ ଶିଳ୍ପରୁ ମାରାତ୍ମକ ବାଷ୍ପ ବାୟୁମଣ୍ଡଳକୁ ନିର୍ଗତ ହୋଇ ୪୦୦୦ରୁ ଊର୍ଦ୍ଧ୍ବ ସ୍ଥାନୀୟ ଅଧିବାସୀ ପ୍ରାଣତ୍ୟାଗ କଲେ ଏବଂ ସହରର ବଞ୍ଚିଯାଇଥ‌ି ଲୋକସଂଖ୍ୟାର ଅଧିକାଂଶ ଭାଗକୁ ଅନ୍ଧ ଓ ପଙ୍ଗୁ କରିଦେଇଥିଲା । ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନ କେବଳ ଭୋପାଳ ନୁହେଁ ପୃଥ‌ିବୀର ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ ନଗର, ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ ସହର, ପୃଥ‌ିବୀର ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ କୋଣ ଏହିପରି ଏକ ସଙ୍କଟମୟ ସମସ୍ୟାର ସମ୍ମୁଖୀନ ହେଉଛି । ପ୍ରତିଦିନ, ପ୍ରତି ମୁହୂର୍ତ୍ତରେ ଆମେ ଦୂଷିତ ବାୟୁ ଗ୍ରହଣ କରୁଛ ଓ ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣର ଶିକାର ହେଉଛୁ ।

Para: A man can live without food for a month, and without water for two or three days, but he cannot live without breathing even for a minute. It is estimated that an average adult exchanges 15 kg of air a day, in comparison to about 1.5 kg of food consumed and 2.5 kg of water intake. It is obvious that the quantum of pollutants that enter our body through respiration would be manifold in comparison to those taken in through polluted water or contaminated food.

ଅନୁବାଦ : ଜଣେ ଲୋକ ଖାଦ୍ୟ ବିନା ଗୋଟିଏ ମାସ, ପାଣି ବିନା ଦୁଇ କିମ୍ବା ତିନି ଦିନ ବଞ୍ଚିପାରିବ, କିନ୍ତୁ ଶ୍ଵାସକ୍ରିୟା ବିନା ଏପରିକି ଗୋଟିଏ ମିନିଟ୍ ମଧ୍ୟ ବଞ୍ଚୁପାରିବ ନାହିଁ । ଏହା ଆକଳନ କରାଯାଇଛି ଯେ ଜଣେ ସାଧାରଣ ପ୍ରାପ୍ତବୟସ୍କ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି ଦିନକୁ ପ୍ରାୟ ୧.୫ କି.ଗ୍ରା. ଖାଦ୍ୟ ଓ ୨.୫ କି.ଗ୍ରା. ଜଳ ଗ୍ରହଣ କରୁଥିବାବେଳେ ସେହି ତୁଳନାରେ ୧୫ କି.ଗ୍ରା. ବାୟୁ ବିନିମୟ କରିଥାଏ । ଏହା ସ୍ପଷ୍ଟ ଯେ ଯେତିକି ପରିମାଣର ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣକାରୀ ଆମ ଶରୀର ମଧ୍ୟକୁ ଶ୍ଵାସକ୍ରିୟାଦ୍ଵାରା ପ୍ରବେଶ କରନ୍ତି, ତାହା ଆମେ ଗ୍ରହଣ କରୁଥିବା ଦୂଷିତ ଜଳ ଓ ଖାଦ୍ୟ ତୁଳନାରେ ବହୁଗୁଣ କ୍ଷତିକାରକ ।

Para: Air is a mixture of gases comprising 78 per cent nitrogen, 21 per cent oxygen and a little less than 1 per cent argon, together with 0.03 per cent carbon dioxide. These elements make up 99.9 per cent of dry air. As long as this composition is maintained, the air is pure. If this composition is altered, i.e. the oxygen level gets reduced or irritating gases enter the atmosphere, then the air is said to be polluted and inhalation of this polluted air can lead to respiratory disorders.

ଅନୁବାଦ : ବାୟୁ ହେଉଛି କେତେଗୁଡ଼ିଏ ବାଷ୍ପର ମିଶ୍ରଣ ଯେଉଁଥିରେ ୭୮ ପ୍ରତିଶତ ଯବକ୍ଷାରଜାନ, ୨୧ ପ୍ରତିଶତ ଅମ୍ଳଜାନ ଏବଂ ଏକ ପ୍ରତିଶତରୁ ସାମାନ୍ୟ କମ୍ ଆର୍‌ଗନ୍ ସହିତ ୦.୦୩ ପ୍ରତିଶତ ଅଙ୍ଗାରକାମ୍ଳ ଅନ୍ତର୍ଭୁକ୍ତ । ଏହି ଉପାଦାନଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଶୁଷ୍କ ବାୟୁର ୯୯.୯ ପ୍ରତିଶତ ପୂରଣ କରିଥାଏ । ଯେଉଁ ପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ ଏହି ସମାହାର ସ୍ଥିର ଥ‌ିବ, ବାୟୁ ଶୁଦ୍ଧ ରହିବ । ଯଦି ଏହି ସମାହାରରେ ବ୍ୟତିକ୍ରମ ଘଟିବ ଅସନ୍ତୁଳିତ ହୋଇଯିବ, ଉଦାହରଣସ୍ୱରୂପ, ଅମ୍ଳଜାନ ସ୍ତର ହ୍ରାସ ପାଇବ କିମ୍ବା ବାୟୁମଣ୍ଡଳରେ ବିରକ୍ତିକର ବାଷ୍ପସବୁ ପ୍ରବେଶ କରିବ, ତେବେ ବାୟୁ ଦୂଷିତ ହୋଇଛି ବୋଲି କୁହାଯିବ ଏବଂ ଏହି ଦୃଷିତ ବାୟ ସେବନ ଶ୍ଵାସକ୍ରିୟାଜନିତ ସମସ୍ୟା ସୃଷ୍ଟି କରିପାରେ ।

Para: Our air is being poisoned with the by-products of an expanding technological society. Air pollution is nothing new, but what is new is the scope and severity of air pollution.

ଅନୁବାଦ : ପ୍ରସାରଣଶୀଳ ବୈଷୟିକ ବିଦ୍ୟାସମ୍ପନ୍ନ ସମାଜର ଉପଜାତ ଦ୍ରବ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକଦ୍ବାରା ଆମ ଦାୟ ବିଷାକ୍ତ ହୋଇଯାଇଛି । ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣ କିଛି ନୂଆ କଥା ନୁହେଁ, ବରଂ ଯାହାକିଛି ନୂଆ ତାହା ହେଉଛି ବାୟୁପ୍ରଦୂଷଣର ପରିସର ଓ କ୍ଷତିକାରିତା ।

Para: In recent times, quite a large number of industries can be seen in urban areas as well as in rural pockets. Most of these industries spew dense smoke from their chimneys. What is this smoke made of and how is it produced? Industries require steam and to produce it various fuels such as coal, coke, and furnace oil are burnt. During burning, along with heat, smoke is produced. Where does this smoke go? Apparently, it disappears in a short time but in reality, it never does so. Instead, it mingles with the atmospheric air and pollutes it. We respire this polluted air containing obnoxious gases, ash and dust particles. Without our knowledge, our lungs slowly become garbage dumps for these pollutants.

ଅନୁବାଦ : ସମ୍ପ୍ରତି ସହରାଞ୍ଚଳ ତଥା ଗ୍ରାମାଞ୍ଚଳରେ ଅନେକ ଶିଳ୍ପାନୁଷ୍ଠାନ ଦେଖିବ । ତନ୍ମଧ୍ୟରୁ ଅଧିକାଂଶ ଶିଳ୍ପ ସେମାନଙ୍କର ଧୂମନଳିକାରୁ ଧୂଆଁ ନିର୍ଗତ କରୁଛନ୍ତି । ଏହି ଧୂଆଁ କେଉଁଥ‌ିରେ ତିଆରି ଓ କିପରି ଉତ୍ପନ୍ନ ହେଉଛି ? ଶିଳ୍ପଗୁଡ଼ିକ ବାଷ୍ପ ଆବଶ୍ୟକ କରନ୍ତି ଏବଂ ଏହା ଉତ୍ପନ୍ନ କରିବାପାଇଁ ବିଭିନ୍ନ ଜାଳେଣି ଯଥା – କୋଇଲା, କୋକ୍, ଉତ୍ତପ୍ତ ତେଲ ଇତ୍ୟାଦି ଦହନ କରାଯାଏ । ଦହନ ସମୟରେ ଉତ୍ତାପ ସହିତ ଧୂଆଁ ମଧ୍ୟ ଉତ୍ପନ୍ନ ହୁଏ । ଏହି ଧୂଆଁସବୁ କୁଆଡ଼େ ଯାଏ ? ଆପାତତଃ ଅଳ୍ପ ସମୟ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ଏହା ଅଦୃଶ୍ୟ ହୋଇଯାଏ; କିନ୍ତୁ ବାସ୍ତବରେ ତାହା ହୁଏ ନାହିଁ । ତା’ ବଦଳରେ ଏହା ବାୟୁମଣ୍ଡଳର ବାୟୁରେ ମିଶିଯାଏ ଓ ଏହାକୁ ଦୂଷିତ କରେ । ଆମେ ଏହି ବିରକ୍ତିକର ବାଷ୍ପ, ପାଉଁଶ ଓ ଧୂଳିକଣା ଥ‌ିବା ପ୍ରଦୂଷିତ ବାୟୁକୁ ନିଃଶ୍ୱାସପ୍ରଶ୍ଵାସରେ ଗ୍ରହଣ କରୁ । ଆମ ଅଜ୍ଞାତରେ ଆମ ଫୁସ୍‌ଫୁସ୍ ଏହି ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣକାରୀ ଉପାଦାନଗୁଡ଼ିକର ଆବର୍ଜନା ଗଦାରେ ପରିଣତ ହୁଏ ।

Para: Thermal power stations are rated the first among the industries that discharge high amounts of smoke and ash. Other significant industries contributing to air pollution are cement, steel and ore processing industries. Some of the chemical industries also release toxic fumes into the air, along with the smoke.

ଅନୁବାଦ : ଅଧ‌ିକ ପରିମାଣର ଧୂଆଁ ଓ ପାଉଁଶ ଛାଡୁଥ‌ିବା ଶିଳ୍ପମାନଙ୍କ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ତାପଜ ବିଦ୍ୟୁତ୍ କେନ୍ଦ୍ରଗୁଡ଼ିକ ପ୍ରଥମଶ୍ରେଣୀ ଅନ୍ତର୍ଭୁକ୍ତ । ଅନ୍ୟାନ୍ୟ ଉଲ୍ଲେଖଯୋଗ୍ୟ ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣ କରୁଥିବା ଶିଳ୍ପଗୁଡ଼ିକ ହେଉଛି ସିମେଣ୍ଟ, ଇସ୍ପାତ ଏବଂ ଧାତୁପିଣ୍ଡ ପ୍ରକ୍ରିୟାକରଣ ଶିଳ୍ପ । କେତେକ ରାସାୟନିକ ଶିଳ୍ପ ମଧ ବାୟୁ ଭିତରକୁ ଧୂଆଁ ସହିତ ବିଷାକ୍ତ ବାଷ୍ପ ଛାଡ଼ିଥାଆନ୍ତି ।

Para: Automobile exhausts are in no way less dangerous than industrial smoke. It is reported that automobiles in Greater Kolkata alone spew about 1500 tonnes of pollutants into the atmosphere every day. It is stated that a person living in Kolkata, whether he is a smoker or not, is forced to inhale toxic substances equivalent to smoking two packets of cigarettes a day. The level of pollution in cities like Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai are equally alarming. To meet the demands of an exploding population, the number of buses plying on the roads are being increased. Equally a greater number of lorries and other goods carriers are on the move.

Along with heavy vehicles, the use of cars, jeeps and two-wheelers such as bikes, scooters and mopeds has increased dramatically – all contributing to significant levels of air pollution. Automobiles are responsible for 60 per cent of air pollution in various parts of the world as they release maximum carbon monoxide into the atmosphere. The menace of air pollution attributed to automobile exhausts has now reached the peak level and if this trend continues, we may have to wear nasal filters on our noses in future.

ନୁହନ୍ତି । ସୂଚନା ମିଳେ ଯେ କେବଳ ବୃହତ୍ କୋଲ୍‌କାତା ସହରରେ ଗାଡ଼ିମଟରଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଦୈନିକ ୧୫୦୦ ଟନ୍‌ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣକାରୀ ପଦାର୍ଥ ବାୟୁମଣ୍ଡଳକୁ ନିର୍ଗତ କରିଥା’ନ୍ତି । । କୋଲକାତାରେ ବାସ କରୁଥିବା ଜଣେ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି ଧୂମପାନକାରୀ ହୋଇଥାଉ ବା ନ ହୋଇଥାଉ, ସେ ଦୈନିକ ଦୁଇ ପ୍ୟାକେଟ୍ ସିଗାରେଟ୍ ପାନ କରିବା ସହ ସମପରିମାଣର ବିଷାକ୍ତ ବାଷ୍ପ ପ୍ରଶ୍ଵାସରେ ନେବାକୁ ବାଧ୍ୟ ହୋଇଥାଏ ବୋଲି କୁହାଯାଏ । ଦିଲ୍ଲୀ, ମୁମ୍ବାଇ ଓ ଚେନ୍ନାଇ ସହରଗୁଡ଼ିକର ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣ ସ୍ତର ସମାନ ହାରରେ ବିପଜ୍ଜନକ । ବିସ୍ଫୋରିତ ଜନସଂଖ୍ୟାର ଚାହିଦା ପୂରଣ କରିବାକୁ ରାସ୍ତାରେ ଚଳାଚଳ କରୁଥିବା ବସ୍ ସଂଖ୍ୟା ମଧ୍ୟ ବଢୁଛି । ସମ ପରିମାଣର ଟ୍ରକ୍, ଓ ଅନ୍ୟ ଦ୍ରବ୍ୟବାହକ ଗାଡ଼ିଗୁଡ଼ିକ ମଧ୍ୟ ଚଳାଚଳ କରୁଛି । ଭାରୀ ଯାନ ସହିତ କାର୍, ଜିପ୍, ବାଇକ୍ ସ୍ଫୁଟର ଓ ମୋପେଡ୍ ପରି ଦୁଇଚକିଆ ଯାନ ଚଳାଚଳ ଅତି ନାଟକୀୟ ଭାବରେ ବୃଦ୍ଧି ପାଇଛି । ଏସବୁ ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣକୁ ଏକ ଗୁରୁତ୍ଵପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ସ୍ତରରେ ପହଞ୍ଚାଇବାରେ ସହାୟକ ହୋଇଛି । ପୃଥ‌ିବୀର ବିଭିନ୍ନ ପ୍ରାନ୍ତରେ ୬୦ ପ୍ରତିଶତ ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣ ପାଇଁ ଯାନବାହନଗୁଡିକ ଦାୟୀ ଯେହେତୁ ସେଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଯଥେଷ୍ଟ ପରିମାଣର କାର୍ବନ ମନୋକ୍ସାଇଡ଼ ବାଷ୍ପ ବାୟୁମଣ୍ଡଳକୁ ନିର୍ଗତ କରିଥା’ନ୍ତି । ଯାନବାହନର ନିଷ୍କାସିତ ଧୂମ ହେତୁ ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣର ବିପଦ ଏବେ ଶୀର୍ଷ ସ୍ତରରେ ପହଞ୍ଚିଛି ଏବଂ ଯଦି ଏହି ଗରିମା ରାଇ ରବେ ତେବେ ଆମକ ହୁଏତ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ ଅନନାସିକ ଛଣା ଯନ୍ତ୍ରସବ ନାକରେ ପିନ୍ଧିବାକୁ ପଡ଼ିପାରେ ।

Para: The damage caused by pollution is enormous. In money alone, it represents a loss of billions of dollars each year. Many flower and vegetable crops suffer ill effects from car exhaust gases. Trees have been killed by pollution from power plants. Cattle have been poisoned by the fumes from smelters and recover aluminium from ore. Air pollution causes rubber tyres on automobiles to crack and become porous. Fine buildings become shabby, their walls blackened with soot that has settled on them. Building surfaces may actually deteriorate because of air pollution.

ଅନୁବାଦ : ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣଦ୍ୱାରା ହେଉଥ‌ିବା କ୍ଷତି ଅତି ବ୍ୟାପକ । କେବଳ ଟଙ୍କା ଆକାରରେ ପ୍ରତିବର୍ଷ ନିୟୁତ ନିୟୁତ ସଂଖ୍ୟକ ଡଲାର କ୍ଷତି ହେଉଛି । କାର ନିଃସୃତ ବାଷ୍ପଗୁଡ଼ିକର ଖରାପ ପ୍ରଭାବରେ ଅନେକ ଫୁଲ ଓ ପରିବା ଫସଲ କ୍ଷତିଗ୍ରସ୍ତ ହୁଏ । ବିଦ୍ୟୁତ୍ ଉତ୍ପାଦନ କେନ୍ଦ୍ରରୁ ଉତ୍ପନ୍ନ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣଦ୍ୱାରା ଗଛଗୁଡ଼ିକ ମରି ଯାଉଛନ୍ତି । ଧାତୁ ଦ୍ରାବକଶାଳାରୁ ଓ ଧାତୁପିଣ୍ଡରୁ ଆଲୁମିନିୟମ୍ ପ୍ରସ୍ତୁତି ସମୟରେ ନିର୍ଗତ ବାଷ୍ପଦ୍ବାରା ଗୋରୁଗାଈଗୁଡ଼ିକ ବିଷକ୍ରିୟାଦ୍ୱାରା କ୍ଷତିଗ୍ରସ୍ତ ହେଉଛନ୍ତି । ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣ ମୋଟରଗାଡ଼ିର ରବର ଟାୟାରଗୁଡ଼ିକରେ ସଂକୀର୍ଣ୍ଣ ଫାଟ ସୃଷ୍ଟି କରେ ଓ ସେଗୁଡ଼ିକ ସଚ୍ଛିଦ୍ର ହୋଇଯାଏ । ସୁନ୍ଦର ସୁନ୍ଦର କୋଠାବାଡ଼ିଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଅପରିଷ୍କାର ହୋଇଯାଏ, ସେଗୁଡ଼ିକର କାନ୍ଥ ସେଥ‌ିରେ ବସିଯାଇଥବା ଅଳନ୍ଧୁଦ୍ବାରା କଳା ପଡ଼ିଯାଏ । ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣ ହେତୁ କୋଠା ଚଟାଣସବୁ ବାସ୍ତବରେ କ୍ଷତିଗ୍ରସ୍ତ ହୋଇପାରେ ।

Para: But the high cost of air pollution is most strikingly illustrated in its damaging effects on the human body. Air pollution causes eye irritations, scratchy throats, and respiratory illnesses. It also contributes to a number of serious diseases. In both the United States and Europe, periods of high levels of air pollution were linked to an increased number of deaths.

ଅନୁବାଦ : କିନ୍ତୁ ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣର ବଡ଼ କ୍ଷତିଭାବେ ମଣିଷ ଶରୀର ଉପରେ ପକାଉଥ‌ିବା ଖରାପ ପ୍ରଭାବକୁ ଅତି ବିସ୍ମୟକର ଭାବରେ ବର୍ଣ୍ଣନା କରାଯାଏ । ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣ ଚକ୍ଷୁ ପ୍ରଦାହ, ଗଳା କର୍କଶତା ଓ ଶ୍ଵାସକ୍ରିୟାଜନିତ ଅସୁସ୍ଥତା ସୃଷ୍ଟି କରାଇଥାଏ । ଏହା ମଧ୍ୟ ଅନେକ ପ୍ରକାରର ଗୁରୁତର ରୋଗ ସୃଷ୍ଟି କରାଏ । ଉଭୟ ସଂଯୁକ୍ତ ରାଷ୍ଟ୍ର ଏବଂ ଇଉରୋପରେ ଉଚ୍ଚ ସ୍ତରର ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣ ସମୟରେ ମୃତ୍ୟୁସଂଖ୍ୟା ମଧ୍ୟ ବୃଦ୍ଧି ପାଇଥିଲା ।

Para: Much direct harm is done by air pollution. Scientists are alarmed because the amounts of gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in our atmosphere are increasing. These gases tend to trap the tradition that reaches the earth from the sun and as a consequence of which the atmosphere could become warmer. This process would eventually lead to global warming.

ଅନୁବାଦ : ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣଦ୍ୱାରା ବହୁ ପରିମାଣର ପ୍ରତ୍ୟକ୍ଷ କ୍ଷତି ଘଟୁଛି । ବୈଜ୍ଞାନିକମାନେ ସତର୍କ ହୋଇଯାଇଛନ୍ତି କାରଣ ଆମ ବାୟୁମଣ୍ଡଳରେ ଅଙ୍ଗାରକାମ୍ଳ, ମିଥେନ୍ ଏବଂ ନାଇଟ୍ରସ୍ ଅକ୍‌ସାଇଡ୍ ଭଳି ବାଷ୍ପଗୁଡ଼ିକର ପରିମାଣ ବୃଦ୍ଧି ପାଇବାରେ ଲାଗିଛି । ଏହି ବାଷ୍ପଗୁଡ଼ିକ ପୃଥ‌ିବୀରେ ପହଞ୍ଚିଥ‌ିବା ସୂର୍ଯ୍ୟଙ୍କ ବିକିରଣକୁ ଧରି ରଖେ ଏବଂ ଯାହାଫଳରେ କି ବାୟୁମଣ୍ଡଳ ଅଧିକ ଉତ୍ତପ୍ତ ହୋଇଯାଇପାରେ । ଏହି ପ୍ରକ୍ରିୟା ଶେଷ ପରିଣତି ବିଶ୍ବ ତାପନ ଅବସ୍ଥା ଆଡ଼କୁ ନେଇଯିବ ।

Para: Scientists have been concerned, too, about the widespread use of a substance that may destroy the atmospheric layer that protects us from harmful kinds of solar energy. This substance belongs to a group of chemicals and chlorofluorocarbons. It is used as a refrigerant and a cleaner and was once widely used in spray cans.

ଅନୁବାଦ : ବୈଜ୍ଞାନିକମାନେ ମଧ୍ୟ ଗୋଟିଏ ଉପାଦାନର ବ୍ୟାପକ ବ୍ୟବହାର ବିଷୟରେ ଚିନ୍ତା ପ୍ରକଟ କରିଛନ୍ତି ଯାହାକି କ୍ଷତିକାରକ ସୌରଶକ୍ତିଠାରୁ ଆମକୁ ସୁରକ୍ଷା ପ୍ରଦାନ କରୁଥିବା ବାୟୁମଣ୍ଡଳୀୟ ସ୍ତରରୁ ନଷ୍ଟ କରିଦେଇପାରେ । ଏହି ଉପାଦାନ ଏକ ରାସାୟନିକ ଶ୍ରେଣୀ ଓ କ୍ଲୋରୋଙ୍ଗ୍ ରୋକାର୍ବନର ଅନ୍ତର୍ଭୁକ୍ତ । ଏହା ଏକ ଥଣ୍ଡା କରିପାରୁଥିବା ଦ୍ରବ୍ୟ ଓ ସଫା କରିପାରୁଥିବା ଦ୍ରବ୍ୟ ଭଳି ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ ଏବଂ ସିଞ୍ଚନ ପାତ୍ରରେ ବ୍ୟାପକ ଭାବରେ ଏକଦା ଏହାକୁ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଉଥିଲା ।

Para: Another concern is acid rain. This is rain or other precipitation that contains oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, along with other chemicals. Acid rain causes damage to lakes and rivers. It poisons the plants and animals that live in the water. It may also affect crops and other plants. Stone buildings and monuments and drinking water.

ଅନୁବାଦ : ଅନ୍ୟ ଏକ ଚିନ୍ତାଜନକ ବିଷୟ ହେଉଛି ଅମ୍ଳ ବୃଷ୍ଟି । ଏହା ଏକ ବୃଷ୍ଟିପାତ କିମ୍ବା ଅନ୍ୟ ଧରଣର ବୃଷ୍ଟି ଯେଉଁଥରେ ସଲଫର୍‌ ଅକ୍‌ସାଇଡ୍ ଓ ଯବକ୍ଷାରଜାନ ଅକ୍‌ସାଇଡ୍ ସହିତ ଅନ୍ୟାନ୍ୟ ରାସାୟନିକ ପଦାର୍ଥ ରହିଥାଏ । ଅମ୍ଳ ବୃଷ୍ଟି ହ୍ରଦ ତଥା ନଦୀଗୁଡ଼ିକର କ୍ଷତି ସାଧନ କରିଥାଏ । ଏହା ଜଳରେ ଥ‌ିବା ଉଭିଦ ଓ ଜୀବମାନଙ୍କୁ ବିଷକ୍ରିୟାଗ୍ରସ୍ତ କରାଏ । ଏହା ମଧ୍ଯ ଫସଲ ତଥା ଅନ୍ୟାନ୍ୟ ଉଦ୍ଭିଦ, ପ୍ରସ୍ତର ସୌଧ, ସ୍ମୃତିସୌଧ ଓ ପାନୀୟ ଜଳକୁ କ୍ଷତିଗ୍ରସ୍ତ କରାଏ ।

Para: Acid rain affects everything it falls on. The water in rivers and lakes turns acidic. For instance, in Sweden, 4000 lakes have been so severely affected that no fish has survived. It also changes the soil’s nutrient content. It washes or leaches away nutrients like potassium, calcium and magnesium from the upper layer that help trees grow. Acid rain kills large stretches of forests, leaving behind leafless skeletons of trees.

ଅନୁବାଦ : ଅମ୍ଳ ବୃଷ୍ଟି ପଡ଼ୁଥ‌ିବା ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ ଜିନିଷକୁ କ୍ଷତିଗ୍ରସ୍ତ କରାଏ । ନଦୀ ଓ ହ୍ରଦର ଜଳ ଅମ୍ଳୀୟ ହୋଇଯାଏ । ଉଦାହରଣସ୍ୱରୂପ, ସ୍ବିଡ଼େନରେ ୪୦୦୦ ହ୍ରଦ ଏତେ ପରିମାଣରେ ଗୁରୁତର କ୍ଷତିଗ୍ରସ୍ତ ହୋଇଛି ଯେ ସେଥ‌ିରେ କୌଣସି ମାଛ ବଞ୍ଚାହାନ୍ତି । ଏହା ମଧ୍ୟ ମୃତ୍ତିକାର ପୁଷ୍ଟିକର ଉପାଦାନକୁ ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତନ କରିଦିଏ । ଏହା ଉପର ସ୍ତରରେ ଥ‌ିବା ପୋଟାସିୟମ୍, କ୍ୟାଲସିୟମ୍, ମାଗ୍ନେସିୟମ୍ ଭଳି ପୁଷ୍ଟିକର ଉପାଦାନଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ଧୋଇନିଏ ଯାହାକି ଉଭିଦ ଅଭିବୃଦ୍ଧିରେ ସହାୟକ ହୋଇଥାଏ । ଅମ୍ଳ ବୃଷ୍ଟି ବିସ୍ତୀର୍ଣ୍ଣ ଅଞ୍ଚଳର ଜଙ୍ଗଲକୁ ନଷ୍ଟ କରିଦିଏ, କେବଳ ପଛରେ ଛାଡ଼ିଯାଏ ପତ୍ରଶୂନ୍ୟ ବୃକ୍ଷସମୂହ ।

Para: When forests begin to die, the animals and birds in those forests follow. Among the growing list of species threatened by acid rain are the Pied Flycatcher and Apollo Butterfly in Sweden. The Dipper fish has vanished from the river of Central Wales, and the Brown Trout from Norwegian lakes. The list goes on.

ଅନୁବାଦ : ଜଙ୍ଗଲଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଶେଷ ହେବା ଆରମ୍ଭ କଲେ, ସେହି ଜଙ୍ଗଲଗୁଡ଼ିକର ପଶୁପକ୍ଷୀଙ୍କ ପାଳି ତା’ ପରେ ପରେ ପଡ଼େ । ଅମ୍ଳବୃଷ୍ଟିଦ୍ୱାରା ବିପଦରେ ପଡ଼ୁଥ‌ିବା ବିଭିନ୍ନ ପ୍ରଜାତିଙ୍କର ବର୍ଣିତ ତାଲିକାରେ ଅଛନ୍ତି ସ୍ବିଡ଼େନ୍‌ର ପାଏଡ୍ ଫ୍ଲାଇକ୍ୟାଚର ଓ ଆପୋଲୋ ବଟରଫ୍ଲାଏ । କେନ୍ଦ୍ରୀୟ ୱେଲ୍‌ସ୍‌ର ନଦୀରୁ ଡିପର୍ ମାଛଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଏବଂ ନରୱେ ହ୍ରଦଗୁଡ଼ିକରୁ ସାଲମନ୍‌ଜାତୀୟ ମାଛ ଅନ୍ତର୍ଦ୍ଧାନ ହୋଇଗଲେଣି । ଏହି ତାଲିକା ବଢ଼ି ବଢ଼ି ଚାଲିଛି ।

Para: What about our health? Acid rain irritates the sensitive tissues of our eyes and lungs, particularly in children. It can also cause skin lesions.

ଅନୁବାଦ : ଆମ ସ୍ୱାସ୍ଥ୍ୟ ବିଷୟରେ କ’ଣ କହିବା ? ଅମ୍ଳବୃଷ୍ଟି ଆମ ଆଖୁ ସମ୍ବେଦନଶୀଳ ଟିସୁ ଓ ଫୁସ୍‌ଫୁସ୍‌ ବିଶେଷକରି ଶିଶୁମାନଙ୍କ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ ଅସ୍ବସ୍ଥ କରିପକାଏ । ଏହା ମଧ୍ୟ ଚର୍ମକ୍ଷତ ସୃଷ୍ଟି କରିପାରେ ।

Para: Living being apart, even buildings are not spared. In Poland, the beautiful old buildings of Karkow are slowly being destroyed by acidic smog. In Athens, a city which is highly polluted, acid rain is eating into the marble of its world-famous monuments. Experts say that more damage has been done in the past 25 years than in the previous 2000!

ଅନୁବାଦ : ଜୀବନ୍ତ ପ୍ରାଣୀମାନଙ୍କ ବ୍ୟତୀତ, ଏପରିକି କୋଠାଗୁଡ଼ିକ ବାଦ୍ ପଡ଼ନ୍ତି ନାହିଁ । ପୋଲାଣ୍ଡରେ ଅମ୍ଳଯୁକ୍ତ ଧୂମକୁହୁଡ଼ିଦ୍ୱାରା କ୍ରାକୋର ସୁନ୍ଦର ପୁରାତନ କୋଠାଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଧୀରେ ଧୀରେ ନଷ୍ଟ ହୋଇଯାଉଛି । ଅତ୍ୟ ପ୍ରଦୂଷିତ ଏଥେନ୍ସ ସହରରେ ଏହାର ପୃଥବୀପ୍ରସିଦ୍ଧ ସ୍ମୃତିସୌଧଗୁଡ଼ିକର ମାର୍ବଲ ପଥରକୁ ଅମ୍ଲବୃଷ୍ଟି ନଷ୍ଟ କରିବାରେ ଲାଗିଛି । ବିଶାରଦମାନେ କୁହନ୍ତି ଯେ ବିଗତ ୨୦୦୦ ବର୍ଷ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ହୋଇଥିବା କ୍ଷତିଠାରୁ ଗତ ୨୫ ବର୍ଷ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ଅଧୂକ କ୍ଷତି ଘଟିଛି ।

Para: There are three basic approaches to control air pollution – Preventive measures, such as changing the raw materials used in industry or the ingredients of fuel; dispersal measures such as raising the heights of smokestacks; and collection measures, such as designing equipment to trap pollutants before they escape into the atmosphere.

ଅନୁବାଦ : ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣକୁ ନିୟନ୍ତ୍ରଣ କରିବାକୁ ତିନୋଟି ପ୍ରମୁଖ ଉପାୟ ରହିଛି – ପ୍ରତିଷେଧମୂଳକ ପଦକ୍ଷେପ ଯଥା ଶିଳ୍ପରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ କଞ୍ଚାମାଲର ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତନ କିମ୍ବା ଜାଳେଣିର ଉପାଦାନଗୁଡ଼ିକର ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତନ କରିବା; ବିକ୍ଷେପଣ ପଦକ୍ଷେପ ଯଥା ଉଚ୍ଚ ଚିମିନିର ଉଚ୍ଚତା ବଢ଼ାଇବା ଏବଂ ସଂଗ୍ରହଣ ପଦକ୍ଷେପ ଯଥା ପ୍ରଦୂଷକଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ବାୟୁମଣ୍ଡଳକୁ ଚାଲିଯିବା ପୂର୍ବରୁ ଧରି ରଖିବା ନିମନ୍ତେ ଯନ୍ତ୍ରପାତି ନିର୍ମାଣ କରିବା ।

Para: Nearly, all the highly industrialized countries of the world have some type of legislation to prevent and control air pollution. One difficulty is that pollutants may be carried by the wind from one country to another, often for distances of thousands of miles. The death of lakes in eastern Canada has been caused by acid rain that originated in the United States. Acids produced in Britain and France have caused damage in Sweden.

ଅନୁବାଦ : ପ୍ରାୟତଃ ସମସ୍ତ ଶିଳ୍ପସମୃଦ୍ଧ ରାଷ୍ଟ୍ରଗୁଡ଼ିକ ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣର ନିରାକରଣ ଓ ନିୟନ୍ତ୍ରଣ କରିବାକୁ କେତେକ ପ୍ରକାର ଆଇନ ପ୍ରଣୟନ କରିସାରିଛନ୍ତି । ଗୋଟିଏ ଅସୁବିଧା ହେଉଛି ବହୁତ ସମୟରେ ହଜାର ହଜାର ମାଇଲ ଅତିକ୍ରମ କରି ପ୍ରଦୂଷକଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଗୋଟିଏ ଦେଶରୁ ଅନ୍ୟ ଏକ ଦେଶକୁ ପବନଦ୍ଵାରା ପରିବାହିତ ହୋଇଯାଆନ୍ତି । ଯୁକ୍ତରାଷ୍ଟ୍ରରେ “ଉତ୍ପତ୍ତି ହୋଇଥ‌ିବା ଅମ୍ଲବୃଷ୍ଟିଦ୍ୱାରା ପୂର୍ବ କାନାଡ଼ାର ହ୍ରଦଗୁଡ଼ିକର କଂସ ସାଧନ ଘଟିଛି । ବ୍ରିଟେନ୍ ଓ ଫ୍ରାନ୍‌ସ୍‌ରେ ସୃଷ୍ଟି ହେଉଥ‌ିବା ଅମ୍ଳଗୁଡ଼ିକ ସ୍ବିଡ଼େରେ କ୍ଷତି ସାଧନ କରିଛି ।

Para: There have been many initiatives in different countries for making laws, and setting standards and norms to check air pollution and ensure quality air. Air quality programmes have brought improvements in many areas. For example, burning low-sulphur coal and oil in factories and power plants has lowered pollution in many cities. To meet standards, automobile engines have been re-designed and new cars have been equipped with devices such as the catalytic converter which changes pollutants into harmless substances. Because of these new devices, air pollution from car exhaust has also been reduced.

ଅନୁବାଦ : ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣ ରୋକିବାକୁ ଓ ଶୁଦ୍ଧ ବାୟୁ ପାଇବାର ନିଶ୍ଚିତତା ବୃଦ୍ଧି କରିବାକୁ ବିଭିନ୍ନ ଦେଶରେ ଆଇନ ପ୍ରଣୟନ, ମାନ ଓ ସାଧାରଣ ଢାଞ୍ଚା ସ୍ଥିର କରିବା ପାଇଁ ପ୍ରାଥମିକ ପଦକ୍ଷେପମାନ ନିଆଯାଇସାରିଛି । ବାୟୁର ଗୁଣବତ୍ତା ବୃଦ୍ଧି ସମ୍ପର୍କିତ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକ୍ରମଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଅନେକ ଅଞ୍ଚଳରେ ଉନ୍ନତି ଆଣିଛି । ଉଦାହରଣସ୍ୱରୂପ, କାରଖାନାଗୁଡ଼ିକରେ ନିମ୍ନ ସଲ୍ଫର୍‌ଯୁକ୍ତ କୋଇଲା ଓ ତେଲ ଦହନଦ୍ୱାରା ଅନେକ ସହରରେ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣର ମାତ୍ରା କମିଯାଇଛି । ମାନ ବଜାୟ ରଖିବାପାଇଁ ମଟରଗାଦିର ଇଞ୍ଜିନଗଦିକ ପନଃନିର୍ମାଣ କରାଯାଇଛି ଓ ନୂତନ କାରଗୁଡ଼ିକରେ ପ୍ରତିକ୍ରିୟାହୀନ ରୁପାନ୍ତରକାରୀ ଉପକରଣ ଖଞ୍ଜାଯାଇଛି ଯାହାକି ପ୍ରଦୂଷକଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ କ୍ଷତିବିହୀନ ପଦାର୍ଥକୁ ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତିତ କରିଦେଉଛି । ଏହି ନୂତନ ଉପକରଣଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଯୋଗୁଁ କାର ନିର୍ଗମନଜନିତ ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣ ହ୍ରାସ ପାଇଛି ।

Para: It is not easy to bring about the new developments needed to control air pollution. Many – physicians, engineers, meteorologists, botanists, and others are involved in research seeking new ways. Vast sums of money will have to be spent in the future to clean the air and to keep it clean. Often pollution control means higher prices – to cover the cost of control devices in emission systems of new cars, for example. But to most people, the cost is justified. Perhaps the day will come when people everywhere can breathe pure air in cities where the sunlight is no longer blocked by an umbrella of pollution.

ଅନୁବାଦ : ବାୟୁ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣ ନିୟନ୍ତ୍ରଣ ନିମନ୍ତେ ଆବଶ୍ୟକ ନୂତନ ବିକାଶ ପ୍ରକ୍ରିୟା ଆଣିବା ଏତେ ସହଜ ନୁହେଁ । ଚିକିତ୍ସକ, ଯନ୍ତ୍ରୀ, ପାଣିପାଗ ବିଶାରଦ, ଉଭିଦ ବିଜ୍ଞାନୀ ଓ ଅନ୍ୟାନ୍ୟ ଅନେକ ଲୋକ ନୂତନ ଉପାୟମାନ ଖୋଜି ବାହାର କରିବାକୁ ଗବେଷଣାରତ ରହିଛନ୍ତି । ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ ବାୟୁକୁ ପରିଷ୍କାର କରିବାକୁ ଓ ଏହାକୁ ନିର୍ମଳ ରଖୁବାକୁ ପ୍ରଚୁର ଟଙ୍କା ଖର୍ଚ୍ଚ କରିବାକୁ ପଡ଼ିବ । ବହୁ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣ ନିୟନ୍ତ୍ରଣ ଅର୍ଥ ଅଧ‌ିକ ଅର୍ଥ ଖର୍ଚ୍ଚ – ଉଦାହରଣସ୍ୱରୂପ ନୂତନ କାରଗୁଡ଼ିକରେ ନିର୍ଗମନ ପଦ୍ଧତିରେ ସଂଯୁକ୍ତ ନିୟନ୍ତ୍ରକ ଯନ୍ତ୍ରପାତିଗୁଡ଼ିକର ଖର୍ଚ୍ଚ ଭରଣା କରିବା । କିନ୍ତୁ ଅଧିକାଂଶ ଲୋକଙ୍କ ମତ ଅନୁସାରେ ଏହି ଖର୍ଚ୍ଚ ଯୁକ୍ତିସଙ୍ଗତ । ବୋଧହୁଏ ସେହିଦିନ ଆସିବ ଯେଉଁଦିନ ସହରରେ ଲୋକମାନେ ସବୁଆଡ଼େ ଶୁଦ୍ଧ ବାୟୁ ସେବନ କରିପାରିବେ ଏବଂ ସେହି ସ୍ଥାନରେ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣ ଛତାଦ୍ବାରା ଆଉ ସୂର୍ଯ୍ୟାଲୋକ ବାଧାପ୍ରାପ୍ତ ହେବ ନାହିଁ ।

Word Meaning /Glossary:
occurred -took place
industrial -relating to industry (ଶିଳ୍ପ ସମ୍ବନ୍ଧୀୟ | ) Jagatpur is an industrial town.
tragic – sorrowful I witnessed a tragic accident on the road.
deadly – capable of causing death (ମାରାତ୍ମକ)
Union Carbide – name of an industry in Bhopal (ଭୋପାଳସ୍ଥିତ ଏକ ଶିଳ୍ପର ନାମ )
plant – factory (କାରଖାନା)
escaped – released, slipped
rendering – leaving
crucial – serious, important, vital (ଗୁରୁତ୍ୱପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ)
victim – someone who suffers as a result of something Thousands of trees have fallen victim to this disease.
surviving – those have survived (ବଞ୍ଚିରନ୍ତିଯାଇଥିବା)
is estimated – is calculated
in comparison to – relatively, comparatively (ତୁଳନାତ୍ମକ ଭାବରେ )
intake – consumption If you want to reduce your weight, you should reduce your intake of fat and alcohol.
quantum – quantity ( ପରମାଣ )
respiration – breathing (ଶ୍ଵାସକ୍ରିୟା )
polluted – Polluted water causes many diseases.
manifold – too many/much ( ଅତ୍ୟଧ୍ବକ)
comprising – act of mixing (ସମାହାର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ )
composition – mixture of gases (ଗ୍ୟାସ୍‌ଗୁଡ଼ିକର ମିଶ୍ରଣ)
altered – changed (ବଦଳିଲା)
irritating – annoying (ବିରକ୍ତି)
getsreduced – is decreased (ହ୍ରାସପାଏ, କମିଯାଏ )
inhalation – the act of breathing in (ସେବନ )
respiratory disorders – illness caused by breathing (ଶ୍ଵାସକ୍ରି ୟାଜନି ତ ଅସୁସ୍ଥତା )
by-products – a secondary product made in the manufacturing of something else ( ଉପଜାତ ଦ୍ରବ୍ୟ)
Scope – sphere of activity
in recent times – recently (ନିକଟ ଅତୀତରେ)
rural pockets – rural areas (ଗ୍ରାମାଞ୍ଚଳ ସବୁ)
fuel – fire oil (ଜାଳେଣି ତୈଳ)
garbage dump – ଅଳିଆଗଦା
ore processing- (ଧାତୁପିଣ୍ଡ ପ୍ରକ୍ରିୟାକରଣ)
pollutants – ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣକାରୀ
automobile – ମୋଟର ଗାଡ଼ି
consumed – eaten
contaminated – that has been polluted
mixture – an act of getting mixed
severity – seriousness ( ଗମ୍ଭୀରତା)
apparently – clearly ( ସ୍ପଷ୍ଟ ଭାବରେ )
in reality – obviously, truly
mingles – mixes (ମିଶିଯାଏ)
alarming – threatening The forests are disappearing at an alarming rate.
respire – breathe in and out
obnoxious – deadly poisonous (ମାରାତ୍ମକ ଭାବେ ବିଷାକ୍ତ) Our atmosphere contains some useful as well as obnoxious gases.
irritation – ରାଗ
concerned – worried (ଉଦ୍‌ବେଗ | ଚିନ୍ତା ପ୍ରକଟ କରିବା)
refrigerant – ଥଣ୍ଡା କରି ପାରୁ ଥ‌ି ଦ୍ରବ୍ୟ
manifold – of many different kinds Mobile phone has manifold advantages.
contaminated –  impure (ଦୂଷିତ) We shouldn’t eat contaminated food.
argon – chemically inactive gas (ଏକ ନିଷ୍କ୍ରିୟ ବାଷ୍ପ / ଆର୍ଗନ୍)
furnace oil – ଚୁଲି ତେଲ
severity – seriousness Everybody should realise the severity of air pollution. (ଗମ୍ଭୀରତା)
spew – throw out The industries and vehicles that spèw harmful smoke to the atmosphere. (ନିର୍ଗତ କରିବା)
disappears – vanishes (ଅଦୃଶ୍ୟ ହୁଏ)
mingles with – is mixed with (ମିଶିଯାଏ)
garbage dumps – unwanted waste leaving place (ଅଳିଆ ଫିଙ୍ଗାଯାଉଥ‌ିବା ସ୍ଥାନ)
coke – baked coal ( ପୋଡ଼ା କୋଇଲା)
exhausts – the gas or steam out of the engine of a car etc (ବାଷ୍ପ ବା ଜଳୀୟବାଷ୍ପ ). Industrial smoke and automobile exhausts pollute the environment.
plying – running (ଯାତାୟାତ|ଚଳାଚଳ କରୁଛି) Nowadays a lot of vehicles are plying on the road.
menace – threat (ଧମକ/ବିପଦ) The busy road is a menace to the children’s safety.
smelters – furnaces (ଧାତୁ ଦ୍ରାବକଶାଳା )
porous – having small holes This clay pot is porous.
chlorofluorocarbons – chemicals used for cooling in refrigerators
vast stretches of foreSts – a large cover of forests
leafless – without leaf
skeletons of trees – dead leafless trees
vast stretches of forests – a large cover of forests
leafless – without leaf
skeletons of trees – dead leafless trees
precipitation – fall of rain, snow or hail There will be precipitation on hills tonight.
leaches away – washes away The rainwater leaches away the fertilizer from the fields.
upper layer – upper surface
lesions – wounds or injuries Excessive heat of the sun in summer cause skin lesions.
smog – a mixture of smoke and fog We can see sing around the industrial areas. (ସ୍ମଗ୍ – ଧୂଆଁମିଶ୍ରିତ କୁହୁଡ଼ି)
ingredients – things used to make something Imagination and hard work are the ingredients of success.
dispersal measures – ways of scattering things (ବିକ୍ଷେପଣ ପଦକ୍ଷେପ| ବିକ୍ଷେପଣ ପଦ୍ଧତି)
smokestacks – tall chimneys that carry. smoke away from factories
trap – retain Various designed equipment that should be used to trap pollutants.
raising – increasing (ବୃଦ୍ଧି କରିବା)
designing – making especially
peak level – top level
trend – rate
nasal filters – masks that cover nostrils
legislation – a body of laws The government will introduce legislation to restrict the sale of firearms.
equipment – device
trap – catch ( ଧରିବା )
meteorologist – a person who studies weather conditions Meteorologists can forecast weather.
prevent – check (ରୋକିବା)
emission system – a system of sending out smoke (ଧୂଆଁ ନିର୍ଗମନ ପ୍ରଣାଳୀ) New devices in emission system of new cars has checked the air pollution to some extent.
lakes – natural water bodies
are involved – are engaged ( କାର୍ଯ୍ୟବ୍ୟସ୍ତ ଅଛନ୍ତି )
initiative – preliminary steps
device – tool (ଉପକରଣ )
catalytic – ଅନୁଘଟକ
physician – ଚିକିତ୍ସକ
reduce – ହ୍ରାସ କରିବା
global warming – ବିଶ୍ବ ତାପନ/ବିଶ୍ଵ ଉଷ୍ମାୟନ global warming
the vast sum of money – a lot of money
soot – black powder produced from fuels
sensitive – easily feeling pain
thermal – relating to heat Thermal clothes are specially designed to keep the boy warm.
chemical industries – industries concerned with chemistry
toxic fumes – harmful gases (କ୍ଷତି କାରକ ଗ୍ୟାସ୍ )
atmosphere – ବାୟୁମଣ୍ଡଳ
smoker – one who smokes tabacco (ଯେ ଧୂମପାନ କରେ)
forced – bound (ବାଧ୍ୟ ହେବା )
exploding population – growing population
exhaust – going out smoke from an engine (ଇଞ୍ଜିନ୍‌ରୁ ବହିର୍ଗତ ଧୂଆଁ)
processing – taking a series of actions for a result (ପ୍ରକ୍ରିୟାକରଣ )
moped – a two-wheeler having no gear system
botanist – a person who studies the life of plants ( ଉଭିଦବିଜ୍ଞାନୀ)
discharge – release, allow leaving (ତ୍ଯାଗ କରେ)
equivalent – equal to (ସମାନ)
level – rate (ସ୍ତର)
exploding population – steep rise in population (ଜନସଂଖ୍ୟାର ଦ୍ରୁତ)
attributed – held responsible
continues – persists (ଚାଲୁ ରହେ)
nasal – relating to the nose
billions – a thousand millions
shabby – dirty ( ଅପରିଷ୍କାର )
deteriorate – worsen (ଖରାପ କରିବା)
surfaces – upper parts
strikingly illustrated – beautifully explained
damaging effects – ନଷ୍ଟକାରୀ ପ୍ରଭାବସବୁ
eye irritation – pain related to the eyes
scartchy throat – pain related to throat ( ତଣ୍ଟି ଯନ୍ତ୍ରଣା)
linked to – connected to (ସମ୍ପର୍କିତ)
alarmed – terrified (ଆତଙ୍କିତ)
eventually – finally (ଶେଷରେ)
solar energy – the energy of the sun (ସୌରଶକ୍ତି)

## CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 8 Application of Derivatives Ex 8(e)

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 8 Application of Derivatives Ex 8(e) Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

## CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 8 Application of Derivatives Exercise 8(e)

Question 1.
Determine the differentials in each of the following cases.
(i) y = x3 – 1
Solution:
y= x3 – 1
Then dy = 3x2 dx

(ii) y = sin2 x
Solution:
y = sin2 x
Then dy = 2 sin x cos x dx = sin 2x dx

(iii) y = $$\frac{1+\sqrt{x}}{1-\sqrt{x}}$$
Solution:

(iv) z = cos 2t – 2 cot t
Solution:
z = cos 2t – 2 cot t
dz = (-2 sin 2t + 2 cosec2 t) dt

(v) r = $$\frac{4}{1+\sin \theta}$$
Solution:
r = $$\frac{4}{1+\sin \theta}$$
dz = $$\frac{-4 \cos \theta}{(1+\sin \theta)^2}$$ . dθ
= $$-\frac{4 \cos \theta}{(1+\sin \theta)^2}$$ dθ

(vi) x2y = 2
Solution:
⇒ y = $$\frac{2}{x^2}$$
dy = $$\frac{4}{x^3}$$

(vii) xy2 + yx2 = 1
Solution:
⇒ dx . y2 + x . 2y dy + dy . x2 + y . 2x dx = 0
⇒ (2 xy + x2) dy = – (y2 + 2xy) dx
⇒ dy = –$$\frac{y^2+2 x y}{x^2+2 x y}$$dx

Question 2.
Find δf and df when
(i) f(x) = 2x2 – 1, x = 1, δx = 0.02
Solution:
f(x) = 2x2 – 1, x = 1, δx = 0.02
Then δf = f(x + δx) – f(x)
= f(1.02) – f(1)
= 2 (1.02)2 – 1 – (2 – 1)
= 2.0808 – 2 = 0.0808
Again df = 4x dx
= 4 × 1 × 0.02 = 0.08

(ii) f(x) = √x, x = 16, δx = 0.3
Solution:
f(x) = √x, x = 16, δx = 0.3

(iii) f(x) = (x + 1)3, x = 8, δx = 0.04
Solution:
f(x) = (x + 1)3, x = 8, δx = 0.04
δf = f(x + δx) – f(x)
= (9.04)3 – (8 +1)3
= (9.04)3 – 93 = 9.7632
Again df = 3(x + 1)2 dx = 3 × 92 × 0.04
= 243 × 0.04 = 9.72

(iv) f(x) = In (1 + x), x = 1, δx = 0.04
Solution:
f(x) = In (1 + x), x = 1, δx = 0.04
δf = f(x + 8x) – f(x)
= In (1 + x + 5x) – ln (1 + x)
= In (2.04) – In (2) = 0.0198
Again df = $$\frac{1}{1+x}$$dx = $$\frac{1}{2}$$ × 0.04 = 0.02

Question 3.
Find approximate values of the following:
(i) $$\sqrt[3]{28}$$
Solution:

(ii) $$\sqrt[6]{63}$$
Solution:

(iii) $$\sqrt{48 \cdot 96}$$
Solution:

(iv) (1.99)7
Solution:
Let y = x7
Then dy = 7x6 dx
⇒ δy = 7x6 δx
⇒ (x + δx)7 – x7 = 7x6 δx
(x + δx)7 = x7 + 7x6 δx
Put x = 2 and δx = -0.01
Then (1.99)7 = 27 – 7 × 26 × 0.01
= 128 – 7 × 64 × 0.01
= 128 – 4.48 = 123.52

(v) 23.02
Solution:
Let y = 2x
Then dy = 2x In 2 dx
⇒ δy = 2x In 2 . δx
⇒ 2x + δx – 2x = 2x In 2 . δx
⇒ 2x + δx = 2x + 2x In 2 δx
Then 23.02 = 23 + 23 In 2 × 0.02
= 8 + 8 In 2 × 0.02 = 8.1109

(vi) sin 59°
Solution:
Let y = sin x
Then dy = cos x dx ⇒ δy = cos x . δx
⇒ sin (x + δx) – sin x = cos x × δx
⇒ sin (x + δx) = sin x + cos x × δx
Put x = 60°, δx = -1°
Then sin 59° = sin 60° + cos 60° x – $$\frac{\pi}{180}$$
$$\frac{\sqrt{3}}{2}$$ – $$\frac{1}{2}$$ × $$\frac{\pi}{180}$$
[ ∵ 1° = $$\frac{\pi}{180}$$ radian = 0.85729

Question 4.
find the percentage of error in calculation of the surface area of a spherical balloon of diameter 14.02 m. if the true diameter is 14m.
Solution:
Let S be the surface area of a spherical balloon of radius V.
Then S = 4πr2
Then dS = 8πr dr

Question 5.
Find approximately the difference between the volumes of two cubes of sides 3 cm and 3.04 cm.
Solution:
Let V be the volume of a cube of side x cm.
Then V = x3 ⇒ dV = 3x2 dx
Here x = 3 cm and dx = (3.04 – 3) cm = 0.04 cm
Thus dV = 3 × 9 × 0.04 = 1.08 cm3
∴ Difference of two volumes is 1.08 cm3.

Question 6.
The height of a regular cone is 3 times the radius of its base. The radius of the base was wrongly measured to be 5 cm. whereas its true radius is 4.88 cm. Find the relative error in measuring the curved surface area of the cone.
Ans.
Consider a regular cone of height h and radius of its base x.
Then h = 3x.
If S is the area of the curved surface of the cone
then S = πxl
Where l is the slant height of the cone.

= 0.049

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## CHSE Odisha Class 11 Political Science Unit 1 Understanding Political Theory Long Answer Questions

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Political Science Solutions Unit 1 Understanding Political Theory Long Answer Questions.

## CHSE Odisha 11th Class Political Science Unit 1 Understanding Political Theory Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
Define politics and discuss its nature. Or, Explain the meaning and nature of politics?
‘Politics’ today has been more frequently used than that of political science. In most of the universities of the USA and UK, the department of political science is renamed as a department of politics.

The term ‘politics’ has been derived from the Greek word ‘polis’ which means the a days, politics is the central concept of the socio-political system. No one can avoid politics, as it encompasses different aspects of social, and political life. An individual today encounters politics in family, village, school, college, town, religious institution, business organization and human organizations.

Definition :
Scholars define politics in different ways. According to the Oxford English Dictionary politics is a science and art of government which deals with the organization of the state and the regulation of its relationship with other states.

Lasswell says politics is the study of influence and influential. David Easton defines politics as the authoritative allocation of values in society, and these values here mean material resources.

Butter says, politics is concerned with the people. It studies about their behaviour and support or reactions to decisions. Politics is a struggle for power to make authoritative decisions. It establishes a relationship between the government and every individual who seeks to maximize his interest best.

In the process, people fight with one another and make use of power and influence to realize their goals. In society, it is not possible for every individual to attain his goal and for the purpose he may have to enter into a conflict with others. To come out victorious in all such conflicts individuals use force and power. Thus, whenever people make use of power to achieve their goal in any conflicting situation it is called politics.

Nature :

• Politics is a social process, concerned with social conflicts and rivalry.
• It is a universal activity found everywhere and in every now and then.
• It is found in every organization and group activity, whether government or non-government, public or private. Political or non-political.
• Politics is based on morality. It seeks to establish an ideal society or state for the well-being of individuals.
• Politics is a struggle for power in a society where actors compete for power to maximize their gain.
• Politics seeks to resolve conflicts, bring peace and order and promote cooperation with the members of society.

Question 2.
Distinguish between politics and political science. Or, Make a comparison between politics and political science?
Politics and political science the two terms have been derived from the same Greek word ‘polis’ that refers to the study of city-states in Greece. Both are social sciences dealing with individuals in society.

These two terms have been used interchangeably since the ancient era, but with the development of the concept of power, scholars started distinguishing between the two terms. In the modem age today, politics deals with power, conflict, political process and decision-making in controversial situations. But political science is the study of origin nature, structure and functions of state and government.

What is politics :
Politics is a socio-political concept associated with human organizations. Individual is the centre of politics. When every individual tries to protect and promote his interest he is likely to enter into a conflict with others. This conflict is a vital factor of politics. To resolve this conflict individuals accumulate and make use of power. Those who use it most proficiently they can safeguard their goal better.

Thus politics possesses three elements. Conflict, interest and power. It is a struggle for realise of interest in a conflicting situation
using power. Where there is conflict there is politics. Power is the epicentre of politics. So, people in society in to acquire and accumulate power and to use it to maximize one’s goals. Politics is always just and it promotes social welfare.

Politics is the study of power and influence. It believes in effective decision-making in any situation of conflict whereby social stability is maintained. Politics is a competition for power. Hence everybody tries to win. The political parties contest in elections to capture the power and this in politics.

Politics can be formal or informal when it is concerned with the formation of govt, a political party or policy-making it is formal politics. But informal politics is concerned with formation of alliances, use of power and the spread of ideology.

Political science :
Political science on the other hand is a science of state and government. It deals with the origin, nature, and basic principles of state and government. It also discusses about political theory, political philosophy, and government and individual state relationships.
The distinction between politics and political science may be analysed below.

Political science is the theoretical aspect of politics while politics is the reality. Political science is a science but politics is an art.

A student of political science undertakes a study of the origin, nature & development of state and government, the purpose and functions of the state. The goal of political science is to make men happy. But politics refers to the study of conflicts and controversy arising among groups of the political process.

The purpose of politics is to resolve social-political conflicts and to bring order and cooperation among people. The study of politics is universal and it touches everybody but study of political science is confined to educational institutions only.

Those concerned with political science are known as political thinkers or philosophers, but those dealing with politics are political leaders and statements. Political science undertakes a study of nature’s arid types of power but politics falls about the accumulation & use of power.

Politics is the realistic or behavioural dimension of political science. It is a factual and goal-oriented study. Political science is imaginary, ideological and based on value premises. The scope of politics and political science may not be completely separate but each of them has its own identity.

Question 3.
Examine the characteristics and features of politics, Politics has been a natural and essential aspect of social life. Discuss?
Politics is a universal activity and there can be no society without politics. Therefore an individual encounters, politics in his village, family, town, schools, colleges, hospitals, temples, churches and in every social human organization.

Politics is associated with conflict, struggle, rivalry, cooperation and social integration. It seeks to promote the general good catlin says, politics is the study of organized human society and it deals primarily with the political aspects of the life of a community. When people express divergent views on any public issue it is called politics.

Morgenthau regards it as a struggle for power. It establishes a formal relationship between the people and the government. It influences policymaking both in positive and negative ways. The poor consider it as a struggle between power holders but the rich regard it ‘ as a source of social unity.
Characteristics :
The basic features of politics can be discussed below:

• Politics is concerned with socio-political disputes and conflicts. It cannot exist with conflict or controversy.
• It is a universal activity and people from all walks of life and involved in it
• Politics is concerned with government and the working of various organs of government.
• Power is the essence of politics. It seeks to maximize one’s power states to win over the opponents.
• Politics Organize conflicting claims and then by use of power resolve those conflicts.
• Politics is associated with the decision-making process.
• Politics believes in die study of the political process, which. means the study of public administration, election, political parties, pressure groups, laws making processes and administration of justice as well.
• Politics is an art whereby one group tries to achieve its goal against all others by using any means possible.
• Politics believes in bringing order out of disorder by resolving all issues, crises and conflicts arising between individuals and groups in social, and political life.
• Politics is also related to the distribution of material resources. Social economic privileges and opportunities.

Question 4.
Explain the meaning and scope of politics?
The term ‘politics’ has been derived from the Greek word ‘polis’ which means the affairs of city-states. Aristotle was the first scholar to use the word politics, but scholars define it in their own way.

Traditional thinkers define politics as a socio-political process which promotes the public welfare. It gives more importance to the study of government and administration than that of individuals.

But, modem scholars consider politics as a study of conflicts. Rivalry and struggle in society. People living in society fight for their interests. The resources and opportunities are limited and they try to realize their interest by imposing power and influence. The study of this situation of conflict and cooperation in society and polity is known as politics.
Elements of politics :

• Interest or goal,
• Conflict over interest and
• use of power, are the true element of politics.

In every society, the goals of individuals are divergent. When two or more individuals go for the same interest it leads to conflict. To overcome this conflict individuals capture power and use it for the realization of their interests. Politics found everywhere, in society, in state and in the international sphere.

Scope of politics: The scope of politicsmay be explained below:
Study of society :
Politics is a social process and their can be no politics outside society. It deals with all situations of conflict and cooperation between individuals, groups and organizations and its mission is to resolve them.

Study of government :
The organs of government like the executive, legislature and judiciary are the main area of study in politics. Politics also studies policy making under crucial situations.

Study of power:
Power is the very basis of politics. Watkins says, not state but power is the centre of politics. It sheds light on the process of accumulation and exercise of power, sharing of power etc. those who can make the best use of power in any controversy or crisis they become victorious. Therefore, Morgenthau calls politics as a struggle for power.

Study on conflict and rivalry :
Politics seeks to study about social conflicts disputes and struggles over self-interests. Conflicts arise over self-interests. Conflicts arise over the distribution of power and socio-economic opportunities and resolving those peacefully is the prime concern of politics.

Study of the political process :
Political process refers to the formation of political parties, groups, elections, campaigns, government formation, decision-making, and performance of welfare. functions, a study of the law-making process, running of administration, adjudication etc. This is a never-ending process whereby all divergent views are resolved and social stability is maintained.

Study of the political system :
Politics is concerned with the study of the political system. The apolitical system comprises of the people. The government, the political parties. The groups, the executive, the religlatiure, the judiciary the people the political and non-political organizations and the disputes arising among them. Politics seeks to bring cooperation among rivals and discipline among warring groups.

Politics is concerned with leaders and their leadership qualities. The decisions taken by a lender in a crucial situation, his behaviour, temperament, attitude, reactions, likings and disliking, etc. are vital aspects of politics. The ability of a leader in realising his goals is an important aspect of politics.

Study of political reality :
Politics is always objective. It is concerned with the present social system, society-state relationships, group activity and with other sociopolitical organizations. It undertakes a realistic study as to resolve the crises and restore stability.

Besides, politics also undertakes a study of the international system. UNO, war and peace, inter-state rivalry, friendship, cooperation, terrorism, poverty, environmental concerns, human rights issues, etc.

It is also related to local government, group activity, communal tension, regional issues, the Caste system and the like. It is much broader in scope and all tissues facing mankind are the subject matter of politics.

Question 5.
Discuss the meaning of politics from traditional and modern points of view?
‘Politics’ has become a natural and essential aspect of our social life. There can be no society without politics. An individual encounters politics in the village, in schools, colleges, towns, cities, hospitals, offices and in the government. As a universal activity it is closely linked with human existence. With the passage of time, everyone is becoming more and more political and all the aspects of human life is becoming free from state intervention.

Meaning:
“The Oxford dictionary defines politics as “a science and art of government which deals with the organization of state regulation of its relationship with other states.

Catlin links politics with the activities of an organized human society. He says, “Politics is the study of organized human society and it deals primarily with the political aspects of the life of the community.

Lasswell says, “Politics is the study of influence and influential.” David Easton defines politics as the ‘ study of the authoritative allocation of values as it is influenced by the distribution and use of power.

Thus everyone has tired to define politics in one’s own way, but there is no consensus. We can examine the traditional and modem view of politics below.

• Philosophical,
• Institutional view
• Legalistic view.

Philosophical view:
The philosophical view is the oldest view of politics which includes all aspects of a person’s political activities. It regards ethics as the basis of politics. It aims to set up a good and just society and to end the evils of society. The Greek thinkers regard it as an all-embracing activity covering all aspects of human life.

Institutional view :
This view lays stress on formal aspects of formal political structures and processes. Van Dyke, an exponent of this approach has said that the study of politics is the study of govt. And its related institutions.

Legalistic view :
It stresses on the study of legal issues it emphasizes that the activities of the state must be in accordance with constitutional laws and based c proper interpretation and . execution of laws. Politics is a game of law-abiding political actors.

The traditional view of politics neglects individual and international politics. It has failed to study the role of violence in politics.

Modern view of politics :
This view is given by the anglo American scholars and, Marxists. Basically, there are two views on politics. Politics and society are inseparable politics is a conflict for power and those who win it try to capture more and more power and to control the rest in society.

The second view regards politics as not as a conflict, but a cooperation which seeks to bring order and justice. It helps in maintaining collective interests and the common good against private interest.

The poor ones consider it as a conflict while the rich as a useful weapon for maintaining order.
Marxist view :
The Marxist scholar defines politics as a conflict between the haves and have-nots in society. This is a continuous process which will continue till the non-privileged section able to win and establish a class-less society.

Anglo-American view :
According to this view, political conflict is a part of human society. It is an activity which is linked with groups which have shared desires and who are ready to fight for their goal.

Quincy Wright says “Politics is the art of manipulation and group controlling and influencing others with a view to promoting some interests against others.

Politics revolves around the concept of power, Lasswell and Kaplan define it as “the study of shaping and sharing of power.” According to Morgenthau, “Politics is the struggle for power and the art of maintaining and retaining power.

” Power is the basis of all politics and study of politics is the study of power and power of the influence and influential. In the words of David Easton, “Politics is the authoritative allocation of values and it is influenced by the distribution and use of power.

Politics in the modem age is regarded as an interaction of all political activities and formal governmental institutions; It is a process by which policies are formulated and executed. It is a game of having maximum resources under disposal and for that each adopts several strategies tp get the decision in his favour.

Question 6.
Define Political theory and discuss its nature, Narrate the meaning and features of political theory. Narrate the meaning and features of political theory?
Political theory is a part and parcel of political science. It deals not only with state or government but also with all other power-based organizations. Political theory undertakes the study of the origin, elements, future, problems and prospects of any-political event or issue. Political theory has two dimensions

It stands for the history of political ideas, such as Plata’s theory of justice, Hobbes’s sovereignty and Hegel’s theory of the state. From a modem point of view, the political theory deals with the political behaviour of both individual actors and political institutions like the executive, legislature and judiciary.

Political theory deals with the ideas and principles that shape constitutions governments and social life a systematic way. It makes us clear about our understanding of the concepts of freedom, equality, justice, democracy, secularism, etc. Besides’ examining arguments it reflects upon our current political experiences and indicates future trends.

Characteristics or features :
The fundamental characteristics or features of pol ideal theory can be stated below. Political theory deals with political concepts or ideas and it interprets them and indicates about their future. The political theory explains the factors behind every concept.

It unravels the truth and tries to realize the goal. Political theory is based on facts. It is universal and functions irrespective of time and place.

Political theory is based on mortality and this nature is found in classical theory. Theory develops out of issues, crises and situations. It is created out of social traditions, experiences of the people and general consciousness of society. It is not imaginary or speculative.

The political theory makes people conscious about politics. Political system political events.Concepts and sharpens our ideas and understanding about politics.

Question 7.
Explain the relevance of studying political theory Or, Describe the need for study of political theory Or, and Why should we study political theory?
The term theory has been derived from the Greek word ’theoria’ which means deep thinking on any issue. Political theory is a part of social science that deals with state government and other political concepts. Political theory has three aspects.

• It is based on facts and evidence.
• There are factors or reasons behind every concept or argument.
• It is concerned with the well-being of the state and society.

Functions :
Political theory performs three functions

It seeks to describe the facts of political reality. It relies on a collection of data about reality through observation of arid experiences. It is logical and guided by reason It seeks to evaluate the behaviour of political actors on the basis of norms and values.

However, in order to be meaningful and relevant it must be normative and empirical. Political theory is both value-based and empirical. It believes in scientific analysis, observations inference, and study of ideas and values. The concepts of political theory explain about the political behaviour of individuals. Political theory emerges from socio-political crises.

Utility of political theory :
The study of political theory is useful to society, the state and citizens. Even students, teachers and administrators need to study political theory. Its relevance may be discussed below.

Understanding political concepts and ideals :
The study of political theory is essential for understanding various concepts and ideas. These concepts carry different meanings in different situations. So far the proper understanding of concepts study of theory is indispensable.

Social control and, reconstruction :
Every political system has some problems and prospects and for eradicating those problems, the study of theory is essential. The political theory provides remedies for various socio-political issues. Plato’s ideal State Marx’s class struggle, Hobbes’s absolute sovereignty etc. are examples of political theory helping social stability and reconstruction.

Mutual respect and tolerance:
The study of political theory helps in promoting mutual respect and tolerance. Political theory is a never-ending conversation among theorists and it helps in understanding reality.

Formulation of polity :
The study of political theory is useful for the formulation of public policy. The study of political history and political institutions is essential for policy-making.

Enriches the study of political science:
The study of politics enriches political science in two ways. It helps political scientists, and specify their research techniques and perceive their data. It suggests valuable hypotheses which are tested by political scientists. Again, study of political theory and its knowledge helps political analysis to understand facts, theories and events.

Thus, political theory broadens the knowledge of political science. The study of theory further informs about political organization, administration; functionaries and about experiences. It broadens our mind and introduces us with the future world.

Question 8.
Politics is a struggle for power Morgenthau?
This statement of Hans J. Morgenthau is not about state, government or anything else, but power. It is the be all arid end all of politics. It covers all those activities that have their bearing on the struggle for power.

Politics and power are deeply attached. Without the accumulation of power or use of power no one can make his presence felt in politics. It is the fuel that runs the political machine. Therefore, Lasswell and Kaplan say, politics is the shaping and sharing of power in society. Besides Lasswell, David Easton, Robert A. Dahl, Morgenthau and Friechich Watkins also find power the core subject of politics.

Power is a coercive influence people remain loyal to it in fear of punishment. The laws of the state are obeyed by most people out of habit but some obey it out of fear. Therefore, Watkins says, politics deals not with the state but with power. Who gets what when and how is the subject matter of politics. In order to substantiate this statement of Morgenthau we have to analyse the following lines.

Power involves a conflict of purpose. It is a relationship. So it can’t be explained without an opponent or rival. Power may take any form, either knowledge, wealth, reputation or brute force.

Power manifests only in action. It is concerned with the wills and interests of various individuals and with their conflicting claims. In order to reconcile these claims power is used. Thus, it is the power that brings order out of disorder and unity out of disintegration.

Politics is also sustained by power politics is the study of the power holder and the way he exercises power over the opponent. It results in compromise and consensus, out of stiff rivalry and conflict. People having divergent interests come to compromise only because of the power factor.

Therefore, behavioural thinkers hold politics as the study of power. Authority and legitimacy. Power controls politics and through political power is enjoyed. Policy decisions are taken with the help of power and it is power that helps in executing those decisions.

If politics means the Resolution of social conflicts, without power it can’t be done thus power has varied dimensions and those who make use of it should legitimately use if for the achievement of their goal.

Question 9.
Distinguish between traditional and modern political theory?
Political theory can be divided into classical and modem depending upon their subject matter and methods of study. The classical or traditional political theory stands for the history of political ideals and they are speculative in character. This type of theory is based on morality, values and ideals. Plato, Aristotle, Hobbes, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel, Marx and Laski, etc. belong to the classical theories.

Traditional political theory is mostly concerned with how the state should be what must be its goal. This is based on values & traditions.
But, modem political theory emerged after world war – II.

It was the product of behavioural revaluation which introduced scientific approach with too much stress on methods, techniques, data collection, analysis and systematization of facts David Easton. Truman, Herbert Siman, Robert Dali, Laswell, Kaplan, Karl Friedrich, etc. are the main exponents who popularized modem political theory.

Modem political theory is scientific in nature and based on reality. It is specifically believing in objective study based on facts and evidence. It is empirical in character and in most cases relies on data collection, observation, qualification, comparison and evaluation before arriving at any conclusion.

The modern political theory believes in an interdisciplinary approach and in most cases avoids value preferences. In place of studying political institutions and rules it believes in the study of political process, activity, structure, behaviour, culture and experiences for a better understanding of facts.

Question 10.
Define political theory and discuss how it differs from political philosophy, political thought and ideology?
Political theory is a branch of political science which deals with the systematic study of State Government, political institutions, ideas and concepts.

It elaborates on the origin and nature of various organizations institutions, concepts and ideas and their values and importance in politics and society. It also sheds light on the behaviours reactions of individuals, groups and institutions.

Political theory is based on facts and evidence. The knowledge of political theory its ideas, concepts, and theories have relevance for society, study of political reality with the help of facts and evidence is a trade mark of political theory.

In order to have a clear understanding about political theory its relations to political philosophy, political thought and political ideologies must be studied.

Political theory and Political philosophy :
Political theory is different from political philosophy from different angles. Political theory is a part of political philosophy. So the scope of the latter is wider and vast than that of the former.

Political philosophy implies realists’ study of political events and situations with valid justifications. It may be factual or speculative. But, political theory is always based on facts and evidence.

Political theory studies the behaviour and functions of the political system, but political philosophy aims at studying about the goals of these institutions. A political philosopher may be a theorist but a theorist may not be a philosopher.

Political theory and political thought :
Political theory and political thought differ from each other on the following counts. Political though is the study of political speculation of a whole community, but political theory is the speculation of an individual thinker.

Political thought refers to the opinion & views of a political thinker on state government and other political organizations. It is a general statement of a political situation. But, political theory is the ideas of Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau, Hobbes and Marx on any political issue or event.

Political theory is universally applicable irrespective of time and place. But, political thought is the statement on state, government and political events of a definite period. The theory is factual & rational but political thought may be factual or may be based on imagination of the thinker.

Political theory & Politial Ideology :
Political ideology is a part of political theory’ but there are some distinctions between the two.

Ideology means emotional support for any concept or idea. Individuals express complete allegiance to ideas and get prepared to sacrifice anything for the same. But political theory is value-neutral.

Thinkers do not feel emotionally attached to their theory as they do to their ideology. It is realistic and permanent.

The scope of political theory is wider than that of political ideology. People may support or oppose an ideology but not any theory. Thus, political theory is an objective description of politics. It may be normative or empirical, but it seeks to explain political reality.

Question 11.
Define modern political theory and discuss its nature and significance Or, Examine the need for studying political theory?
Modem political theory developed during the 2nd half of the 20th century. The behavioural revolution introduced new methods and technique’s for the study of political science and gave political theory the status of a scientific discipline.

Modem political theory is rational, neutral and based on facts. It is a statement about the political system. Political organizations and is based on facts and evidence, It seeks to make political science a pure science. Characteristics of modern political theory.

Modem political theory is based on the following features. It is based on facts & evidence and it can be studied empirically.

The modern political theory believes in the realistic study of political issues and (c) It’s the aries and propositions can be verified & tested through observation. It is scientific and value-free.

Modem political theory relies on data collection, observation and analysis of political data in order to arrive at any conclusion. It is objective in nature and believes in interdisciplinary study. Modem political theory seeks to solve political and social issues.

Significance of modern theory :
Modern political theory is relevant to formulating grounds.

It seeks to make political science a pure science. Through analysis and interpretation of political realities, it helps leaders, statesmen & administrators in taking appropriate decisions at the right time. It supplies facts about political behaviour and events, thus making it easy for the authority to solve any crisis.

Modem theory makes political science useful for the changing situation. Modem political theory supplies issues and problems for undertaking research. It broadens our knowledge by supplying facts, ideas and concepts.

For the understanding of complex political issues modem, political theory is regarded as useful. It works for the welfare of mankind. Thus, political theory, whether traditional or modem, always gives new ideas and concepts for the development and progress of the human race.

Question 12.
Examine the relevance of the scientific study of politics?
The scientific study of politics began only after the second world war and thereafter political scientists started paying more attention to the various aspects of social life to know more about politics. This new approach turned its attention to the empirical study of relationships among people.

The process, first of all, began in USA and Britain and Scholars began to concentrate on the study of the behaviour of persons and groups instead of confining its study to the structure, institutions, ideologies and events. The scientific study of politics began with Aristotle.

Then Hobbes and Spencer in England used geometrical and biological methods of evolution and classification in the 16th – 17th centuries. In the modem age, students of political sociology.

Cybernetics and Operational Research have been insisting on the increasing use of scientific methods in the study of politics. Even in some spheres decision-making research, algebra and calculus and being used.

Now, there is a craze among scholars to make more use of scientific tools and techniques. As a result, efforts are being made in the field of voting behaviour studies, attitude measurements, opinions surveys etc. as an indication of the scientific study of politics.

Nowadays, political scientists have been trying to build models and test hypotheses of Political Science through the process of verification and empirical research.

They are trying to focus attention on the problems of facing mankind as a result of which they have been taking recourse to a multi-disciplinary approach to knowledge through the integral synthesis of available empirical information regarding the nature and behaviour of men.

Criticism :
The scientific approach can be criticized on the following grounds.

Duvenger criticizing the scientific approach says that politics cannot be scientific as a whole, it must be supplemented by moral Mid spiritual dimensions.

It cannot be successfully applied in the study of the policy formulation process, because the data available to political scientists are not adequate enough to know all the factors which influence the shaping of politics.

Political phenomena cannot be reproduced for scientific analysis. It is not possible to subject political data to quantitative measurement.

Political science tends to be influenced by the environment, emotions and value judgements and research cannot avoid them while making a study of politics. Therefore, a combination of empirical and philosophical methods is required.

Question 13.
Define the state and discuss its elements. Or, Explain the meaning and elements of the state?
The state is regarded as the central theme of Political Science it is the most universal and most powerful of all social institutions. The term ‘state’ has been derived from its Teutonic root “Status’ which means ‘existence’.

It is a territorial unit where a group of people live under a political sovereign. State refers to a collection of human beings, occupying a definite area under an organized government and subject to no outside control.

Machiavelli was the first political thinker to use the word state and to popularize it. Bluntschli defines it as a politically organized people of a definite territory. Laski holds it as, “a territorial society divided into government and subjects claiming within its allotted physical area, supremacy over all other institutions.

According to Woodrow Wilson, “State is the people organized for law within a definite territory.
The state is thus a natural and universal institution and it exists for the good life of the citizens. It provides opportunities for the satisfaction of human desire and the development of human personality.

Elements :
The state has four elements, like

• population
• territory,
• sovereignty
• Government

which are: discussed below.
Population :
The population is the primary element of state Because a deserted or uninhabited surface might not be conceved in terms of state or association and the state being a human association must bear population as its constituent .element.

However, there is no consensus among political scientists regarding what should be the standard size of population for a state Aristotle, the father of Political Science, has advocated a minimum of ten thousand and a maximum a hundred thousand populations as the standard population for a state.

But in the context of modem state there are states like Maldives and Morrocco having a few thousand or population whereas there are large populations are like India and China.

Territory :
The next element of State is a fixed territory. Without a fixed territory there would be no state for which every state must have a territory of its own over which the state should have absolute control. Here the case of nomadic race and Jews could not have a state because of lack of a fixed territory.

The territory of State does not include only the surface territory but also the water and air surface. The concept of territory, is inseparable from that of the State in view of the fact the territory is an element which distinguishes the Site from other forms of associations.

If the population provides the physical basis, the territory provides the material basis of the State.

Government :
For the formation of State, there must be some sort of Political machinery which should exercise the supreme power of the state. So Government is the political machinery through which the will of the state is formulated, expressed and enforced Prof.

Gamer defines Government as “the agency through which common policies are determined and by which common affairs are regulated and common interest promoted.” Without Government, there must not be any concept of State.

Because the State has no life and it is the government through which the will and attention of the state are expressed and the government is the agent through which all the actions of the state are formulated and executed and without government, there will be anarchy or lawlessness.

Sovereignty:
The last important element of State is sovereignty. The word sovereignty has been derived from the Latin word ‘Supreanus’ which means supreme or absolute. Bodin, a French political philosopher defined sovereignty as “Supreme power over citizens and subjects unrestrained by law.

Sovereignty has also both internal and external meanings internally, it can be viewed that the state has complete legal authority over all the individuals who compose it and from an external point of view, it regards the State as legally independent of foreign dominations.

Other than the above four constituent elements of State in modem times, there is also another element, i.e, international recognition as the basis for the formation of the State. Nowadays international recognition is considered to be necessary not to constitute a state, but to enable it to participate in the community of nations.

Question 14.
Bring out the differences between State and Government?
In common parlance, it is understood that there is no difference between State and Government. But in technical senses beyond the layman’s perception, there are basic differences between State and Government.

Some of the critical problems of Political Science are solved on the basis of distinction between the State and Government.
The following are the some of differences between State and the Government.

The state has four elements, namely, population; territory, sovereignty and government. So Government is one of the parts of the organic whole of the state. The Government is an agent of the state. It is the brain of the whole body of the state through which the will of the state is expressed.

Secondly, state is permanent whereas Government is temporary. A Government may come and go but the state is permanent. Ordinarily, there is no change of the state. The state continues forever but the Government is appointed for a fixed period of time.

The state is composed of all citizens whereas the Government by a few according to the provisions. The origins of the Government, the legislature, executives and judiciary through which along government runs. Thus, the state is broader than that of the Government.

The State possesses sovereign power, which is unlimited and absolute, but ordinarily, there is no such power of the Government. Whatever the Government enjoys is only derivative.

The state is an abstract concept whereas the Government is concrete. The state is invisible but Government is visible. The Government is a physical manifestation and it consists of people who can be seen and known.

All states are identical in character and there must be common aspects but all are not same but with regard to states whether long or small the characteristics of State do not change.

But the Government are of different types and they may vary from state to state. There are different classifications of government like monarchy, aristocracy, democracy, dictatorship etc.

So there is no uniform type of government but the state is a universal institution bearing four elements and if there is the absence of any single element three might not be any state.

Lastly, the citizens have a right against the government but not against the state. The government may commit mistakes and it is the genuine right of the individual to protest against any irrational actions of the Government.

But the citizens do not have any right to protest against state because state never commits any mistake. It is only Government which acts on behalf of the state.

A state is an indestructible unit but Government is destructible. The stability and permanence of state distinguish it from other organizations.

Question 15.
Distinguish between State and Association?
The state is a sovereign political association and is superior to all other associations. Being a sovereign entity it is superior to all other associations, Associations are formed with a specific purpose but the state satisfies various needs of the people.

Association is a collection of individuals united for the achievement of certain specific goals. It is formed with a definite end, but state has a broader scope to serve the members. The differences between state and association can be stated below.

State is sovereign but associations are not:
The state is a sovereign political association and no other association enjoys this power. The state represents the collective will of its members and all the citizens are bound to obey its commands. It is a coercive agency it has armed forces, law courts and police.

But, associations are not sovereign, nor do they enjoy coercive authority. They cannot force their members to comply with their decisions. Association had no police army or court of law.

Membership :
Membership in a state is compulsory, but in the case of associations, it is voluntary.

State is national in character but associations can be local, national or international :
The state had a definite territory within which it enforces its commands. But, associations have no definite area or territory. Some are local or regional in character like clubs, some are national like, the national political parties, the R.S.S., the Muslim League, the VHP etc, and some others may be international like Red Cross-Society, the UNO etc.

One can be a member of one state, but of many associations :
An individual can join as many associations as he likes, but he can be a member of only one state at the same time. If he accepts the membership of another state he will have to lose her previous membership.

Territory :
The state has a definite territory and it can expand only by means of aggression or war, but the association has no fixed territory and it can be changed at will.

Scope :
The purpose and scope of the state is much wider than that of an association. The state aims at promoting the welfare of the common people. It makes plans for the all-around progress of its people but the scope of jurisdiction of an association is limited only to its member Associations are formed by those who need to be served by it.

State is superior to all other associations :
The state is an association of associations because it regulates the activities and existence of all other associations. All associations are subjected to the command of the state. Therefore, the state is considered to be superior to all other associations.

Question 16.
Critically examine the Individualistic theory of State regarding the sphere of State activity. Or “The State is best which governs the least.” Discuss this statement along with justification and criticism. Or, “State is a necessary evil.” Examine this statement along with its merits and demerits?
Individualism or individualistic theory of state was a philosophy of the 18th century. But it has a long history and its roots can be traced from the writings of Greek Sophists and contractual thinkers like, Hobbes and Locke. It was further developed by Adamsmith, J.S. Mill and
Herbert Spencer, Hayek, Friedman and Oakesholt etc.

Theory: Individualism is based on the ultimate value of human personality. It * seeks to give the individual maximum freedom to develop his personality and restricts the functions of the state. It stands for maximum individual liberty and minimum functions for the state.
Features:

Individualism seeks to protect the liberty of the individual from the interference of the State.

It is based on the economic theory of Laissez-faire. It is based on a Capitalist economy, free trade and economic competition. The individual is demanded for the reduction of State activity in the economic sphere and it came to be known as the Laissez-faire theory.

It argues that the individual must be left alone to decide his future, and the State should not in any way restrain the scope of individual freedom and initiative.

The individualist theory regards the State as a necessary evil’. The state is necessary to stop the anti-social activities of individuals and, it is an evil because it encroaches upon the liberty of individuals.

This theory advocates for maximum liberty of the individual and minimum functions for the State. It pleads that the file State which governs the least is the best. The lesser the functions of State the better for individuals.

Individualist State is a police state which performs only negative or preventive functions. It prevents lawbreakers and checks the obstacles before individual liberty. The state is a negative institution and its functions are limited.

The state is compared to a night watchman which performs the following functions.

• Protection of the state and individuals from foreign aggression.
• Protection of property from robbery or damage.
• Protection of individuals against false contracts or breaches of contracts.
• Protection of the unfit; and
• Protection of individuals against diseases.

Merits
The individualistic theory is supported from four different angles.

From an ethical point of view, individualism is defended on the ground that, an individual personality can be best developed if he is left alone. If the individual is left free then the qualities like, self-reliance, initiative, enterprise and originality develop to the fullest extent.

Government interference kills initiative and cramps individual personality, The uniqueness of Individual personality characteristics are more likely to be destroyed by a uniform state which creates standardized values and reduces society to uniformity as a result of which both society and individuals are closers.

From the economic ground, it is also justified. Individualists hold that every man is self-seeking and he knows his interest best. If the individual is left to himself he would maximize his efforts and interests, Free competition increases production, ensures efficiency and maximizes economic well-being.

A free economy will provide incentives to people to work hard as a result trade, industry and commerce will flourish. So it advocated for non-interference of the state in the economic sphere.

Individualism is also justified on scientific grounds. Spencer favouring the theory holds that each individual should be allowed to stand or fall according to his worth without the support of the government.

Free competition among individuals would ensure the survival of the strong, the efficient, the intelligent and the virile and the elimination of the poor, the weak and the inefficient: He justifies it on the ground of survival of the fittest.

Practical experience shows how government interference leads to efficiency, corruption, red-tropism, delay and wastage., As the government is already over-burdened it can not deliver the goods.

In contrast, privately managed enterprises are more efficient and they make greater profits. Thus, the state should leave the individual to mobilize his own resources and attain his best interest.

Demerits :
The theory in spite of its value has been subjected to something criticism.

The individualistic assumption of state as a necessary evil is wrong. Because state is always considered to be a positive good it always protects, encourages and fosters common well-being it problems good life of the individuals rather than doing harm to them.

The role of state today has enormously increased for which, without state action, an individual’s all-around development can’t be attained. The state provides the basic needs like facilities for education, health and public services. So its powers should not be curtailed.

The basis of individualism is unsound. It regards human beings as self-seeking and thereby neglects the altruistic natures of man.

Individualism wrongly assumes that each individual knows his interest best. Because the ignorant ones can’t take effective precautions against dangers. It is the state which can judge an individual’s intellectual, moral and physical needs better than the individual.

The state does not encroach upon individual liberty. Actually, in a good state, the scope of individual action is enlarged and protected. All restraints of the state on individuals are not bad. Laws of the state are not anti-thetic to individual liberty,

Individualism seeks to create a division between individuals and society. Individual good and social welfare are not opposing but complementary,

The argument of survival of the fittest may not always prove survival of the best. This law is applicable for animals not for human beings. Man is the noblest of all animals and he posses reason, compassion and fellow feeling of love, and affection.

So it is human to say that the old, weak and invalid will have no right to live. The individualistic theory however good or bad it might be suffered, its decline in the 20th century with the emergence of modem welfare states.

Question 17.
Discuss, the origin and development of the concept of Welfare State and explain its merits, and demerits Or, Examine the meaning and nature of Welfare State along with its drawbacks.
The concept of Welfare State is a by-product of communism and individualism. It is a social service agency which puts equal emphasis on individuals and society, It guarantees a minimum standard of subsistence to every individual.

According to Kent, a “Welfare State is a state that provides for its citizens a wide range of social services.” But G.D.H.Cole defines it is a society In which an assured minimum standard of living and opportunity becomes the possession of every individual. It seeks to maintain social justice.
Origin and Development :
The Concept of the Welfare State was first of all found in England. The following factors led to the evolution of the Welfare State.

• The evils of industrialization and urbanization.
• The New Deal Programme of U.S. President F.D. Roosevelt also contributed to its evolution.

Objectives:
A Welfare State seeks to fulfil the following objectives.

It checks the evil effects of the capitalist order and provides basic minimum needs to common man. It gives protection against natural and social contingencies. It seeks to ensure a fair standard of living to all.

Justification or Merits of Welfare State:

A Welfare State seeks or promotes people’s welfare by undertaking development activities relating to social welfare and security,

It guarantees a minimum standard of living and a reduction of economic inequality. It is a positive state which acts as a social service agency. The state looks after the individual from the cradle to the grave.

It puts equal emphasis on the individual and society on individual liberty and common goods. The State is considered a friend, philosopher and guide to the individual. Its function within the framework of democratic political institutions.

It regulates the national economy through planning. It postulates a mixed economy allows both the public and private sectors to play their part in the development of the national economy.

The State upholds the rights of all and gives equal treatment to all Individuals, groups and classes without discrimination.

Demerits:

1. A Welfare State is an expensive model which puts pressure on public exchequer.
2. It kills individual initiative and creates a pauper mentality in the minds of individuals.
3. A Welfare State leads to bureaucratic despotism.
4. It magnifies the state at the cost of individual

Question 18.
Discuss the function of the Welfare State in the modern age?
The concept of the ‘Welfare State is a 20th-century phenomenon. The state in the modem age is wedded to the principle of welfare and every community seeks to provide for its members a large number of welfare measures or schemes. The state is considered as a positive instrument which guarantees to individuals a minimum standard of subsistence without removing incentives to private enterprises.

The state as a social service agency undertakes developmental activities relating to social welfare, security, and reduction of inequality and injustice. Welfare State is a community where every citizen has assured a minimum standard of living and opportunity.

The State protects the liberty and integrity of the individual and at the same time promotes common welfare. In a Welfare State, the individual has to get and the state does the rest.
Functions:
As a Positive State, the Welfare State performs a variety of functions concerning the life and happiness of the individual. The State provides conditions of social life, maintains law and order, guarantees fundamental rights, makes
provisions for social security and promotes common welfare. The State looks after the individual from cradle to grave. The State performs all those functions which the people expect from the state.
Gcttcll and Willoughby classified these functions into:

• Essential or obligatory functions and
• Optional functions

Obligatory functions:
These functions are essential and the State at all costs will have to perform these functions.

Defence or security of the State:
It is the most important function of a Welfare state. for which the statement maintains a strong army and defends the country from external aggression.

The State always seeks to enhance the strength of its armed forces, manufactures powerful weapons and increases its strength.lt maintains diplomatic relations with others to maintain a cordial atmosphere among the family of nations.

Maintenance of law and order :
A Welfare State maintains law and order and discipline all over the country. The State through its machinery creates conditions in which the life, liberty and property of the individuals can be protected. It ensures the supremacy of law and maintains peace.

The State makes adequate provisions for the administration of justice. It establishes courts of law and settles the disputes
arising between citizens and imposes punishment on the offenders.

Separate, courts are established to decide civil and criminal disputes. The State controls the life and activities the citizens and ensures supremacy to the law.

Protection of individual liberty and property :
The State protects the life, liberty and property of the individual from – possible threats. Thus, the State ensures a happy and peaceful life to the individual and grants fundamental freedoms.

Optional Functions.
These are the non-essential function of an individual. The State is never obliged to perform all these functions, however, most of the modem states do perform such functions. These are as follows.

The welfare of citizens :
A welfare State should perform all such functions as are necessary to promote welfare of the society has to make adequate provisions for medical facilities, sanitation a conservancy. The State should take care for public health, maintenance and construction of roads and must establish orphanages and child care centres.

It is another important duty of a Welfare State. The State must introduce universal compulsory education for the children, encourages scientific and technological research and give patronage to art and literature. Care must be taken to maintain the spirit of unity among the people.

Regulation of tide and industry and development of agriculture:
The State as a welfare agency regulates, trade and commerce and controls the economy for the welfare Of the masses. It believes in a mixed economy, nationalization of big industries the other means of production regulating the prices of essentials, commodities and import-export.

The State introduces land- reforms irrigation measures, modernization of agriculture, cooperative farming and increases production. It checks, corruption and black-marketing in business.

Social Security :
This is one of the important functions of a welfare state. The state makes provisions, for the economic and social development of the weaker sections of society, prevents exploitation of the poor by the rich, and social security of widows, orphans, physically handicapped and distressed persons.

It prevents epidemics, provides insurance against accidents and unnatural deaths, undertakes family planning programmes and introduces measures like allowances to unemployed persons and pensions for old age persons.

Management of public utility services:
The State makes provisions for means of transport and communication, post and telegraph, supply of electricity and drinking water, road transport, railways and air transport etc.

Other functions:
A Welfare state undertakes economic planning for the rational utilisation of material and human resources. It safeguards the rights and liberties of the people, prevents adulteration of edible products, ensures free and fair elections and inspires public participation in political affairs.

The State takes all possible measures to develop the standard of living of the people and makes them lead happy and peaceful life.

Question 19.
Define Globalization and discuss its impact on the Indian economy?
Globalization refers to a process of economic reforms introduced in 1990 with a view to integrating nation-states within the overall framework of WTO.

It is a modem version of the ‘Theory of, ‘Comparative Costs Advantage: propagated by classical economists to provide theoretical foundations for the unrestricted flow of goods from developed countries to developing and underdeveloped nations.

Globalization believes in the effective integration of economies through the exchange, of ideas, information, technologies, goods and, services. It is a product of the technological revolution in recent years and implies faster movement Of capital goods and services as a result of an increase in the speed of communication.

Globalization has four parameters :

Reduction of trade barriers so as to permit free flow of goods across national frontiers. Creation of an environment in which free flow of capital can take place among -nations States.

Creation of an environment permitting free flow of technology. Creation of an environment in which free movement of labour can take place in different countries of the world.

The developed nations consider globalization as a new mantra for world development. It started in India during 1991 with the hope of rapid economic growth. It has opened access to new markets and new technology.

Impact on the Indian Economy:
India has followed the policy of globalization for over a decade and it impact on our economy can be described below:

Increase in world export of goods and services:
As per the data supplied by the world bank during the last decade though we have hot been .able to compete with our neighbours like China and South Korea in the export of goods yet in the export of services India has done well. The Indian share in world export of goods and services has improved slightly.

The flow of foreign investment:
Globalisation has pledged a greater inflow of foreign investment to India and it has also picked up in India. But direct foreign investment in India has not been significant as yet.

Again, there is a wide gap between the approved investment and the actual flow of investment During 1996-2000 the inflow of foreign investment has decreased but still, there is a wide gap between promise and realization.

Import rate is higher than the rate of export:
The advocates of globalization argued in favour of export-oriented growth in place of import-oriented growth. But, actually, India is still relying on the import of foreign goods and our export has not picked up signs recently.

That means globalization has helped foreign countries to penetrate into Indian markets more than creating a favourable foreign market for Indian goods.

Indian Economy has become dependent:
It was hoped that globalization would help in increase of GDP growth, but in fact, our economy has become more and more dependent on the world economy after 12 years of experimentation.

Slowness in poverty, alleviation:
During the post-globalization period, India has failed to achieve any ‘progress in its programme of poverty alleviation. This is largely due to a reduction in agricultural productivity growth of non-farm sector development spending and inflation.

The policies of liberalization, privatization and globalization have affected the “performance of states in poverty eradication.

A decline in employment growth:
It is another major shortfall of globalization in the Indian economy. The rate of unemployment has gone up during the last five years. There has been a sharp decline in agriculture, community and personal services.

Effects of Indian industry:
Indian industry has been facing increasing competition from foreign industrial products. The indigenous industry has to pay excise. Sales tax, octroi and turnover tax while imported goods are given duty-free access to the market. As a result, most of industries are shut down and cheap imports have become a cause of recession in Indian industry.

A decline in agricultural export:
Prior to globalization and agreement on agriculture, Indian agricultural prices were lower than international prices. Due to heavy subsidies on agricultural export by developed countries, the international price of agricultural products has been lower, than Indian prices, thus Indian farmers have been put to a serious disadvantage.

Thus, after a. decade of globalization police being introduced in India, the hope of the nation has been sacked. It has affected badly our industry and agriculture. The process of development has not been encouraging. The. high hopes with which it was introduced in India had proved to be futile.

Question 20.
Analyse the socioeconomic functions of the Welfare State?
The state in the modem age. has assumed the character of a welfare state. The idea of a welfare state emerged after World War II in Britain, USA, Germany and France. The Govt took the responsibility of providing all sorts of luxuries to ordinary citizens. The state provided a wide range of social services to the people.

Welfare State is a democratic state which seeks to secure socioeconomic welfare and development of its people with full respect to the rights and freedoms of the people. The socioeconomic functions of a welfare state can be discussed below.

Social functions :
A welfare state performs a good number of functions of securing socioeconomic reconstruction and development.
Securing social equality :
The state grants equal rights and freedoms to all its citizens. It ensures rule of law and abolishes all discrimination.

Secures social justice :
The state tries to establish a social order and gives special protection and Opportunities to the poor, and backward classes. The state enacts laws to reduce the gap between rich and poor and to secure social justice.

Provides social security :
A welfare state provides social security to the poor and needy. It gives financial- assistance to poor, disabled, diseased and unemployed people. It also makes provisions for insurance, provident fund, pension and health care facilities.

Fights social evils :
A welfare state seeks to eradicate social evils through legislation. The Govt, of India, has enacted laws to eradicate sati, child- marriage, dowry, prostitution and untouchability, etc.

The state on a priority basis looks for the spread of education among the people. It establishes schools and colleges and provides free education up to secondary standards.

It sets up libraries, and reading rooms and provides financial assistance to private educational institutions. It also gives stipends and education loans to poor students.

Protection of public health :
A welfare state looks after public health and sanitation. It sets up hospitals, dispensaries and maternity homes and provides free medical aid to the people.
The state also initiates programmes for family planning and welfare.

Economic Functions :
The state undertakes a series of economic functions for rapid economic development.

Improvement of the economic condition of the people :
The state works for raising the living standard of the people by making provisions for food, clothing, shelter, education and health amenities. to all its citizens. The state tries to, eradicate poverty and unemployment

Economic planning :
Welfare stale undertakes economic planning for balanced utilization of its resources. Planning accelerates the pace of economic growth.

Development of agriculture :
A welfare state takes all possible steps for increasing agriculture production. It makes use of scientific known how, improved seeds, manures and machines. The state makes provisions for irrigation. conservation of crops and also fixes the prices of agricultural products.

Development of industry :
The state also facilities the development of the industry. It finalises national industrial policy and rules of export and import.

A welfare state regulates trade and commerce. It fixes customs duties, circulates currency establishes banks and insurance companies. It looks after the interests of the consumers and nationals.

The state also makes an equitable distribution of wealth, determines the fiscal policy of the nation and takes care so that wealth s not accumulated by few. It levies taxes to undertake socio-economic development.

The welfare state also takes care of the workers and labour class people. It determines their working hour, minimum wage, and proper working conditions. The state also makes special provisions for the upliftment of the poor working classes. In the age of privatization, the state today had to control unfair trading and ensure an efficient public distribution system for common goods.

Question 21.
The 21st century is considered to be the age of globalisation. The concept involves a process of expanding business and trade relations among independent nations.

The aim of globalisation is to secure real socio-economic-political and cultural transformation of the world into a global community, It seeks the integration of the world economy into a common model.

Globalisation means a new world economic order based on free trade, free access to world markets and increased socio-economic and cultural linkage among nations. The aim of globalization is to secure the socio-economic integration and development of all the people of the world.
Features :

• Globalization believes in liberalization of trade industrial policy.
• It stands for the free flow of trade relations among nations.
• It seeks to integrate the domestic economy with world economy.
• It believes in liberalisation of imports and export.
• It believes in privatisation.
• Globalisation encourages cooperation among nations in order to; secure rapid development modernisation and technological advancement.

It introduces fiscal reforms strengthening free trade.

The developed nations of die world with a view to capturing the world market have designed the policy of globalisation, The World Trade Organisation has been set up replacing the GATT as per Dunkel’s Resolution and the big powers are now trying to capture the economies of poor countries.

India has adopted globalisation in 1991. During the last few years its impact has been mixed:

Globalisation constitutes a natural extension of the principles of inter¬dependence among nations. It leads to the socioeconomic and cultural integration of the people. It discourages war and aggression.

Liberal import-export policies encourage free flow of goods and services across the borders and accelerate the pace of economic industrial development.

It provides advanced technology to developing nations. A free-market economy encourages economic competition which brings development.

It has successfully fought against poverty, hunger and disease. Globalisation has brought about sustainable development all around the world.

Globalisation has enhanced the role of corporate business houses and capitalists and multi-national corporations have assumed an important role in international relations. The rich countries have taken undue control over the poor and developing countries.

Free market economy and free trade will make it difficult for developing countries to compete for protecting their interests. The rich nations have been protecting their trade interests through multi-national corporations.

It gives the state fewer financial resources to look after health, education and social security services. Globalisation has led to a widening of the gap between rich and poor.

Domestic markets of developing countries have been flooded with goods of rich countries. The small-scale and medium-range industries have suffered a loss.

The share of poor and developing countries in the world’s income and resources will be reduced because of the dominance of rich and developed countries. In the name of globalisation, the developed countries dictate terms to the poor countries.

It has adversely affected the interests . of labour and the govt, makes no effort to improve the conditions of the working class. The nations which have joined the globalisation process have been forced to abide by the suggestions of the World Bank, IMF and WTO.

It has given a setback to employment, and generation schemes followed by underdeveloped countries. As a whole, the globalisation concept is not wrong. It will yield positive results after a few years.

Question 22.
Review .the basic features of globalization and its impact on the state?
Globalization is the process of the economic integration of the world. It started in the 2nd half of the 20th century under the initiative of rich and prosperous countries. Globalization seeks to ensure socioeconomic integration of the world through a free flow of goods. Services, information knowledge and people across the borders of the state.
Features :

Globalization believes in the integration of the domestic economy with the world economy. It aims at free trade with all other countries of the world.

As it believes in liberalization, each state has to open its domestic market for foreign companies. Globalization seeks to reduce state control over imports and export.

Globalisation seeks to keep the state away from ownership of means of production and distribution and allows free follows of industrial trade and economic activities among the people and their corporations.

It believes in the modernisation of transport and communication. It introduces economic reforms for giving maximum liberty to private organizations.

Impact on the state :
As a result of globalization, the scope of state activity and efficiency has been affected with the increase in investment privatization has encouraged the public sector to compete with the private sector.

The role of state has changed from a regulator to a facilitator. Though the state continues to be a welfare state its activity is confined to Ensuring a smooth and orderly functioning of the market. It tries to secure stability in the market through macroeconomic policies and

Providing social services, such as education, health care and social security measures. Regulating state economy in the interest of social justice and welfare.

The emergence of free trade, a market economy and multinational corporations have limited the scope of the role of state in the sphere of the international economy. Globalization has limited the sovereignty of the state. The WTO, World Bank and IMF have eroded into state autonomy.

The information technology revolution has led to the development of the means of transport and communication and the world is converted into a global village.

The movement for international peace and peaceful coexistence has reduced the importance of the military power of the state. The states are now concerned with the need to fight terrorism and safeguard human rights and the environment.

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D . Let’s Understand The Text

Question 1.
What did the writer experience in the restaurant?
(ଲେଖକ ଭୋଜନାଳୟରେ କ’ଣ ଉପଲବ୍ଧି କଲେ ?)
The writer went to a vegetarian restaurant ( ଭୋଜନାଳୟ) during lunchtime. The restaurant was densely crowded as lots of people were eating and drinking there. He found that some of the chairs and tables had been pushed into a corner. He preferred a come table and sat there for lunch and started skimming through the newspaper.

Question 2.
What did he notice there?
(ସେ ସେଠାରେ କ’ଣ ଦେଖ‌ିଲେ ?)
The writer noticed a very young girl looking at him. He observed that her eyes were large and there was a sad expression on her face. The girl while going out asked the cashier in a low voice something about the writer and wanted to know whether he was an Indian.

Question 3.
What was the writer’s first impression of the girl?
(ଝିଅଟିକୁ ନେଇ ଲେଖକଙ୍କ ପ୍ରଥମ ଭାବ କ’ଣ ଥିଲା)
The way of looking at the girl at the writer repeatedly aroused his curiosity in her. Her large eyes with sad expression made him feel that she was facing some kind of trouble and was rather poor and unhappy.

Question 4.
(ଲେଖକଙ୍କୁ କ’ଣ ଆଶ୍ଚର୍ଯ୍ୟ କରିଥିଲା ? )
The girl’s inquiry about the writer with the cashier and her looking at him once more before leaving the restaurant made the writer was surprised.

Question 5.
Why did he enquire from the cashier ? (ସେ କାହିଁକି କ୍ୟାସିୟରଠାରୁ ଅନୁସନ୍ଧାନ କଲେ ?)
The girl’s interest to know about the writer aroused his curiosity in her. So he enquired from the waiter about the girl.

Question 6.
What information did he get from the cashier?
(ସେ କ୍ୟାସିଅରଠାରୁ କି ଖବର/ସୂଚନା ପାଇଲେ ?)
The writer got the information from the waiter that the girl had her lunch in that restaurant on Saturdays only. She came to the restaurant on payday only because she earned very little

Question 7.
Where did the writer go on the next Saturday?
( ଲେଖକ ପରବର୍ତୀ ଶନିବାରରେ କେଉଁଠାକୁ ଗଲେ ?)
The writer went to the same restaurant the next Saturday where he found the girl sitting at the same table as before (ପୂର୍ବଭଳି).

Question 8.
Why did he arrange the chair opposite hers?
(ସେ କାହିଁକି ତା’ (ଝିଅଟି) ସମ୍ମୁଖରେ ଚଉକି ଯୋଗାଡ଼ କଲେ ?)
The next Saturday, he went to the same restaurant. He found the girl sitting at the same table as before and was eating. Then the writer went up to her and took the chair opposite hers. He wished her a good afternoon and started talking with her.

Question 9.
What query did the girl make about the writer?
(ଲେଖକଙ୍କ ସମ୍ପର୍କରେ ଝିଅଟି କ’ଣ ଅନୁସନ୍ଧାନ କଲା ?)
The query that the girl made about the writer was whether he was an Indian.

Question 10.
What impression did the writer have about the family of the girl?
(ଝିଅଟିର ପରିବାର ଉପରେ ଲେଖକଙ୍କର କି ଧାରଣା ହେଲା ?)
The writer came to know from the girl that she was living with her old widowed mother. Her only brother, who was her ony guardian, was serving as a soldier in India. They had not had a letter from him for a long time. Her mother was very worried and she was afraid something bad had happened to her son.

Question 11.
How was the writer treated at Maggie’s house? Who was there to welcome him?
(ମ୍ୟାଗିଙ୍କ ଘରେ ଲେଖକଙ୍କୁ କିଭଳି ଚର୍ଚ୍ଚା କରାଗଲା ? କିଏ ସେଠାରେ ତାଙ୍କୁ ସ୍ଵାଗତ କଲେ ?)
The writer reached Maggie’s house accompanying her. She took him to her mother who was in the kitchen. She introduced (ପରିଚିତ କରାଇଲେ) him to her mother. Her mother was very glad to meet an Indian. She welcomed (ସ୍ଵାଗତ କଲେ ) the writer eagerly. The writer was treated kindly at Maggie’s house.

Question 12.
What was Mrs. Bethy doing when the writer met her? Why was she unwilling to go for
a handshake?
(ଲେଖକ ଯେତେବେଳେ ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥଙ୍କୁ ଭେଟିଲେ ସେ କ’ଣ କରୁଥିଲେ ? ହାତ ମିଳାଇବାକୁ ସେ କାହିଁକି ଅନିଚ୍ଛୁକ ହେଲେ ?)
When the writer met Mrs. Bethy, she was in the kitchen making cakes. She was unwilling ( ଅନିଚ୍ଛୁକ) to handshake (ହାତ ମିଳାଇବା) with the writer because her hands were covered with flour.

Question 13.
Why did the girl usually visit the restaurant on Saturdays?
(ଯୁବତୀ ଜଣକ ସାଧାରଣତଃ ଶନିବାର ରେଷ୍ଟୁରାଣ୍ଟକୁ କାହିଁକି ଯାଉଥିଲେ?)
The girl was very poor. She did not earn much. Saturday was her payday. Therefore, she usually visited the restaurant on Saturdays to have her lunch there.

Question 14.
What did Mrs. Bethy believe about the ring?
(ମୁଦିଟି ସମ୍ପର୍କରେ ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥ୍ କ’ଣ ବିଶ୍ଵାସ କରୁଥିଲେ ? )

Mrs. Bethy had a ring that her son had sent from India. She believed that the ring was a miraculous thing and one could see and know about a distant person and his action through the ring by gazing at it and concentrating on him.

Question 15.
(ଲେଖକଙ୍କୁ ମୁଦିଟି ବିଷୟରେ କ’ଣ ପାଇଁ ମିଛ କହିବାକୁ ପଡ଼ିଲା ?)
Maggie persistently (repeatedly) requested the author to look into the ring and tell her mother that Franky was all right and alive in India. As a result, her mother could recover from her serious illness. So keeping this in mind, the author had to tell a lie about the ring.

Question 16.
Did the telling of a lie benefit Mrs. Bethy?
(ମିଛଟିଏ କହିବା ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥ୍ଙ୍କର ଉପକାର କଲା କି ?)
Yes, telling a lie on the part of the writer gave many benefits to Mrs. Bethy who was lying sick on the bed. After hearing about her son’s well-being, the old woman raised her head, and tears of happiness rolled down her eyes. Mrs. Bethy soon recovered from her illness

Question 17.
Why did the writer feel guilty about himself?
(ଲେଖକ କାହିଁକି ନିଜକୁ ଦୋଷୀ ମନେକଲେ ?)
The writer felt guilty about himself because he calculated and found that Franky had been killed some days when he told Mrs. Bethy that her son was alive and all right in India.

Question 18.
What was Maggie’s gift to the writer?
(ଲେଖକଙ୍କୁ ମାଗିର ଉପହାର କ’ଣ ଥିଲା ?)
When Maggie was assured of the writer’s visit to her brother’s grave in India, her face was filled with gratitude. She thanked the writer and gave him a shilling to buy flowers and requested him to lay them on her brother’s grave for her. This was in fact Maggie’s gift to the writer. Maggie’s gift to the writer was only a shilling which she had earned with so much toil.

Question 19.
Why was it a priceless gift?
(ଏହା କାହିଁକି ଏକ ଅମୂଲ୍ୟ ଉପହାର ଥିଲା ?)
The shilling that the girl gave to the writer to buy flowers for her dead brother was not an ordinary one. It was an embodiment of her love, sacrifice, joy, and emotion for her brother. Its cost was beyond all price. It was rare and of high value. Thus, it was a priceless gift.

Question 20.
Did Maggie love her brother dearly? Give reasons.
(ମାଗି ତା’ ଭାଇକୁ ଖୁବ୍ ଭଲ ପାଉଥିଲା କି ? କାରଣ ଦର୍ଶାଅ ।)
Maggie’s love for her brother was sacred and profound. It is beyond description. Her offering of hard-earned shilling for the purchase of flowers to shower on her brother’s grave and a sense of joy as assured by the writer were enough to know about her love for her brother.

E. Let’s Understand The Text Better : (ଆସ ପାଠ୍ୟବିଷୟଟିକୁ ଭଲ ଭାବରେ ବୁଝିବା )

Question 1.
Why did the writer choose the corner table in the restaurant?
(ଭୋଜନାଳୟରେ ଲେଖକ କାହିଁକି କୋଣରେ ଥିବା ଟେବୁଲଟିକୁ ବାଛିଲେ ?)
The writer chose the comer table because the restaurant was very crowded. He saw some of the chairs and tables had been pushed into a comer. He thought a comer place would be a suitable place for lunch and skimming through a newspaper.

Question 2.
How did the writer start a conversation with the young girl ?
ଲେଖକ କିପରି ଯୁବତୀ ଝିଅଟି ସହିତ କଥାବାର୍ତ୍ତା ଆରମ୍ଭ କଲେ ?)
The writer saw the young girl in the restaurant the next Saturday. He went up to her and took the chair opposite hers. He wished her a good afternoon. Then he was able to start a conversation with her.

Question 3.
How could the writer guess the girl to be poverty-stricken?
(ଝିଅଟି ଦାରିଦ୍ର୍ୟ-ପ୍ରପୀଡ଼ିତା ବୋଲି ଲେଖକ କିପରି ଅନୁମାନ କରିପାରିଲେ ?)
The writer on his first meeting with the girl had observed a sad expression in her eyes. The writer also came to know from the waiter of the restaurant that she only came for lunch on Saturdays being her payday. Perhaps she did not earn much. All these things made the writer guess the girl to be poverty-stricken.

Question 4.
Which of the following do you think the author will talk about after meeting the girl?
(ନିମ୍ନୋକ୍ତ କେଉଁଟିକୁ ଲେଖକ ଝିଅଟିକୁ ଭେଟିବା ପରେ କହିବେ ବୋଲି ତୁମେ ଭାବୁଛ ?)
(a) Meeting the girl again
(b) Enquiring about her nature of work
(d) all of the above.

Question 5.
‘I was moved by what he said.’ What impression did the writer get about the girl?
(‘ସେ ଯାହା କହିଲେ ମୁଁ ସେଥୁରେ ପ୍ରଭାବିତ ହେଲି ।’’ ଝିଅଟି ବିଷୟରେ ଲେଖକ କି ଧାରଣା ପାଇଲେ ?)
Being moved by the words of the waiter, the writer’s curiosity about the girl grew. He took pity of her poverty and wanted to help her in any way.

Question 6.
What impression did the girl have on India?
(ଝିଅଟିର ଭାରତ ଉପରେ କି ଧାରଣା ଥିଲା ?)
The girl and her mother had good knowledge of India. That is why they wanted to know from the writer about the kind of country India was. Her mother also wanted to know about Punjab where her son was posted as a soldier. They thought that India was a land of too many snakes and tigers. People in India were often killed by them. They had a strange idea about Indians. They thought Indians were truthful and they could tell the past and the future of man gazing at a ring. It is a land of miraculous happenings.

Question 7.
‘Will it be too much of a lie ?’ Why did the girl say so?
(ଝିଅଟିର ଭାରତ ଉପରେ କି ଧାରଣା ଥିଲା ?)
The girl was too much worried about the miserable condition of her mother. She wanted the writer to tell a lie before her mother that her son Franky was alive and all right. She wanted the writer to tell this lie looking into the crystal for the benefit of her mother. For a good cause if a lie is told, it could be no sin at all. That is why the girl said so.

Question 8.
Why did the writer feel ashamed to face Mrs. Bethy at the time of his return to India?
(ଲେଖକ ଭାରତ ଫେରି ଆସିବାବେଳେ ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥଙ୍କୁ ଭେଟିବାକୁ କାହିଁକି ଲଜ୍ଜାବୋଧ କଲେ ?)
At the time of his return to India, the writer went to Maggie and her mother to say goodbye. But the family was in mourning. Franky had been killed in the fighting on the frontier. The writer calculated and found that Franky had been dead some days before when he told his mother he was alive and well. Therefore he felt ashamed to face Mrs. Bethy. Out of shame, Mr. Gupta wrote to them announcing his departure.

Question 9.
Why was the shilling Maggie presented to the writer an invaluable offering?
(ମାଗି ଲେଖକଙ୍କୁ ଦେଇଥ‌ିବା ସିଲିଙ୍ଗ୍‌ଟି କାହିଁକି ଏକ ଅମୂଲ୍ୟ ଉପହାର ଥିଲା ?)
The shilling that Maggie presented to the writer was not an ordinary gift. It was the symbol of her true love, sacrifice, and emotion for her brother as it was meant for the purchase of flowers to be showered on her brother’s grave. The cost of the shilling was beyond all prices. It was rare and of high value. Thus the shilling was an invaluable offering

F. Let’s learn some words : (ଆସ କିଛି ଶବ୍ଦ ଶିଖିବା)

Words that are not derived or developed from other words are called primary words.
(ମାଗି ଲେଖକଙ୍କୁ ଦେଇଥ‌ିବା ସିଲିଙ୍ଗ୍‌ଟି କାହିଁକି ଏକ ଅମୂଲ୍ୟ ଉପହାର ଥିଲା ?)
In other words, words having no suffixes or prefixes are primary words.
Example – Orange, right, fast, slow.
Compound words are formed noun to noun (moonlight, village bridge) adjective + noun (sweetheart), verb + noun (breakfast) gerund + noun (drawing room), preposition + noun (overcoat) noun + adjective (lifelong).

Compound words (ଯୌଗିକ ଶବ୍ଦ)are formed,
(i) noun + noun (moonlight, village bridge) (ବିଶେଷ + ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ)
(ii) adjective + noun (sweetheart) (ବିଶେଷଣ + ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ)
(iii) verb + noun (breakfast) (କ୍ରିୟାପଦ + ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ )
(iv) gerund + noun (drawing room) ( ଜିରଣ୍ଡ + ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ)
(v) preposition + noun (overcoat) (ବିଭକ୍ତିସୂଚକ ଅବ୍ୟୟ + ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ)
(vi) noun + adjective (lifelong) (ବିଭକ୍ତିସୂଚକ ଅବ୍ୟୟ + ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ)
By adding prefixes like mis, un, in, dis, it, anti, de, make the word negative and by adding suffixes we change the words from noun to adjective, adjective to verb, adjective to an adverb, and verb to noun. This is called derivation. Thus we find a family of words.

Derivation (ବ୍ୟୁତ୍ପତ୍ତି) – It is the name given to the process of making a new word from an old one (word) by the addition of some prefixes or suffixes.
(ପୂର୍ବ ପ୍ରତ୍ୟୟା ବା ପର ପ୍ରତ୍ୟୟ ଯୋଗରେ ପୁରୁଣା ଶବ୍ଦରୁ ନୂତନ ଶବ୍ଦ ଗଠନ ପ୍ରକ୍ରିୟାକୁ ବ୍ୟୁତ୍ପରି ବା କୁହାଯାଏ ।)

(i) Noun + Noun
beauty – spot (ସୌନ୍ଦର୍ଯ୍ୟ ସ୍ଥାନ)
bullock – cart (ବଳଦଗାଡ଼ି)
tax – collector (କର/ଟିକସ ଆଦାୟକାରୀ)
wine – shop (ମଦ ଦୋକାନ)
hospital – bed (ଡାକ୍ତରଖାନା ଶଯ୍ୟା)
stone – work (ପ୍ରସ୍ତର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ)
maid – servant (ଦାସୀ)
orange-juice (କମଳାରସ)
book – maker (ପୁସ୍ତକ ନିର୍ମାତା)
police – dog (ପୋଲିସ କୁକୁର)
ballot – papers ( ଭୋଟ କାଗଜ)
pocket – money (ପକେଟ ଖର୍ଚ୍ଚ)
work – shop (ଗାଡ଼ି ମରାମତି ସ୍ଥାନ/ଗ୍ୟାରେଜ୍)
tea – cup (ଚା’ ପିଆଲା)
needle – work (ଛୁଞ୍ଚିମ)
paper – money ( କାଗଜ ଟଙ୍କା)
horse – race (ଘୋଡ଼ାଦୌଡ଼)
brick – layer ଘୋଡ଼ାଦୌଡ଼)
oil – paint (ତୈଳଚିତ୍ର)
bank – rate (ବ୍ୟାଙ୍କ ସୁଧ ହାର)

freelance (ସବୁ ବିଷୟରେ ଲେଖୁଥ‌ିବା) (ଲେଖକ)
short – cut ( ସଂକ୍ଷିପ୍ତ ପଦ୍ଧତି)
free – thinker (ମୁକ୍ତ ଚିନ୍ତାକାରୀ)
soft – ware ( କମ୍ପ୍ୟୁଟରର ପ୍ରୋଗ୍ରାମିଂ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ)
double – dealing (ଅସାଧୁ ସମ୍ପର୍କ)

(iil) Verb + Noun
make – shift (house) (ଅସ୍ଥାୟୀ ଗୃହ)
light – house ( ବତୀଘର)
turn – coat (ବାରମ୍ବାର ଦଳବଦଳକାରୀ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି)
cut – throat (competition) (ଗଳାକଟା|ତୀବ୍ର ପ୍ରତିଯୋଗିତା)
watch – dog (ପ୍ରହରୀ)
break – fast (ପ୍ରାତଃଭୋଜନ )
pick – pocket (ପକେଟକଟା ଚୋର)

(iv) Gerund + Noun
hearing – aid (ଶୁଣିବା ଯନ୍ତ୍ର)
moving – picture (ହୃଦୟସ୍ପର୍ଶୀ ଚଳଚ୍ଚିତ୍ର)
dancing – doll (ନାଚ କଣ୍ଢେଇ)
dressing – room (ପୋଷାକ ବଦଳାଇବା କୋଠରି)
brain – washing (ଚିନ୍ତା ଉଦ୍ରେକଧାରୀ) (ଆଲୋଚନା |ସମସ୍ୟା)
walking – stick (ଆଶାବାଡ଼ି)
washing – machine (ପୋଷାକ ଧୂଲେଇ ଯନ୍ତ୍ର)

(v) Preposition + Noun
indoor – game (ଘର ଭିତରର ଖେଳ)
uphill (ପାହାଡ଼ ଶୀର୍ଷ)
post – independence (ସ୍ଵାଧୀନତୋତ୍ତର)
outlaw (ସମାଜରୁ ବାସନ୍ଦ ଅପରାଧୀ)
outdoor – game (ବାହାର ଖେଳ)
under – weight (କମ୍ ଓଜନର)

blood – curdling (ରକ୍ତ ଶୀତଳେଇ ଦେଉଥ‌ିବା )
ice – cold (ବରଫ ଭଳି ଶୀତଳ)
chest – deep (ଛାତି ଗଭୀରର)
blood – thirsty (ରକ୍ତ ତୃଷାର୍ତ୍ତ)
moth – eaten (book) (ଉଇ ଖାଇଥିବା) (ପୁସ୍ତକ)
henpecked (ମାଇଚିଆ )
frost – bitten (କୁହୁଡ଼ିଘେରା)

By adding prefixes like (mis, un, in, dis, il, anti) we make the words negative.
(mis, un, in, dis, il, anti ଆଦି ପୁର୍ବପ୍ରତ୍ୟୟ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ଶବ୍ଦଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ନାସ୍ତିସୂଚକ ଅର୍ଥରେ ପ୍ରକାଶ କରାଯାଏ ।)

 inactive (ଅକର୍ମଣ୍ୟ) inadequeate ( ଗଳ୍ପ ) unhealthy (ଅସୁସ୍ଥ) Mismanagement (କୁପରିଚାଳନା) dishonest (ଅସାଧୁ) disappear ( ଅଦୃଶ୍ୟ ହେବା) illegal (ବେଆଇନ) illegitimate (ଅବୈଧ ) ill – timed(ଅସମୟରେ) anti-govemment (ସରକାର ବିରୋଧୀ) anti-people (ଜନବିରୋଧୀ ) anti-malarial (ମ୍ୟାଲେରିଆ ନିବାରକ) de-throne ( ସିଂହାସନରୁ ବିତାଡ଼ିତ କରିବା) de-recognise (ସ୍ୱୀକୃତି ପ୍ରତ୍ୟାହାର କରିବା) de-stabilize(ଅସ୍ଥିର କରିବା) de-grade (ପଦରୁ ସ୍ଖଳିତ କରିବା | ପଦବୀ ପ୍ରତି ଅପମାନ କରିବା)

By adding suffixes we change the words from noun to adjective, adjective to the verb, adjective to adverb, and verb to noun. This is called ‘derivation’. Thus we find a family of words. Here is an exercise for you. Fill in the gaps using the appropriate form in each sentence. One has been done for you.
(ଏଠାରେ ତୁମ ପାଇଁ ଏକ ଅନୁଶୀଳନୀ ଅଛି । ବନ୍ଧନୀ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ଥିବା ଶବ୍ଦର ଉପଯୁକ୍ତ ରୂପ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ଶୂନ୍ୟସ୍ଥାନ ପୂରଣ କର । ଗୋଟିଏ ତୁମ ପାଇଁ କରି ଦିଆଯାଇଛି ।)

Example : (ଉଦାହରଣ)

1. There is an _____________ of anger on his face, (Express)
There is an expression of anger on his face

2. He made his _____________ from the scene after a dialogue, (depart)
Departure ( ପ୍ରସ୍ଥାନ),

3. She performed well at her first ____________ (opportune)
opportunity (ସୁଯୋଗ ),

4. She showed a ____________ for my past life, (curious)
curiosity (କୌତୁହଳ )

5. I had a _____________ with, my friend, (converse)
conversation (ବାର୍ତ୍ତାଳାପ |),

6. You need a lot of ______________ on the subject to understand it perfectly, (concentrate)
concentration ( ଏକାଗ୍ରତା )

(B) Look at the following dialogues carefully and write them in the correct sequence as
they occur in the story.
(ନିମ୍ନଲିଖ ସଂଳାପଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ଯତ୍ନର ସହ ଦେଖ ଏବଂ ଗଳ୍ପରେ ଥ‌ିବା ଭଳି ଠିକ୍ କ୍ରମରେ ସଜାଇ ଲେଖ)

1. ‘How can I ever thank you ?’ she said.
2. ‘Are you leaving today ?’ she asked.
3. ‘When I go to that part of the country I shall visit your brother’s grave and write to you.’
4. ‘Excuse me, my hands are covered with flour ?’
5. ‘My son is in Punjab. He is a soldier.’
6. ‘May I know your name ?’
7. ‘Are you an Indian? My brother is in India.’
8. ‘What kind of country is India, Sir ?’
9. ‘Show Mr. Gupta the ring which your brother sent you.’
10. ‘Mrs. Bethy, your son is alive. He is well.’
7. ‘Are you an Indian? My brother is in India.’
6. ‘May I know your name ?’
4. ‘Excuse me, my hands are covered with flour ?’
8. ‘What kind of country is India, Sir ?’
5. ‘My son is in Punjab. He is a soldier.’
9. ‘Show Mr. Gupta the ring which your brother sent you.’
10. ‘Mrs. Bethy, your son is alive. He is well.’
2. ‘Are you leaving today ?’ she asked.
3. ‘When I go to that part of the country I shall visit your brother’s grave and write to you.’
1. ‘How can I ever thank you ?’ she said.

(C) Study the following combination (collocation) of words. One is an adjective and the other is a noun.
(ନିମ୍ନଲିଖତ ଶବ୍ଦ ସଙ୍କଳନକୁ ଅନୁଧ୍ୟାନ କର । ଗୋଟିଏ ବିଶେଷଣ ଏବଂ ଅନ୍ୟଟି ବିଶେଷ ଅଟେ ।)
Example : (ଉଦାହରଣ)

 Adjective Noun Collocation happy man happy man (ସୁଖୀ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି) (Adj. + Noun) previous day previous day (ପୂର୍ବଦିନ) (Adj. + Noun) wonderful place wonderful place (ଚମତ୍କାର ଜାଗା) (Adj. + Noun) power manner power house (ବିଦ୍ୟୁଗୃହ) (Noun + Noun) good house good manners (ଉତ୍ତମ ଆଚରଣ) (Adj. + Noun) Japanese girl Japanese girl (ଜାପାନୀ ଝିଅ) (Adj. + Noun)

There are a group of adjectives (descriptive words) chosen from the text. They are miraculous, mysterious, brief, only, weekly, virtuous, serious, healthy, and sad. Fill in the gaps choosing, the appropriate adjectives. One has been done for you.
(ଉପଯୁକ୍ତ ବିଶେଷଣଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ବାଛି ଶୂନ୍ୟସ୍ଥାନ ପୂରଣ କର । ତୁମ ପାଇଁ ଗୋଟିଏ କରିଦିଆଯାଇଛି । )

Fill in the gaps choosing,the appropriate adjectives. One has been done for you.
(ଉପଯୁକ୍ତ ବିଶେଷଣଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ବାଛି ଶୂନ୍ୟସ୍ଥାନ ପୂରଣ କର । ତୁମ ପାଇଁ ଗୋଟିଏ କରିଦିଆଯାଇଛି ।)

(i). I hope that some __________ change will occur.
miraculous

(ii). The children have _____________ appetite.
Healthy ( ସୁସ୍ଥ)

(iii). There was some ____________ news for the child.

(iv). She suffered from a _____________ illness.
serious

(v). He leads a ______________ life all the time.
virtuous

(vi). He started with a _____________ description of the subject.
Brief (ସଂକ୍ଷିପ୍ତ)

(vii). He attends every ______________ meeting.
weekly

(viii). Ramesh is the _______________ child of his father.
Only.

(D) Compound adjectives are beautifully formed with the addition of nouns with participles. One a such compound adjective is used in the text
(ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ସହ କ୍ରିୟାର ‘participle’ ରୂପ ଯୋଗ ହୋଇ ଯୌଗିକ ବିଶେଷଣଗୁଡ଼ିକ ସୁନ୍ଦରଭାବେ ଗଢ଼ାଯାଇଛି । ଏଭଳି ଏକ ଯୌଗିକ ବିଶେଷଣ ପାଠ୍ୟବିଷୟରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୋଇଛି ।)
i.e., poverty-stricken
In column ‘A’ there are the nouns and in column ‘B’ there are participles kept in a disordered manner. You are to match them and make compound adjectives. (The first noun becomes the adjective).
(‘କ’ ସ୍ତମ୍ଭ ତଳେ ଦିଆଯାଇଥିବା ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ପଦ ସହିତ ‘ଖ’ ସ୍ତମ୍ଭ ତଳେ ଥିବା ଅସମାପିକା କ୍ରିୟାଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ଯୋଗକରି ଯୌଗିକ ବିଶେଷଣ ଗଠନ କର ।)

 ‘A’ ‘B’ Moth Ridden Heart Made Bed Broken Hand Eaten

 ‘A’ (Noun) ‘B’(Participle) Moth Eaten (ଉଇଖ୍) (ବହି) Heart Broken(ହୃଦୟ ବିଦାରକ) (ଦୃଶ୍ୟ) Bed Ridden(ଶଯ୍ୟାଶାୟୀ) (ରୋଗୀ ) Hand Made(ହାତ ତିଆରି) (ଖେଳନା )

Words in the circles are not written in order. Put them in order and make sentences.

(ଗୋଲେଇ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ଥିବା ଶବ୍ଦଗୁଡ଼ିକ ସଠିକ୍ କ୍ରମରେ ଲେଖାଯାଇନାହିଁ । ବାକ୍ୟ ଗଠନ ନିମନ୍ତେ ସେଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ କ୍ରମରେ ସଜାଅ ।)

G. Let’S Learn Use Of Language (ଆସ ଆମେ ଭାଷାର ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ଶିଖ୍) :

Active and Passive Voice (କର୍ତ୍ତବାଚ୍ୟ ଓ କର୍ମବାଚ୍ୟ ) :
Much objective writing is done in the passive voice. For the passive voice we may use any one of the tenses. With each one we have to use the relevant tense of ‘be’ along with the past participle of the main verb.

 Tense Form Examples in the passive (from the text) Simple Present is/am/are+past participle Mv’s hands are covered with foam. Present Progressive is/am/are+being+PP It is being repaired at the moment. Present Perfect has/have+been+PP It has been kept verv neatly in that envelope. Present perfect Progressive Simple past was/were+PP Maggie’s face was filled with gratitude. Past Progressive was/were+being+PP A letter was being written to her. Past Perfect Past Perfect Progressive Future time had+been+PP Some of the chairs and tables had been pushed into comers. shall/will+be+PP All kinds of things will be sold in night. Referring to would+be+PP The grief in her heart would be eased Future in the past a little.

Note: The present perfect progressive and past perfect progressive in the passive voice is very rarely used.

Question 1.
Supply the correct form of the verb to fill in the gaps in the following narration.
(ନିମ୍ନ ବର୍ଣ୍ଣନାରେ ଥ‌ିବା ଶୂନ୍ୟସ୍ଥାନଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ବନ୍ଧନୀରେ ଥିବା କ୍ରିୟାର ସଠିକ୍ ରୂପ ବସାଇ ପୂରଣ କର ।)
When the match was coming to an end I ___________ (tell) by my father to leave the stadium quickly to attend to my cousin at the hospital where he ____________ bring) by an ambulance. I ____________ (shock) to hear this. An auto rickshaw _____________ (arrange) and I reached the hospital and then to the ward in no time. I saw that my cousin ____________ (bandage) was lying on the bed with saline hanging on a stand beside the bed. The nurse told me he ___________ (inject) with antibiotics.
When the match was coming to an end I was told my father to leave the stadium quickly to attend to my cousin at the hospital where he had been brought by ambulance. I was shocked to hear this. An auto rickshaw was arranged and I reached the hospital and then the ward in no time. I saw that my cousin was bandaged and was lying on the bed with saline hanging on a stand beside the bed. The nurse told me he had been injected with antibiotics.

H. Let’s Write (ଆସ ଲେଖୁ ) :

There are a few dialogues between the teacher and Deepak. Some dialogues are omitted. Fill in the dialogues according to the sequence. A few hints are given in the bracket.
(ଶିକ୍ଷକ ଓ ଦୀପକ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ହୋଇଥିବା କେତେକ ସଂଳାପ ଏଠାରେ ଅଛି । କେତେକ ସଂଳାପ ଛାଡ଼ି ଦିଆଯାଇଛି । ଘଟଣାକ୍ରମ ଅନୁଯାୟୀ ସଂଳାପଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ପୂରଣ କର । ବନ୍ଧନୀ ମଧ୍ୟରେ କେତେକ ସୂଚନା ଦିଆଯାଇଛି ।)

Teacher: Deepak. Please come here if you have finished writing
Deepak: Sir, it is over.
Teacher: _________ (demand the copy)
Deepak: Here is my copy. Sir, the question was difficult
Teacher: ___________? (enquiring)
Deepak: Yes Sir, we were taught this subject twice. But I was confused.
Teacher : (Checking the note) Deepak, _________________?
Deepak: Sir, this sentence was actually told by you.
Teacher: It is just and ____________.
Deepak: Sir, I remember your words. Rome was not built in a day.
Teacher: _________? (Asks to know his response)
Deepak: Sir, I was greatly moved by it.
Teacher: ___________?
Deepak: Sir, I found this sentence in a book
Teacher: ____________?
Deepak: I bought the book at the exhibition. There was a great rush at the exhibition.
Teacher: _____________?
Deepak: I also bought one storybook.
Teacher: It is better to have the companionship of books.

Teacher: Deepak. Please come here if you have finished writing
Deepak: Sir, it is over.
Teacher: Show me your copy, (demand the copy)
Deepak: Here is my copy. Sir, the question was difficult
Teacher: Were you not taught this subject? (enquiring)
Deepak: Yes Sir, we were taught this subject twice. But I was confused.
Teacher : (Checking the note) Deepak, Well, you have written a good sentence. Who told this you?
Deepak: Sir, this sentence was actually told by you.
Teacher: It is just and beautiful.
Deepak: Sir, I remember your words. Rome was not built in a day.
Teacher: How do YOU like this? (Asks to know his response)
Deepak: Sir, I was greatly moved by it.
Teacher: Where have you found it?
Deepak: Sir, I found this sentence in a book
Teacher: Where did you buy this book?
Deepak: I bought the book at the exhibition. There was a great rush at the exhibition.
Teacher: What else did you buy there?
Deepak: I also bought one storybook.
Teacher: It is better to have the companionship of books.
After you have completed writing the dialogues, have to role-play with your peers inside the classroom.

(କଥୋପକଥନ ଲେଖୁସାରିବା ପରେ, ଶ୍ରେଣୀକକ୍ଷ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ତୁମ ସାଙ୍ଗମାନଙ୍କ ସହିତ ଅଭିନୟ କର ।)

Let’s Know More (ଆସ ଅଧ୍ବକ ଜାଣିବା )

B. Opposite/Antonyms

 Word Opposite Word vegetarian non-vegetarian large small persist discontinue widow widower worried composed/calm neatly poorly question answer aggravated lessened serious light depart enter love (n) hatred distant near anxious carefree alive dead spend save repair damage
 Word Opposite Word crowded deserted moved unmoved same different usually unusually approach recoil/withdraw cover uncover bless curse virtuous vicious departure entry buried burnt love (v) hate profusion scarcity gentleman ruffian low high narrow wide brief lengthy

### BSE Odisha 9th Class English The Priceless Gift Important Questions and Answers

Very Short & Objective Questions With Answers.
Answer The Followings In A Sentence.

Question 1.
When did the writer visit the restaurant?
The writer visited the restaurant during lunchtime on a Saturday.

Question 2.
What did the writer see in a corner?
The writer saw that some of the chairs and tables had been pushed into a corner.

Question 3.
What did the girl ask the cashier?
The girl asked the cashier if the writer was an Indian.

Question 4.
The girl’s repeated looking at him and her discussion with the cashier in a low voice made the writer surprised.

Question 5.
What did the writer want to know from the waiter?
The writer wanted to know about the girl from the waiter

Question 6.
How did Maggie open the door?
Maggie opened the door with a thin latch key.

Question 7.
Where was Maggie’s mother when Maggie entered the house?
When Maggie entered the house, her mother was in the kitchen.

Question 8.
What was Maggie’s mother doing when the writer met her?
Maggie’s mother was making cakes when the writer met her.

Question 9.
Why couldn’t Maggie’s mother go for a handshake?
Maggie’s mother couldn’t go for a handshake because her hands were covered with flour.

Question 10.
What was the importance of Saturday night?
Saturday night was a time of festivity.

Question 11.
Why was Mrs. Bethy sick?
Mrs. Bethy was sick, aggravated by her anxiety for her son, Franky.

Question 12.
What did Maggie request from Mr. Gupta?
Maggie requested Mr. Gupta to tell a lie to her mother about her brother looking into the crystal.

Question 13.
How did Mrs. Bethy recover?
Mr. Gupta, the writer, told Mrs. Bethy that her son was alive and well. So she soon recovered.

Question 14.
Why did the writer wish to say ‘goodbye’ to Maggie and her mother?
The writer wished to say goodbye to Maggie and her mother before his return to India as he had an acquaintanceship with them.

Question 15.
Why couldn’t the writer face Mrs. Bethy?
The writer couldn’t face Mrs. Bethy before his departure as her family was in mourning due to the death of Franky.

Question 16.
What did Maggie offer the writer?
Maggie offered a shilling to the writer.

Question 17.
What did Maggie request from the writer?
Maggie requested the writer to buy some flowers and put them on her brother’s grave.

Question 18.
Why didn’t the writer want to accept that shilling from Maggie?
The writer thought that Maggie would have earned the shilling with much toil.

Question 19.
Why did the writer pick up the shilling?
The writer picked up the shilling thinking that the grief in Maggie’s heart would be eased a little by it.

Question 20.
Why was the shilling a priceless gift?
The shilling was an embodiment of her love and sacrifice for her brother. Its cost was beyond all price. So it was a priceless gift.

Answer The Followings In A Word Or A Phrase

Question 1.
Why did the writer feel ashamed to face Mrs. Bethy?

Question 2.
When did Maggie’s face fill with gratitude?
when the author told her that he would visit her brother’s grave and would write to her

Question 3.
Why was Mrs. Bethy unwilling to go for a handshake?
Because her hands were covered with flour;

Question 4.
What did the writer notice in the eyes of the young girl?

Question 5.
Why was Maggie’s mother worried?

Question 6.
Why did the writer wait for his lunch in the restaurant?
Because the restaurant was crowded.

Question 7.
What was Maggie’s first question Maggie to the writer?
Are you an Indian?

Question 8.
When were the people in poor neighborhoods able to spend a little?
On Saturday night.

Question 9.
Who showed the ring to the writer?
Maggie.

Question 10.
“Please come in.”- Who told this?
Maggie

Question 11.
What was Mr. Gupta doing when Maggie knocked at his door?
He was having his breakfast

Question 12.
What was Mrs. Bethy doing when the writer met her?
Making cakes.

Question 13.
“What kind of country is India, Sir 7” Who is the speaker of this question?
Mrs. Bethy

Question 14.
What did Mrs. Bethy show Mr. Gupta in her house?
A photograph

Question 15.
Who prepared tea for Mr. Gupta?
Mrs. Bethy

Question 16.
Who was Mrs. Bethy?
The girl’s old and worried mother

Question 17.
“An Indian has come.”- Who said it to whom?
Maggie said it to her mother.

Question 18.
How much did Maggie offer to the writer to buy flowers for her brother’s grave?
A shilling

Question 19.
How was the girl who was looking at the writer?
She was sorrowful.

Question 20.
What aroused the author’s curiosity about the girl in the restaurant?
Her interest in him.

Fill In The Blanks.

1. I was in a fix. Here the underlined phrase means he was in _____________________.
Dilemma.

2. The crystal is a __________________.
Bright Mirror

3. “Who was the mysterious child ?” Here the word mysterious means _______________.
Strange.

4. “her poverty-stricken sad anxious figure”. Here ‘figure’ means _______________.
Appearance.

5. Franky was working in ________________.
Punjab.

6. Franky was a ________________ .
Soldier.

7. The writer told Mrs. Bethy that India is a _________________.
Fine Country.

8. The writer told Maggie that he had entered ____________________.
The Punjab service

9. When the writer told Maggie that he would visit her brother’s grave, her face filled with ___________.
Gratitude

10. Mrs. Bethy was making them in the evening. _______________ to sell
Cakes.

11. The writer went to the restaurant during _______________.
Lunch.

12. In England, the writer went to a _____________.
Vegetarian Restaurant.

13. In the restaurant, the writer started skimming through the newspaper sitting in the comer of the _____________.
Restaurant.

14. The young girl came to the restaurant on __________________.
Saturdays

Question 1.
“I am glad to hear it.” was said by _____________?
(A) Mr. Gupta
(B) Maggie
(C) Mrs. Bethy
(D) Franky
(C) Mrs. Bethy.

Question 2.
Mr. Gupta told Mrs. Bethy, “Punjab is a ___________ place to live in?
(A) healthy
(C) suitable
(B) fire
(D) beautiful
(A) healthy.

Question 3.
“Please come in.”______________ Who told this?
(A) Mr. Gupta
(B) Mrs. Bethy
(C) Maggie
(D) the writer
(C) Maggie.

Question 4.
Saturday night was a time of ____________ in a poor neighborhood?
(A) payment
(C) marketing
(D) festivity
(D) festivity

Question 5.
“What kind of country is India, Sir ?” Who is the speaker of this question _______________?
(A) Maggie
(B) Mrs. Bethy
(C) cashier
(D) waiter
(B) Mrs. Bethy

Question 6.
Franky was buried ________________?
(A) in Punjab
(B) in London.
(C) near Punjab
(D) near the frontier
(D) near the frontier.

Question 7.
Maggie had come to say goodbye to the writer wearing _________________?
(A) black
(B) red
(C) a saree
(D) a new dress
(A) black.

Question 8.
“her poverty-stricken sad anxious figure”. Here ‘figure’ means __________________?
(A) picture
(B) design
(C) drawing
(D) appearance
(D) appearance.

Question 9.
Franky was working in __________________?
(A) London
(B.) Punjab
(C) America
(D) Delhi
(B.) Punjab

Question 10.
Franky was a ______________?
(A) writer
(B) commander
(C) major
(D) soldier
(D) soldier.

Question 11.
The writer told Mrs. Bethy that India is a ________________?
(A) fine country
(B) beautiful country
(C) healthy place
(D) peaceful country
(A) fine country

Question 12.
How much did Maggie offer to the writer to buy flowers for her brother’s grave _________________?
(A) a shilling
(B) a dollar
(C) five shillings
(D) ten shillings
(A) a shilling

Question 13.
Mrs. Bethy wanted to know about a particular place in India. Write the name of the place _________________?
(A) New Delhi
(B) Punjab
(C) Haryana
(D) Frontier
(B) Punjab.

Question 14.
Where did the writer go to pack his bags?
(A) to the hotel
(B) to the room
(C) downstairs
(D) upstairs
(D) upstairs.

Question 15.
The writer went to the restaurant during ________________?
(A) breakfast
(B) lunch
(C) supper
(D) dinner
(B) Lunch.

Question 1.
Where did the writer go for his launch and what did he experience there?
In England, once the writer went to a vegetarian restaurant to have his launch. He found that it was very crowded. People were eating and drinking and all the seats were occupied by them. He preferred a comer table to sit and wait for his launch and started skimming through a newspaper.

Question 2.
What was the writer’s first impression of the girl?
While waiting for his launch at the restaurant, the writer noticed a young girl. She was looking at him with a very sad expression. At the time of her departure, she asked the cashier about the identity of the writer. It seemed as if she was very much interested to know about him.

Question 3.
The writer was surprised at the behavior of the girl in the restaurant. She was repeatedly looking at him with her large eyes and they had a sad expression. She also asked the cashier about the writer when she was about to leave the restaurant. Her repeated looking with a sad expression made him surprised.

Question 4.
Why was the writer interested to know about the girl?
The writer saw a young girl taking her launch in the restaurant. She looked at him time and again. As she was leaving the place she asked the cashier something in a very low voice That incident made him surprised and he was interested to know about the girl.

Question 5.
What did the writer know about the young girl?
The young girl’s interest to know about the writer aroused his curiosity in her. So after his launch, he asked the waiter about the girl. The waiter didn’t know much about her, still, he told that she was visiting the restaurant only on Saturdays.

Question 6.
Where did the writer go on the next Saturday?
After getting little information about the girl, the writer was anxious to meet her again. He was curious to know more about the poverty-stricken girl. So the very next Saturday he went to the same restaurant. He found her sitting at the same table as before.

Question 7.
Where did the writer meet the young girl again? Why did he sit opposite hers?
The writer came to know that the girl used to visit the restaurant only on Saturdays. He was interested to meet her and know about her. The next Saturday he went to the restaurant and met her again. As she was eating, the writer arranged a chair and sat opposite hers in order to talk to her freely.

Question 8.
How did the writer start a conversation?
The writer came to know about the girl’s visit to the restaurant on Saturdays. He went there on Saturday in order to meet her.
He saw her eating. So he went up to her and took the chair opposite hers. He wished her a good afternoon. After a brief remark, he started a conversation with her.

Question 9.
How could the writer guess the girl to be poverty-stricken?
The writer saw a sad expression in the eyes of the girl. He came to know from the waiter that the girl used to come to the restaurant to have her launch only on Saturday as it was payday. Perhaps she didn’t earn much. All these made him guess that she was a poverty-stricken girl.

Question 10.
The girl came across the writer in the restaurant on a Saturday. She was anxious to know if the writer was an Indian. She asked it the cashier but she was not confirmed it. The next Saturday once again she met him in the same restaurant and came to know

Question 11.
How was the writer treated at Maggie’s house?
Maggie invited the writer to visit her house. Both walked to her house. She took him to her mother, Mrs. Bethy who was busy doing something in the kitchen. She introduced him to her mother. Her mother was very glad to meet an Indian She welcomed the writer.

Question 12.
what was Mrs. Bethy doing when the writer met her? Why was she unwilling to go for a handshake?
Maggie took the writer to her mother, Mrs. Bethy. She was making some. cakes in the kitchen. Maggie introduced him to her mother. Soon the writer held out his hand for a handshake. But she was unwilling to go for a handshake as her hands were covered with flour.

Question 13.
What did Mrs. Bethy request from the writer?
Mrs. Bethy told Maggie to show the ring to Mr. Gupta. It was sent by her son, Franky. She believed that an Indian could see and know about a distant person through the ring which was bought in India. So she requested the writer to try and tell her something about her son.

Question 14.
One day the writer had been to Maggie’s house. He found her mother, Mrs. Bethy was seriously ill due to her anxiety for her son Ma ie requested him to tell her mother that Franky was alive and alright. So he had to tell a lie looking at the ring. He did so only for the early recovery of Mrs. Bethy and goodbye to Maggie and her mother before leaving for India. But the family was in mourning as Franky’s death news had already been received by them. Franky had been killed in a fight on the frontier. Since the writer had told a lie about Franky, he felt ashamed to face Mrs. Bethy. He felt guilty about himself.

Question 15.
When and why did the writer feel guilty about himself?
The writer wished to go and say goodbye to Maggie and her mother before leaving for India. But the family was in mourning as Franky’s death news had already been received by them. Franky had been killed in a fight on the frontier. Since the writer had told a lie about Franky, he felt ashamed to face Mrs. Bethy. He felt guilty about himself.

### The Priceless Gift Summary in English.

Commonly a gift means a presentation or offering to somebody on special occasions such as marriage or birthday. Even a small gift is sometimes considered very valuable and rare. Hence it is called priceless. Here is an interesting story ‘The Priceless Gift’ which deals with a simple gift given by a sister for her brother as a token of pure love.

Notes:
Commonly – ସାଧାରଣତଃ,
offering – ଉପହାର/ଭେଟି,
special – ସ୍ବତନ୍ତ୍ର/ଗୁରୁତ୍ବପୂର୍ଣ,
occasion – ଉତ୍ସବ,
rare – କ୍ଵଚିତ୍‌/ଦୁର୍ଲଭ,
priceless -ଅମୂଲ୍ୟ
token of –

ଉପକ୍ରମ :
ସାଧାରଣତଃ ଗୋଟିଏ ଉପହାର ଜଣକୁ କେତେକ ସ୍ଵତନ୍ତ୍ର ଉତ୍ସବ, ଯଥା – ବିବାହ ଓ ଜନ୍ମଦିନ ଉପଲକ୍ଷେ ପ୍ରଦାନ ତେଣୁ ଏହାକୁ ‘ଅମୂଲ୍ୟ’ ବୋଲି କୁହାଯାଇଥାଏ । ଏଠାରେ ଏହିପରି ଏକ ହୃଦୟସ୍ପର୍ଶୀ କାହାଣୀ ‘The Priceless Gift” (ଅମୂଲ୍ୟ ଉପହାର) ବର୍ଣ୍ଣନା କରାଯାଇଅଛି ଯେଉଁଥରେ ଜଣେ ଭାଇକୁ ଭଉଣୀଦ୍ଵାରା ପ୍ରଦତ୍ତ ଏକ ସାଧାରଣ ଉପହାର ଶାଶ୍ଵତ ସ୍ନେହର ନିଦର୍ଶନସ୍ଵରୂପ ହୋଇଛି ।

About The Writer And The Topic :
In the story ‘The Priceless Gift’ the writer is identified as Mr. Gupta. During his stay in London, he came in contact with a poor young girl named Maggie, who was living with her widowed mother Mrs. Bethy. Her only brother, Franky was serving in India as a soldier in the state of Punjab. She and her mother were worried because they had no contact with Franky for a long time and that had made her mother sick. Her mother Mrs. Bethy believed that the writer being an Indian could see the past and future.

On another occasion, Maggie requested the writer to tell a lie that her brother was alive and well in India so that her mother would recover soon. The writer had to tell a lie against his will. After a few days, her family received the death news of her brother who had died a little before the prediction of writer. It shocked the writer and he could not meet them before his return to India as he felt guilty.

The next day before his departure Maggie met the writer and gave a shilling to him. She requested him to buy some flowers with it and lay them on her brother’s grave on behalf of her. The shilling though a small amount of money was a symbol of her sacred love and affection. Hence the gift was priceless.

Note:
identified – ପରିଚିତ,
contact – ସଂସ୍ପର୍ଶ,
worried –
occasion –
recover – ଆରୋଗ୍ୟ ଲାଭ କରିବା,
will – ଇଚ୍ଛା,
prediction – ଗଣନା/ଭବିଷ୍ୟବାଣୀ,
departure – ପ୍ରସ୍ଥାନ,
shilling – ଏକବ୍ରିଟିଶ୍ ମୁଦ୍ରା (ପାଉଣ୍ଡର କୋଡ଼ିଏ ଭାଗରୁ ଭାଗେ)

ଲେଖକ ଏବଂ ବିଷୟବସ୍ତୁ ସମ୍ପର୍କରେ :
ଉକ୍ତ ଗଳ୍ପରେ ଲେଖକ ଶ୍ରୀଯୁକ୍ତ ଗୁପ୍ତା ନାମରେ ପରିଚିତ ହୋଇଛନ୍ତି । ଲଣ୍ଡନରେ ତାଙ୍କର ରହଣି କାଳରେ ସେ ‘ମାଗି’ ନାମକ ଏକ ଗରିବ ଯୁବତୀ ଝିଅ ସଂସ୍ପର୍ଶରେ ଆସିଥିଲେ ଯିଏକି ତାଙ୍କ ବିଧବା ମାଆ ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥୁଙ୍କ ସହିତ ରହୁଥିଲେ । ତାଙ୍କର ଏକମାତ୍ର ଭାଇ ‘ପ୍ରାଙ୍ଗୀ’ ଭାରତର ପଞ୍ଜାବ ରାଜ୍ୟରେ ସୈନିକ ଭାବରେ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କରୁଥିଲେ । ସେ ଓ ତା’ର ମାଆ ବହୁତ ବିବ୍ରତ ଥିଲେ କାରଣ ତା’ର ଭାଇ ସହିତ ସେମାନଙ୍କର ଦୀର୍ଘଦିନ ଧରି କୌଣସି ଯୋଗାଯୋଗ ସମ୍ଭବପର ହୋଇନଥିଲା, ଯାହା ଫଳରେ ତା’ର ମାଆ ରୋଗାକ୍ରାନ୍ତ ହୋଇପଡ଼ିଥିଲେ । ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥ୍ ବିଶ୍ଵାସ କରୁଥିଲେ ଯେ ଲେଖକ ଜଣେ ଭାରତୀୟ ହୋଇଥ‌ିବାରୁ ଅତୀତ ଓ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତ ଘଟଣା ଜାଣିପାରନ୍ତି । ଅନ୍ୟ ଏକ ଘଟଣାକ୍ରମେ ମାଗି ଲେଖକଙ୍କୁ ଅନୁରୋଧ କଲା ଯେ ସେ ମିଛରେ କୁହନ୍ତୁ ଯେ ତା’ର ଭାଇ ଭାରତରେ ଜୀବିତ ଓ ଭଲରେ ଅଛି, ଯାହାଫଳରେ ତା’ର ମାଆ ଶୀଘ୍ର ଆରୋଗ୍ୟ ଲାଭ କରିପାରିବେ । ଲେଖକଙ୍କୁ ନିଜ ଇଚ୍ଛା ବିରୁଦ୍ଧରେ ଏପରି ମିଥ୍ୟା କହିବାକୁ ପଡ଼ିଲା । କିନ୍ତୁ କେତେଦିନ ପରେ ତା’ର ପରିବାର ତା’ର ଭାଇର ମୃତ୍ୟୁ ଖବର ପାଇଲେ ଯିଏକି ଲେଖକଙ୍କ ଗଣନାର ଅଳ୍ପ କିଛିଦିନ ପୂର୍ବରୁ ମୃତ୍ୟୁବରଣ କରିଥିଲା । ଏହା ପ୍ରକୃତରେ ଲେଖକଙ୍କୁ ଆଘାତ ଦେଇଥିଲା । ଫଳରେ ସେ ନିଜକୁ ଦୋଷୀ ମନେକରି ଭାରତ ଫେରିବା ପୂର୍ବରୁ ସେମାନଙ୍କୁ ଭେଟି ପାରି ନ ଥିଲେ । ତା’ ପରଦିନ ଲେଖକଙ୍କ ପ୍ରସ୍ଥାନ ପୂର୍ବରୁ ମାଗି ତାଙ୍କୁ ସାକ୍ଷାତ କରି ଏକ ସିଲିଙ୍ଗ୍ (ଏକ ବ୍ରିଟିଶ୍ ମୁଦ୍ରା) ଦେଲା । ସେ (ଲେଖକ) ଏହି ସିଲିଙ୍ଗ୍ ବିନିମୟରେ କିଛି ଫୁଲ କିଣି ତା’ ଭାଇର କବର ଉପରେ ତା’ ତରଫରୁ ବିଛାଇବାକୁ ତାଙ୍କୁ ଅନୁରୋଧ କଲା । ସିଲିଙ୍ଗ୍ ଯଦିଓ ଏକ କ୍ଷୁଦ୍ର ପରିମାଣବିଶିଷ୍ଟ ମୁଦ୍ରା, ତାହା ଥିଲା ତା’ର ଶାଶ୍ଵତ ସ୍ନେହ ଓ ଶ୍ରଦ୍ଧାର ନିଦର୍ଶନସ୍ଵରୂପ । ଅତଏବ

Summary:
‘The Priceless Gift’ is a story about a significant gift that is rare and extraordinary. It is a small gift but its cost is beyond all price. Why the gift has become, so valuable, would be clear to us from the following story. The writer, Mr. Gupta, has narrated it from his personal experience. During his stay in London, once he went to a vegetarian restaurant for lunch. It was very crowded and people were eating and drinking.

The writer chose a comer table and while waiting for lunch, he was overlooking a newspaper. Meanwhile, he saw a very young girl looking at him. Her eyes had a sad expression. Before she left the restaurant, she enquired about the writer and wanted to know from the cashier if he was an Indian. She also had another look at him. It surprised the writer and he wanted to know the matter. He asked the waiter about the girl. The waiter said that she used to come for the launch on Saturdays being her payday. Perhaps she did not earn much.

The writer was moved by the waiter’s words. He was thinking about the mysterious child who was enquiring about him. The girl seemed to be extremely poor. So he felt pity for her and wanted to help her. The writer waited for the girl till next Saturday. When it came he went to the restaurant and found the girl sitting at the same table as before. He went to her straight and sat in front of her. He wished her a good afternoon and started talking to her.

The girl named Maggie was happy to meet an Indian, the writer himself. She informed him about her brother Franky, who served in India as a soldier. But her brother had no contact with her family for a long time. Her mother, Mrs. Bethy was worried that something bad had happened to her son. The writer understood the problem of her family and accompanied her home as she wanted him to meet her mother.

When they reached home, her mother Mrs. Bethy was in the kitchen and making cakes. She welcomed him and was happy to meet an Indian. She asked the writer many questions about India. She wanted to know whether India was a safe country to live in. Was it a land of too many snakes and tigers? Did they kill people? Her son was in Punjab. He was a soldier. What kind of place was Punjab? Mr. Gupta the writer told that India was a beautiful country and a fine place to live in.

Then they took the writer upstairs where they discussed India and their Franky. Franky was in India and he had no contact with his family for a long time. Mrs. Bethy showed him a photograph of her son. She also showed a ring that her son Franky had sent from India. The ring had magical power and if anyone would gaze at it thinking about a distant person, he could see that person and know what he was doing.

They had tried it but were unable to see anything. They believed that an Indian could do this miraculous thing. Therefore, they requested the writer to do it. He did not believe in it. But he did not say anything to shatter their dream. After a few months when the writer visited Maggie and her mother, he saw Mrs. Bethy in a serious condition. She was bedridden and was thinking about her son. The condition of her mother compelled the writer to tell a lie.

He went near Mrs. Bethy’s bed where she was lying. Accordingly, watching the ring, he told Mrs. Bethy that her son was alive and well. The old woman, listening to this, raised her head, and tears of happiness rolled down her eyes. She soon recovered. After a few days, his time to return to India came.

He went to Maggie and her mother to wish them goodbye. But then the family was in mourning, The news of Franky’s death had reached them. The writer made a calculation and found that Franky had been killed some days before he told Mrs. Bethy that her son was alive and well. He felt ashamed for saying so and came back without meeting them. He just left a letter writing his departure and bidding them goodbye.

Afterward, on the very morning of his last day in London just before his leaving for India while taking his breakfast, he heard a knock at the door. He opened the door and saw Maggie standing wearing black. She asked the writer about his leaving. In reply, he told her about his leaving and service in India. He had entered the Punjab service. With tearful eyes, she told that her brother Franky was buried near the frontier.

The writer consoled her by saying that he would pay a visit to her brother’s grave after reaching India. Her face filled with gratitude and her voice got choked as she thanked him. She gave a shilling to him and requested him to buy flowers with this and lay them on her brother’s grave for her. For a moment, the writer is very much sympathetic wanted to return her hard-earned shilling on the plea that flowers were available free of cost in his country.

But he thought again and did not want to deprive the girl of the joy of her sacrifice. That shilling was not an ordinary one. It was a shilling of her love,m emotion, joy, and sacrifice. Its cost was beyond all price. Hence it was a priceless gift. The writer accepted the gift and assured Maggie to fulfill her wishes. Finally, he blessed her. While taking leave from her, his eyes were filled with tears.

Notes:
valuable – ମୂଲ୍ୟବାନ
following story – ନିମ୍ନପ୍ରଦତ୍ତ ଗଳ୍ପ,
significant –
character –
vegetarian restaurant – ନିରାମିଷ ଭୋଜନାଳୟ,
crowded – ଜନଗହଳି,
chose – ବାଛିଲେ,
lunch –
overlooking – ଉପରଠାଉରିଆ ଭାବେ ଦେଖିବା,
meanwhile- ଠିକ୍ ସେହି ସମୟରେ,
restaurant – ଭୋଜନାଳୟ,
enquired – ଅନୁସନ୍ଧାନ କଲେ,
cashier – ଟଙ୍କା ହିସାବ ରଖୁଥ‌ିବା କିରାଣି,
surprised’-
matter –
waiter – ପରିଚାରକ,
mysterious – ରହସ୍ୟଜନକ,
extremely – ଅତିଶୟ,
pity – ଦୟା/କରୁଣା,
straight – ସିଧାସଳଖ
in front of- ସମ୍ମୁଖରେ,
accompanied- ସାଙ୍ଗରେ ଗଲେ,
upstairs -ଉପର ମହଲା,
showed – ଦେଖାଇଲେ,
magical power- ଯାଦୁକରୀ ଶକ୍ତି,
miraculous- ବିସ୍ମୟକର,
shatter- ଭାଙ୍ଗିବା,
visited – ବୁଲିଗଲେ,
bed-ridden – ଶଯ୍ୟାଶାୟୀ
compelled – ବାଧ୍ୟ କଲା,
accordingly-ସେହି ଅନୁସାରେ,
raised- ଉଠାଇଲେ,
mourning – ଶୋକାକୁଳ,
calculation – ହୃସାବ|ଗଣନା,
ashamed –
departure – ପ୍ରସ୍ଥାନ,
breakfast – ସକାଳ ଜଳଖୁ,
tearful – ଲୋତକପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ,
consoled – ସାନ୍ତୁନା
gratitude- କୃତଜ୍ଞତା,
sympathetic – ସହାନୁଭୂତିସମ୍ପନ୍ନ,
hard earned -କଷ୍ଟ ଅର୍ଜିତ,
sacrifice – ତ୍ୟାଗ,
assured –

ସାରାଂଶ :
‘Priceless Gift’ ବା ‘ଅମୂଲ୍ୟ ଉପହାର’ ବିଷୟଟିରେ ଏଭଳି ଏକ ଅସାଧାରଣ ଉପହାର ସମ୍ପର୍କରେ ବର୍ଣ୍ଣିତ ହୋଇଛି ଯାହାର ମୂଲ୍ୟ କେହି କଳନା କରିପାରିବେ ନାହିଁ । ଏହା ସାଧାରଣତଃ ଜନ୍ମଦିନ, ବିବାହ ବା ବିଶେଷ ଉତ୍ସବରେ ଦିଆଯାଉଥ‌ିବା ଉପହାର ଭଳି ନୁହେଁ । ଏହା ଏକ କ୍ଷୁଦ୍ର ଉପହାର ହେଲେ ମଧ୍ୟ ଏହାକୁ ଯେକୌଣସି ପରିମାଣର ଅର୍ଥଦ୍ଵାରା କିଣାଯାଇ ପାରିବ ନାହିଁ । ଏହି ଉପହାରଟି କ’ଣ ଏବଂ ଏହା କାହିଁକି ଏତେ ମୂଲ୍ୟବାନ୍ ଏ ସମ୍ପର୍କରେ ନିମ୍ନପ୍ରଦତ୍ତ ଗଳ୍ପଟିକୁ ପଠନ କଲେ ସ୍ପଷ୍ଟ ହେବ । ଲେଖକ, ମହାଶୟ ଗୁପ୍ତା ଏହାକୁ ନିଜ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତିଗତ ଜୀବନର ଏକ ଅନୁଭୂତିରୁ ବର୍ଣନା କରିଛନ୍ତି । ସେ ତାଙ୍କର ଲଣ୍ଡନରେ ରହଣି କାଳରେ ଥରେ ଏକ ନିରାମିଷ ଭୋଜନାଳୟକୁ ମଧ୍ୟାହ୍ନ ଭୋଜନ କରିବାପାଇଁ ଯାଇଥିଲେ । ଭୋଜନାଳୟଟି ଖୁବ୍ ଗହଳି ଥିଲା ଏବଂ ଲୋକମାନେ ଖୁଆପିଆ କରୁଥିଲେ । ଲେଖକ ଏକ କୋଣରେ ଟେବୁଲ ବାଛି ବସିଲେ ଏବଂ ଭୋଜନ ପାଇଁ ଅପେକ୍ଷା କଲା ସମୟରେ ଖବରକାଗଜ ଉପରେ ଆଖୁ ବୁଲାଉଥିଲେ ।

ଏହି ସମୟରେ ସେ ଦେଖ‌ିଲେ ଜଣେ ତରୁଣୀ ତାଙ୍କ ଆଡ଼କୁ ଅନାଇ ରହିଛି । ଆଖୁର ଚାହାଣିରୁ ତାଙ୍କ ବିଷଣ୍ଣ ଭାବନା ଜଣାପଡ଼ୁଥିଲା । ଭୋଜନାଳୟ ଛାଡ଼ିବା ପୂର୍ବରୁ ସେ ଲେଖକଙ୍କ ଆଡ଼କୁ ଆଉଥରେ ଦୃଷ୍ଟିନିକ୍ଷେପ କଲେ ଏବଂ ପଇସା ଦେବାବେଳେ କ୍ୟାସିଅରଙ୍କୁ ତାଙ୍କ ବିଷୟରେ କିଛି ପଚାରିଲେ, ‘ସେ ଭଦ୍ରଲୋକ ଜଣକ ଜଣେ ଭାରତୀୟ କି ?’’ ଏହି ଘଟଣା ଲେଖକଙ୍କୁ ବିସ୍ମିତ କଲା ଏବଂ ସେ ଏହାର କାରଣ ଜାଣିବାକୁ ଚାହିଁଲେ । ସେ ଭୋଜନାଳୟର ଜଣେ ପରିଚାରକଙ୍କୁ ସେ ଝିଅ ସମ୍ପର୍କରେ ପଚାରିଲେ । ପରିଚାରକ ଜଣକ କହିଲେ ଯେ ସେ ଝିଅଟିକୁ ସେ ଚିହ୍ନିନାହାନ୍ତି; କିନ୍ତୁ ଶୁଣି ଲେଖକଙ୍କ ମନରେ ସେ ଝିଅଟି ପାଇଁ ଏକ ଅହେତୁକ ଅନୁକମ୍ପା ସୃଷ୍ଟି ହେଲା । ସେ ଝିଅଟି କଥା ସେ ଚିନ୍ତା କରିବାକୁ ଲାଗିଲେ । ସେ ତାଙ୍କ ଆଡ଼କୁ ବାରମ୍ବାର ଚାହିଁବାର ରହସ୍ୟ କ’ଣ ଥିଲା ଏସବୁ ସେ ଜାଣିବାକୁ ଚାହିଁଲେ । ସେହି ଝିଅଟିକୁ ଯାଇ ଦେଖୁଲେ ସେ ଝିଅଟି ପୂର୍ବଭଳି ସେହି ସ୍ଥାନରେ ବସି ମଧ୍ୟାହ୍ନ ଭୋଜନ କରୁଛି । ସେ ସିଧାସଳଖ ଝିଅଟିର ଟେବୁଲ ପାଖକୁ ଗଲେ ଏବଂ ତା’ ସମ୍ମୁଖରେ ଥିବା ଚଉକିରେ ବସିପଡ଼ିଲେ ।

ଝିଅଟିକୁ ଶୁଭ ଅପରାହ୍ନ ଜଣାଇବା ସହିତ ତା’ ସହିତ କଥାବାର୍ତ୍ତା ହେବାର ପ୍ରୟାସ କଲେ । ମାଗି ନାମକ ସେହି ଝିଅଟି ମଧ୍ୟ ଜଣେ ଭାରତୀୟଙ୍କୁ ଭେଟି ମନେ ମନେ ଖୁସି ହେଲା । କଥା ପ୍ରସଙ୍ଗରେ ଭାଇର ଘର ସହିତ କିଛି ସମ୍ପର୍କ ନାହିଁ ବୋଲି ସେ କହିଲା । ସେଥ‌ିପାଇଁ ତା’ର ମା’ ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥ୍ ବଡ଼ ବ୍ୟସ୍ତ ଏବଂ ତାଙ୍କ ମନରେ ଧାରଣା ଯେ ନିଶ୍ଚିତ ଭାବରେ କିଛି ଅଘଟଣ ଘଟିଛି । ଲେଖକ ତା’ ସହିତ ଭୋଜନାଳୟରୁ ବାହାରିଗଲାବେଳେ ଝିଅଟିର ମନର ଭାବନାକୁ ବୁଝି ପାରୁଥିଲେ । ସେ ଜାଣିପାରିଲେ ଯେ, ଝିଅଟି ତାଙ୍କୁ ତା’ ନିଜ ଘରକୁ ନେବାପାଇଁ ଚାହୁଁଥିଲା । ଗପସପ ହୋଇ ବେଥ୍ ସେତେବେଳେ ରୋଷେଇଘରେ ଥିଲେ । ସେ ଲେଖକଙ୍କୁ ଦେଖି ବହୁତ ଖୁସି ହେଲେ । ସେ ଲେଖକଙ୍କ ସହିତ କଥା ହେଲେ । ‘‘ଭାରତ କିଭଳି ଦେଶ ? ଭାରତରେ ଲୋକମାନେ ସର୍ପ ଓ ବ୍ୟାଘ୍ରର ଶିକାର ହୁଅନ୍ତି କି ? ଭାରତର ପଞ୍ଜାବ କିଭଳି ସ୍ଥାନ ? ସେଠି ତାଙ୍କ ପୁଅ ସୁରକ୍ଷିତ କି ନାହିଁ ?’’ ଇତ୍ୟାଦି ପ୍ରଶ୍ନ ପଚାରିଲେ ।

ଉତ୍ତରରେ ଲେଖକ ଶ୍ରୀଯୁକ୍ତ ଗୁପ୍ତା ଭାରତ ଏକ ଭଲ ଦେଶ ଓ ପଞ୍ଜାବ ଏକ ସୁରକ୍ଷିତ ସ୍ଥାନ ବୋଲି କହିଲେ । ସେ (ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥ୍) କହିଲେ, ତାଙ୍କ ପୁଅ ପ୍ରାଜ୍ଞୀ ସେଠି ସୈନିକ ଭାବରେ କାମ କରୁଛି କିନ୍ତୁ ଦୀର୍ଘଦିନ ହେଲା ତା’ର କୌଣସି ଖବର ନାହିଁ । ସେ ତାଙ୍କ ପୁଅର ଏକ ଫଟୋ ଲେଖକଙ୍କୁ ଦେଖାଇଲେ । ଫ୍ରାଙ୍କୀ ଭାରତରୁ ପଠାଇଥିବା ଏକ ମୁଦି ମଧ୍ୟ ଦେଖାଇଲେ । ସେ ମୁଦି ଏକ ଯାଦୁକରୀ ଶକ୍ତିସମ୍ପନ୍ନ ମୁଦି ଏବଂ ଫ୍ରାଙ୍କା ଲେଖୁଲା ଯେ ଯଦି କେହି ସେ ମୁଦିକୁ ଅନାଇ ରହି କାହା ବିଷୟରେ ଭାବିବ, ସେ ତାଙ୍କୁ ଦେଖାଯିବ । ସେ କେଉଁଠି ଅଛି ଏବଂ କ’ଣ କରୁଛି କଲେ । ଲେଖକ ସେଥିରେ ବିଶ୍ଵାସ କରୁନଥିଲେ । କିନ୍ତୁ ସେ ସେମାନଙ୍କ ଏଭଳି ସ୍ଵପ୍ନକୁ ଭାଙ୍ଗିଦେବାକୁ ଚାହୁଁନଥିଲେ । ତେଣୁ ସେ ସବୁ ଶୁଣି ନୀରବ ରହିଲେ । ଥିଲା । ପୁତ୍ରର ଅନୁପସ୍ଥିତି ତାଙ୍କୁ ଶଯ୍ୟାଶାୟୀ କରିଥିଲା ।

ମାଗି ଏଭଳି ଅବସ୍ଥାରେ ତାଙ୍କୁ ସାହାଯ୍ୟ କରିବାକୁ ଲେଖକଙ୍କୁ ଅନୁରୋଧ କଲେ । ସେ କହିଲେ ଯେ ତା’ ମା’ଙ୍କ ଭଲ ପାଇଁ ଲେଖକ ଟିକିଏ ମିଛ କୁହନ୍ତୁ । ଲେଖକ ଅବସ୍ଥାର ଗୁରୁତ୍ଵକୁ ଅନୁଭବ କଲେ ଏବଂ ସେହି ମୁଦିଟିକୁ ଅନାଇ ତାଙ୍କ ମା’ଙ୍କ ଶଯ୍ୟା ପାଖରେ କହିଲେ, ‘ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥ୍ ଆପଣଙ୍କ ପୁଅ ଜୀବିତ ଏବଂ ସୁସ୍ଥ । ଆପଣଙ୍କର ଚିନ୍ତା କରିବାର କୌଣସି ପ୍ରୟୋଜନ ନାହିଁ ।’’ ଏକଥା ଶୁଣିବା ପରେ ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥ୍ ଉଠି ବସିଲେ ଏବଂ ଆନନ୍ଦରେ କାନ୍ଦି ପକାଇଲେ । ସେ ସଙ୍ଗେ ସଙ୍ଗେ ସୁସ୍ଥ ହୋଇଗଲେ । ଯାଇ ଦେଖ‌ିଲେ, ମାଗି ଏବଂ ତାଙ୍କ ମା’ କଳା ବସ୍ତ୍ର ପରିଧାନ କରିଥିଲେ ଏବଂ ଦୁଃଖରେ କାନ୍ଦୁଥିଲେ । ଫ୍ରାଙ୍ଗୀର ମୃତ୍ୟୁ ଖବର ସେମାନଙ୍କ ନିକଟରେ ପହଞ୍ଚି ସାରିଥିଲା । ଲେଖକ ହିସାବ କରି ଦେଖିଲେ ଯେ ସେ ଯେତେବେଳେ ବେଥୁଙ୍କୁ ତାଙ୍କ ପୁଅ ଜୀବିତ ଓ ସୁସ୍ଥ ଥ‌ିବା କଥା କହିଥିଲେ ତା’ ଆଗରୁ ତାଙ୍କ ପୁଅ ମରିସାରିଥିଲା । ତାଙ୍କୁ ଲଜ୍ଜା ଲାଗିଲା । ତେଣୁ ସେ ସେମାନଙ୍କୁ ନ ଭେଟି ଏକ ପତ୍ର ଲେଖୁ ପଳାଇ ଆସିଲେ ।

ତାଙ୍କର ଭାରତ ଫେରିଆସିବା ଦିନ ସକାଳୁ ସେ ଜଳଖିଆ ଖାଉଥିବା ସମୟରେ କବାଟ ଠକ୍‌ଠକ୍ ଶବ୍ଦ ଶୁଣି ଖୋଲି ଦେଖ‌ିଲେ ମାଗି ଛିଡ଼ା ହୋଇଥିଲା । ସେ କଳା ବସ୍ତ୍ର ପରିଧାନ କରିଥିଲା ଓ ତା’ର ମୁଖମଣ୍ଡଳରେ ବିଷଣ୍ଣତା ଭରି ରହିଥିଲା । ସେ ଲେଖକଙ୍କୁ ତାଙ୍କ ଭାରତ ଫେରିବା କଥା ପଚାରିଲା । ଲେଖକ ହଁ କହିଲେ । ତା’ପରେ ସେ ଲୋତକଭରା ବଦନରେ କହିଲା ଯେ ତା’ ଭାଇଙ୍କୁ ଭାରତର ସୀମାନ୍ତ ନିକଟରେ ପଞ୍ଜାବଠୁ ଅଳ୍ପ ଦୂରରେ ସମାଧ୍ ଦିଆଯାଇଛି । ତା’ର ମନର ଭାବନାକୁ ବୁଝିପାରି ଲେଖକ କହିଲେ ଯେ ସେ ଭାରତରେ ପହଞ୍ଚିଲେ ତାଙ୍କ ଭାଇର ସମାଧ୍ଵସ୍ଥଳକୁ ବୁଲିଯିବେ । ଏକଥା ଶୁଣି ମାଗି କୃତଜ୍ଞତା ଜଣାଇବା ସଙ୍ଗେ ସଙ୍ଗେ ଖୁସି ହେଲା । ସେ ଲେଖକଙ୍କୁ ଏକ ଛୋଟ ଅନୁରୋଧ ରକ୍ଷା କରିବାପୂର୍ବକ କହିଲା, ‘ଆପଣ ଏହି ସିଲିଙ୍ଗ୍ଟିକୁ ନିଅନ୍ତୁ, ଏଥରେ କିଛି ଫୁଲ କିଣି ମୋ ଭାଇର ସମାଧ୍ ଉପରେ ବିଛାଇଦେବେ ।’’ ଲେଖକ ପ୍ରଥମେ ତା’ର ଏହି କଷ୍ଟ ଅର୍ଜିତ ଟଙ୍କାକୁ ନ ନେବାପାଇଁ ଭାବିଲେ; କିନ୍ତୁ ପରେ ସେ ଅନୁଭବ କଲେ ଏହି ସିଲିଙ୍ଗୁଟି ମଧ୍ୟରେ ମାଗିର ତା’ ଭାଇ ପ୍ରତି ଥ‌ିବା ସ୍ନେହ, ପ୍ରେମ, ତ୍ୟାଗ ଓ ଭାବନା ଭରି ରହିଛି ଯାହାକୁ କୌଣସି ମୂଲ୍ୟ ଦେଇ କିଣିହେବ ନାହିଁ । ଏହା ତା’ ଭାଇ ପାଇଁ ତା’ର ଏକ ଅମୂଲ୍ୟ ଉପହାର । ସେ ତାକୁ ଗ୍ରହଣ କଲେ ଏବଂ ଲୋତକଭରା ଆଖରେ ତା’ଠାରୁ ବିଦାୟ ନେଲେ ।

Text -1
I went to a vegetarian restaurant. It was lunchtime. There were people eating and drinking. The restaurant was very crowded. I saw that some of the chairs and tables had been pushed into a comer. I chose the comer table, seated myself, and started skimming through the newspaper. At that moment, I noticed a very young girl looking at me. Her eyes were large and they had a sad expression.

As she was going out she asked the cashier in a low voice, ‘Is that gentleman an Indian ?’ 7 think so’, the cashier replied. The girl looked at me once more and went out. It surprised me. Why? What was the matter ? Her interest in me aroused my curiosity in her. When I had finished my lunch I asked the waiter, ‘Do you know the girl who was sitting out there ?’ No, Sir, I notice she has lunch here on Saturdays. She comes on payday only. Perhaps she does not earn much. ‘ I was moved by what he said. The curiosity I felt about the girl persisted. Why had enquired about me? Who was the mysterious child? 1 kept thinking of her poverty-stricken sad anxious figure. Could I help her in any way?

ଅନୁବାଦ :
ମୁଁ (ଏଠାରେ ଲେଖକ) ଗୋଟିଏ ନିରାମିଷ ଭୋଜନାଳୟକୁ ଗଲି । ଏହା ମଧ୍ୟାହ୍ନ ଭୋଜନର ସମୟ ଥିଲା । ସେଠାରେ ଲୋକମାନେ ଖୁପିଆ କରୁଥିଲେ । ଭୋଜନାଳୟଟିରେ ଭାରି ଗହଳି ଥିଲା । ମୁଁ ଦେଖିଲି କେତେକ ଖାଇବା ଚଉକି ଏବଂ ଟେବୁଲ ଏକ କୋଣକୁ ପଡ଼ିଛି । ମୁଁ କୋଣ ଟେବୁଲଟି ବାଛିଲି, ନିଜେ ବସିଲି ଏବଂ ଏକ ଖବରକାଗଜ ଉପରେ ଆଖୁ ବୁଲାଇଲି । ସେହି ମୁହୂର୍ତ୍ତରେ ମୁଁ ଦେଖିଲି ଜଣେ ଯୁବତୀ ଝିଅ ମୋତେ ଅନାଉଛନ୍ତି । ତା’ ଆଖୁଗୁଡ଼ିକ ବଡ଼ ଥିଲା ଏବଂ ସେଥ‌ିରେ ବିଷଣ୍ଣତା ଭରି ରହିଥିଲା । ସେ ବାହାରି ଯାଉଥିଲାବେଳେ ଭୋଜନାଳୟର କ୍ୟାସିଅରଙ୍କୁ କ୍ଷୀଣସ୍ବରରେ ପଚାରିଲା, ‘ସେ ଭଦ୍ରଲୋକ ଜଣକ କ’ଣ ଜଣେ ଭାରତୀୟ ?’ଉତ୍ତରରେ କ୍ୟାସିଅର କହିଲେ ‘ମୁଁ ସେଇଆ ଭାବୁଛି ।’ ଝିଅଟି ଆଉ ଥରେ ମତେ ଅନାଇଲା ଏବଂ ବାହାରିଗଲା । ଏହା ମୋତେ ବିସ୍ମିତ କଲା । କାହିଁକି ? ଘଟଣାଟା କ’ଣ ଥିଲା ? ତା’ର ମୋ ପ୍ରତି ଆଗ୍ରହ ମୋ ମଧ୍ଯରେ ତା’ ବିଷୟରେ ଯେଉଁ ଝିଅଟି ବସିଥିଲା ତୁମେ ତାକୁ ଜାଣିଛ କି ?’ ‘ନା, ମହାଶୟ, ମୁଁ ତାଙ୍କୁ ଶନିବାରଗୁଡ଼ିକରେ ଏଠାରେ ମଧ୍ୟାହ୍ନ ଭୋଜନ କରୁଥିବାର ଦେଖୁଛି । ସେ କେବଳ ଦରମା ପାଇବା ଦିନ ଆସନ୍ତି । ସେ ବୋଧହୁଏ ଅଧିକ ରୋଜଗାର କରନ୍ତି ନାହିଁ ।’ ସେ ଯାହା କହିଲେ ତାହା ଶୁଣି ମୁଁ ପ୍ରଭାବିତ ହୋଇଗଲି । ସେ ଝିଅ ବିଷୟରେ ଜାଣିବାର ପ୍ରବଳ ଇଚ୍ଛା ମୋ ମନରେ ଜାଗ୍ରତ ହେଲା । ସେ କାହିଁକି ମୋ ସମ୍ପର୍କରେ ଅନୁସନ୍ଧାନ କରୁଥିଲା ? ସେ ରହସ୍ୟମୟୀ ଝିଅ କିଏ ଥିଲା ? ମୁଁ ତା’ର ସେହି ଦାରିଦ୍ର୍ୟ ପ୍ରପୀଡ଼ିତା ଦୁଃଖପୂର୍ଣ ଉତ୍କଣ୍ଠିତ ଚେହେରା କଥା ଭାବୁଥୁଲି । କୌଣସି ବାଟରେ ମୁଁ ତାକୁ ସାହାଯ୍ୟ କରି ପାରିଥା’ନ୍ତି କି ?

Text -2
The week passed. Saturday came again. I went to the same restaurant. As I entered I saw her sitting at the same table as before. She was eating. I went up to her and took the chair opposite hers. I wished her a good afternoon and then by making one brief remark after another, I was able to start a conversation. At last, she asked, Are you an Indian? My brother is in India. He is a soldier. We have not had a letter from him for a long time. My mother is very worried. She is afraid something has happened to him. ‘ I learned that her only guardian was her brother.

She lived with her old, widowed mother Mrs. Bethy. I understood how she felt. I think she wanted me to see her mother but she did not have the courage to ask me to accompany her home. We finished our lunch and got up together. As we walked I asked her, May I know your name ?’ My name is Maggie. ‘ We chatted pleasantly and soon reached the bus stand.

This gave me the opportunity of asking her where she worked. ‘Do you usually go this way ?’ I asked. ‘No’, she answered. 7 usually take the village bridge. It is being repaired at the moment. ‘ Soon we approached their neighborhood. We had reached a narrow doorway. Maggie took a thin latch-key out of her pocket and opened the door. She entered and said, ‘Please come in’.

Together we descended the stairs to the kitchen. ‘Mother’, said Maggie from the doorway, ‘an Indian gentleman has come to see you. ‘Where is he ?’ the old woman asked eagerly. With a smile, I stepped into the kitchen behind Maggie. She introduced us. ‘How do you do ?’ I said and held out a trip hand. ‘Excuse me. My hands are covered with flour. I am making cakes. People will come to buy them this evening. This is the way we make our living- lots of trouble.’

ଅନୁବାଦ :
ସପ୍ତାହଟି ଅତିବାହିତ ହୋଇଗଲା । ପୁନର୍ବାର ଶନିବାର ଆସିଲା । ମୁଁ ସେହି ଭୋଜନାଳୟକୁ ଗଲି । ପ୍ରବେଶ କଲାବେଳେ ମୁଁ ସେହି ଝିଅକୁ ସେହି ଏକା ଟେବୁଲରେ ପୂର୍ବଭଳି ବସିଥ‌ିବାର ଦେଖିଲି । ସେ ଖାଉଥିଲା । ମୁଁ ତା’ ନିକଟକୁ ଗଲି ଏବଂ ତା’ ସମ୍ମୁଖ ଚଉକିରେ ବସିଲି । ମୁଁ ତାକୁ ‘ଶୁଭ ଅପରାହ୍ନ’ କହି ଶୁଭେଚ୍ଛା ଜଣାଇଲି ଏବଂ ଗୋଟିଏ ବା ଦୁଇଟି ସଂକ୍ଷିପ୍ତ ମନ୍ତବ୍ୟ ଦେଇ ତା’ ସଙ୍ଗେ କଥାବାର୍ତ୍ତା ଆରମ୍ଭ କରିବାକୁ ସକ୍ଷମ ହେଲି । ଶେଷରେ ସେ ମତେ ପଚାରିଲା, ‘ଆପଣ ଜଣେ ଭାରତୀୟ କି ? ମୋ ଭାଇ ଭାରତରେ ଅଛି । ସେ ଜଣେ ସୈନିକ । ଦୀର୍ଘଦିନ ହେଲାଣି ଆମ୍ଭେ ତା’ଠାରୁ ପତ୍ରଟିଏ ବି ପାଇନାହୁଁ । ମୋ ମା’ ଖୁବ୍ ଚିନ୍ତାଗ୍ରସ୍ତ । ତା’ର କିଛି ଘଟିଛି ବୋଲି ସେ ଭୟ କରୁଛି ।’ ମୁଁ ଜାଣିବାକୁ ପାଇଲି ଯେ ତା’ର ଏକମାତ୍ର ଅଭିଭାବକ ହେଉଛନ୍ତି ତା’ର ଭାଇ ।

ସେ ତା’ର ବିଧବା ବୃଦ୍ଧା ମା’ ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥ୍ ସହ ରହୁଥିଲା । ସେ କିଭଳି ଅନୁଭବ କରୁଥିଲା ମୁଁ ତାହା ବୁଝିପାରିଲି । ମୁଁ ଭାବିଲି ଯେ ମୁଁ ତା’ ମା’ଙ୍କୁ ଦେଖାକରିବା ପାଇଁ ତା’ ଘରକୁ ଯିବାକୁ ସେ ଚାହୁଁଥିଲା; କିନ୍ତୁ ସେ ଏକଥା କହିବାକୁ ସାହସ କରିପାରୁନଥିଲା । ଆମେ ମଧ୍ୟାହ୍ନ ଭୋଜନ ଶେଷ କରି ଏକାଠି ଉଠିଲୁ । ଚାଲିଚାଲି ଯାଉଥିଲାବେଳେ ମୁଁ ତାକୁ ପଚାରିଲି, ‘ମୁଁ ତୁମର ନାଁ ଜାଣିପାରେ କି ?’ ‘ମୋ ନାଁ ମାଗି ।’ ଆମେ ଖୁସିରେ ଗପସପ ହୋଇ ଗୋଟିଏ ବସ୍ଷ୍ଟାଣ୍ଡରେ ପହଞ୍ଚିଲୁ । ସେଠାରେ ସେ କେଉଁଠି କାମ କରୁଛି ବୋଲି ପଚାରିବାର ସୁଯୋଗ ମୁଁ ପାଇଲି । ‘ତୁମେ ସବୁଦିନ ଏହି ବାଟରେ ଯାଅ କି ?’ ମୁଁ ପଚାରିଲି । ସେ କହିଲା, ‘ନା, ମୁଁ ପ୍ରାୟତଃ ଗ୍ରାମ୍ୟ ପୋଲ ଦେଇ ଯାଏ । ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନ ସେଇଟି ମରାମତି ହେଉଛି ।’ ଆମେ ଖୁବ୍ ଶୀଘ୍ର ତା’ ରହୁଥ‌ିବା ଅଞ୍ଚଳରେ ପ୍ରବେଶ କଲୁ । ଆମେ ଏକ ଅଣଓସାରିଆ ଦ୍ବାରଦେଶରେ ପହଞ୍ଚୁ । ମାଗି ତା’ ପକେଟରୁ ଏକ ପତଳା ଚାବି କାଢ଼ିଲା ଏବଂ ଦ୍ଵାର ଖୋଲିଦେଲା ।

ସେ ଗୃହ ମଧ୍ୟକୁ ପ୍ରବେଶ କଲା ଏବଂ କହିଲା, ‘ଦୟାକରି ଭିତରକୁ ଆସନ୍ତୁ ।’ ଏକତ୍ର ଆମେ ପାହାଚରେ ଓହ୍ଲାଇ ରୋଷେଇ ଗୃହରେ ପହଞ୍ଚିଲୁ । ମାଗି ଦ୍ବାରଦେଶରେ ଥାଇ କହିଲା, ‘ମା’, ଜଣେ ଭାରତୀୟ ଭଦ୍ରଲୋକ ତୁମକୁ ଦେଖା କରିବାକୁ ଆସିଛନ୍ତି ।’ ବୃଦ୍ଧା ସ୍ତ୍ରୀ ଲୋକଜଣକ ଆଗ୍ରହର ସହିତ ପଚାରିଲେ, ‘ସେ କେଉଁଠି ଅଛନ୍ତି ?’ ସ୍ମିତହାସ୍ୟ ଗୃହରେ ପ୍ରବେଶ କଲି | ହସି ମାଗି ପଛରେ ମୁଁ ରୋଷେଇ ସେ ଆମକୁ ପରିଚୟ କରାଇଦେଲା । ‘ଆପଣ କେମିତି ଅଛନ୍ତି ?’ ମୁଁ କହିଲି ଏବଂ ମୋ ହାତ ବଢ଼ାଇଲି । ‘କ୍ଷମା କରିବେ, ମୋ ହାତରେ ଅଟା ଲାଗିଛି । ମୁଁ ପିଠା ତିଆରି କରୁଥିଲି । ଲୋକମାନେ ସେଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ କିଣିବାକୁ ଆଜି ସନ୍ଧ୍ୟାରେ ଆସିବେ । ଏହିଭଳି ଆମେ ଜୀବିକା ନିର୍ବାହ କରୁଛୁ – ଅନେକ ସମସ୍ୟା ।’ – ସେହି ବସ୍ତି ଅଞ୍ଚଳରେ ଶନିବାର ରାତ୍ରି ଏକ ଉତ୍ସବର ସମୟ । ସବୁପ୍ରକାର ଦ୍ରବ୍ୟ ଏହି ରାତ୍ରିରେ ବିକ୍ରି କରାଯାଏ । ଅନ୍ୟଦିନ ଅପେକ୍ଷା ସେଦିନ ଗଳିଟି ଅଧ୍ବକ ଜନଗହଳି ହୁଏ । ଏହିଦିନ ସେମାନେ ତାଙ୍କ ସାପ୍ତାହିକ ରୋଜଗାରରୁ ଅଳ୍ପ କିଛି ଖର୍ଚ୍ଚ କରିଥା’ନ୍ତି ।

Text – 3
What kind of country is India, sir ?’ asked Mrs. Bethy as she resumed her cooking. ‘A beautiful country. ‘Safe to live in? Aren’t there too many snakes and tigers? Don’t they kill people ?’ This type of question has often been asked. Don’t believe that snakes and tigers are killed by the people if they come too close.’ ‘My son is in Punjab. He is a soldier. What kind of place is Punjab ?’

‘Punjab is a fine place. It is a very healthy place to live in. ‘I’m glad to hear it. Mrs. Bethy said. Her baking was finished. ‘Maggie’, she said, ‘take Mr. Gupta upstairs. I’ll wash my hands and bring tea’. As we drank tea I talked about India. Mrs. Bethy showed me a photograph of her son. It had been kept very neatly in an envelope by the mother. His name was Franky. ‘Maggie’, said Mrs. Bethy, ‘show Mr. Gupta the ring which your brother sent you. ‘ She brought it and asked, ‘Can you see the past and future in it ?’ I took it and examined it.

‘When Franky sent the ring’, Mrs. Bethy said, ‘he wrote that if you concentrate on a distant person as you gaze into it, you will be able to see him arid what he is doing. We have not had any news from Frankyfor for a long time. But we have not been able to see anything. Why don’t you try? You are an Indian, you may be able to do it ?” I did not have the heart to tell the mother and daughter that the ring was nothing much-not a miraculous thing from a distant land. How could shatter their dream?

ଅନୁବାଦ :
ରୋଷେଇ କରୁଥିବା ସମୟରେ ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥ୍ ପଚାରିଲେ, ‘ମହାଶୟ, ଭାରତ ଏକ କିଭଳି ଦେଶ ?’ ‘ଏକ ସୁନ୍ଦର ଦେଶ ।’ ‘ରହିବା ପାଇଁ ନିରାପଦ କି ? ସେଠି ବହୁତ ସର୍ପ ଓ ବ୍ୟାଘ୍ର ନାହାନ୍ତି କି ? ସେମାନେ ଲୋକମାନଙ୍କୁ ମାରନ୍ତିନି କି ?’ ‘ଏପ୍ରକାର ପ୍ରଶ୍ନ ବହୁବାର ପଚରାଯାଇଛି । ଆପଣମାନେ ବିଶ୍ଵାସ କରନ୍ତିନି କି ସର୍ପ ଓ ବ୍ୟାଘ୍ରମାନେ ଲୋକଙ୍କ ନିକଟକୁ ଆସିଲେ ସେମାନଙ୍କୁ ମାରିଦିଆଯାଏ ।’ ‘ମୋର ପୁଅ ପଞ୍ଜାବରେ ଅଛି । ସେ ଜଣେ ସୈନିକ । ପଞ୍ଜାବ ଏକ କିଭଳିଆ ସ୍ଥାନ ?’ ‘ପଞ୍ଜାବ ଏକ ସୁନ୍ଦର ସ୍ଥାନ । ଏହା ବସବାସ କରିବା ନିମନ୍ତେ ଏକ ସ୍ବାସ୍ଥ୍ୟକର ସ୍ଥାନ ।’ ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥ୍ କହିଲେ, ‘ଏକଥା ଶୁଣି ମୁଁ ଖୁସି ।’ ତାଙ୍କର କେକ୍ ତିଆରି ସରିଗଲା । ସେ କହିଲେ, ‘‘ମାଗି, ତୁମେ ଶ୍ରୀଯୁକ୍ତ ଗୁପ୍ତାଙ୍କୁ ଉପର ମହଲାକୁ ନେଇ ବସାଅ । ମୁଁ ହାତ ଧୋଇ ଚା’ ନେଇ ଯାଉଛି ।’’ ଆମେ ଚା’ ପିଉଥିଲାବେଳେ ଭାରତ ସମ୍ପର୍କରେ ମୁଁ ସେମାନଙ୍କୁ କହିଲି । ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥ୍ ତାଙ୍କ ପୁଅର ଗୋଟିଏ ଫଟୋ ମୋତେ ଦେଖାଇଲେ ।

ଏହା ମା’ଙ୍କଦ୍ବାରା ଏକ ଖୋଳ ଭିତରେ ଯତ୍ନର ସହିତ ରଖାଯାଇଥିଲା । ତା’ର ନାଁ ଥିଲା ଫ୍ରାଙ୍କୀ । ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥ୍ କହିଲେ, ‘ମାଗି, ଶ୍ରୀଯୁକ୍ତ ଗୁପ୍ତାଙ୍କୁ ତୋ ଭାଇତୋ ପାଖକୁ ପଠାଇଥ‌ିବା ମୁଦିଟି ଦେଖା ।’ ସେ ଏହାକୁ ଆଣିଲା ଏବଂ ପଚାରିଲା, ‘ଆପଣ ଏହି ମୁଦିରେ ଅତୀତ ଏବଂ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତ ଦେଖିପାରିବେ କି ?’’ ମୁଁ ସେଇଟିକୁ ନେଲି ଏବଂ ପରୀକ୍ଷା କରି ଦେଖିଲି । ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥ୍ କହିଲେ, ‘ଯେତେବେଳେ ଫ୍ରାଙ୍କୀ ଏହି ମୁଦି ପଠାଇଥିଲା, ସେ ଲେଖିଥିଲା ଯେ ଯଦି ତୁମେ ଦୂରରେ ରହିଥ‌ିବା କୌଣସି ବ୍ୟକ୍ତିକୁ ଧ୍ୟାନ କରି ଏହି ମୁଦ୍ରିକାକୁ ଅନାଇବ, ତୁମେ ତାଙ୍କୁ ଦେଖିବା ସହିତ ସେ କ’ଣ କରୁଛନ୍ତି ଜାଣିପାରିବ । ଆମେ ଦୀର୍ଘଦିନ ହେଲା ଫ୍ରାଙ୍କଠାରୁ କୌଣସି ଖବର ପାଇନାହୁଁ । କିନ୍ତୁ ଆମେ କିଛି ଦେଖିବାରେ ସକ୍ଷମ ହୋଇନାହୁଁ । ଆପଣ କାହିଁକି ଚେଷ୍ଟା କରୁନାହାନ୍ତି । ଆପଣ ଜଣେ ଭାରତୀୟ, ଆପଣ ଏହା କରିବାରେ ହୁଏତ ସକ୍ଷମ ହେବେ ?’’ ସୁଦୂର ଭୂଖଣ୍ଡରୁ ଆସିଥିବା ଏ ମୁଦି ଯେ କିଛି ଆଶ୍ଚର୍ଯ୍ୟକର ଜିନିଷ ନୁହେଁ ଓ ଏହାର କିଛି ବିଶେଷତ୍ବ ନାହିଁ – ଏକଥା ମା’ ଓ ଝିଅଙ୍କୁ କହିବା ଅବସ୍ଥାରେ ମୁଁ ନ ଥିଲି । ମୁଁ କିପରି ସେମାନଙ୍କ ସ୍ଵପ୍ନକୁ ଭାଙ୍ଗି ଦେଇଥା’ନ୍ତି ?

Text – 4
Several months passed. I visited Maggie and Mrs. Bethy. But no news had come from Franky. Mrs. Bethy was sick, and in a serious condition, aggravated by her anxiety for Franky. 1 was in a fix. What could I say to console the mother? Only God knew whether Franky was still alive or dead. ‘Mr. Gupta’, the girl said, ‘Mr mother has not been ill like this before. I have read in books that Indians love the truth. If you could bring yourself to tell mother only once, after looking into the crystal, that Franky is all right, that he is alive- will it be too much of a lie? Will it be very wrong? I thought it over.

I am not a very virtuous man so I decided to do this, the least of my offenses. Maggie brought me the ring. I took it and approached her mother beside. Wishing her a good morning I said, ‘Mrs. Bethy, your son is alive. He is well. The old woman raised her head a little off the pillow. Tears of happiness welled up in her eyes. Mrs. Bethy soon recovered.

ଅନୁବାଦ :
କିଛି ମାସ ବିତିଗଲା । ମୁଁ ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥ୍ ଓ ମାଗିକୁ ଦେଖା କରିବାକୁ ଗଲି । କିନ୍ତୁ ଫ୍ରାଙ୍କୀ ନିକଟରୁ କୌଣସି ଖବର ଆସିନଥିଲା । ଫ୍ରାଙ୍କା କଥା ଭାବି ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥ୍ ରୋଗଗ୍ରସ୍ତ ହୋଇଥିଲେ ଏବଂ ତାଙ୍କର ଅବସ୍ଥା ସଙ୍କଟାପନ୍ନ ଥିଲା । ମୁଁ ଏକ ଦୋଦୁଲ୍ୟମାନ ପରିସ୍ଥିତିରେ ଥୁଲି । କ’ଣ କହି ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥୁଙ୍କୁ ମୁଁ ସାର୍ଚ୍ଚନା ଦେଇଥା’ନ୍ତି ? କେବଳ ଭଗବାନ୍ ଜାଣନ୍ତି ଫ୍ରାଙ୍କୀ ଜୀବିତ କି ମୃତ । ଝିଅଟି କହିଲା, ‘ଗୁପ୍ତା ମହାଶୟ, ମୋର ମା’ ପୂର୍ବରୁ କେବେ ଏଭଳି ରୋଗଗ୍ରସ୍ତା ହୋଇ ନ ଥିଲେ । ମୁଁ ବହିରେ ପଢ଼ିଛି ଯେ ଭାରତୀୟମାନେ ସତ୍ୟକୁ ଭଲ ପାଆନ୍ତି । ତେଣୁ ଆପଣ ଯଦି ଥରେ ଚେଷ୍ଟା କରି ଏହି ମୁଦ୍ରିକାର ପଥରକୁ ଚାହିଁ ଫ୍ରାଙ୍ଗୀ ଭଲ ଅଛି ଏବଂ ଜୀବିତ ବୋଲି କୁହନ୍ତି । ଏହା କ’ଣ ଏକ ଖୁବ୍ ବଡ଼ ମିଛ ହୋଇଯିବ କି ? ଏହା କ’ଣ ଏକ ମସ୍ତବଡ଼ ଭୁଲ୍ ହୋଇଯିବ କି ?’ ମୁଁ ଏହା ଉପରେ ଭାବିଲି, ମୁଁ ତ ଜଣେ ଅତି ଧାର୍ମିକ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି ନୁହେଁ, ତେଣୁ ମୁଁ ନିଷ୍ପତ୍ତି ନେଲି ଯେ ମୁଁ ଏହି ସାମାନ୍ୟତମ ଅପରାଧ କରିଲେ ମଧ୍ୟ ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥୁଙ୍କୁ ମିଛ କହିବି । ମାଗି ମୋତେ ମୁଦିଟି ଆଣି ଦେଲା । ସେଇଟିକୁ ଧରି ମୁଁ ତାଙ୍କ ମା’ଙ୍କ ଶଯ୍ୟା ନିକଟରେ ପହଞ୍ଚିଲି । ତାଙ୍କୁ ଶୁଭେଚ୍ଛା ଜଣାଇ ମୁଦିଟିକୁ ଚାହିଁ କହିଲି, ‘ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥ, ଆପଣଙ୍କର ପୁତ୍ର ଜୀବିତ ଏବଂ ସୁସ୍ଥ ଅଛି ।’ ବୃଦ୍ଧା ସ୍ତ୍ରୀଲୋକଟି ତକିଆ ଉପରୁ ମୁଣ୍ଡ ଅଳ୍ପ ଉପରକୁ ଉଠାଇଲେ । ଆନନ୍ଦର ଅଶୁ ତାଙ୍କ ଆଖିରୁ ବହିଯାଉଥାଏ । ସେ ଶୀଘ୍ର

Text – 5
It was almost time for me to return to India. I wished to go, to say goodbye to Maggie and her mother. But the family was in mourning. Franky had been killed in the fighting on the frontier. I calculated and found that Franky had been dead sortie days when I told his mother he was alive and well. I felt ashamed to face Mrs. Bethy so I wrote a letter to them, announcing my departure
and bidding them goodbye. The morning of my last day in London dawned. I was to leave that night. / was having my breakfast, there was a knock at the door. Maggie had come to say goodbye.

She was wearing black. ‘Are you leaving today ?’ she asked. ‘Yes’, I replied, ‘today’ is the day of my departure. ‘ ‘How long will it take to reach your country? In which part of the country do you live ?’She wanted to know. 7 have entered the Punjab service. I shall not know exactly where I am posted until I arrive there. ‘Is the frontier very far from there ?’ ‘No, not very’. ‘Franky is buried near the frontier.’ The girl’s eyes filled with tears as she spoke. ‘When I go to that part of the country I shall visit your brother’s grave and write to you.

ଅନୁବାଦ :
ମୋର ଭାରତ ପ୍ରତ୍ୟାବର୍ତ୍ତନର ସମୟ ପ୍ରାୟ ଉପଗତ ହେଲା । ମୁଁ ମାଗି ଏବଂ ତା’ ମା’ଙ୍କୁ ଅନ୍ତିମ ବିଦାୟ ଜଣାଇବାକୁ ଯିବାକୁ ଚାହିଁଲ । କିନ୍ତୁ ପରିବାରଟି ଶୋକାକୁଳ ଥିଲା । ଫ୍ରାଙ୍କୀ ସୀମାନ୍ତରେ ଯୁଦ୍ଧ କରୁଥିବାବେଳେ ମୃତ୍ୟୁବରଣ କରିଥିଲା । ମୁଁ ହିସାବ କଲି ଓ ଦେଖିଲି ଯେଉଁ ସମୟରେ ମୁଁ ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥଙ୍କୁ ତାଙ୍କ ପୁଅ ଜୀବିତ ଓ ସୁସ୍ଥ ବୋଲି କହିଥିଲି ତା’ର କିଛିଦିନ ପୂର୍ବରୁ ସେ ମରିସାରିଥିଲା I ମୁଁ ଶ୍ରୀମତୀ ବେଥ୍ଙ୍କ ସମ୍ମୁଖକୁ ଯିବାକୁ ଲଜ୍ଜାବୋଧ କଲି, ତେଣୁ ଏକ ଚିଠି ଲେଖୁ ମୋର ପ୍ରତ୍ୟାବର୍ତ୍ତନ କଥା ଜଣାଇ ସେମାନଙ୍କୁ ବିଦାୟକାଳୀନ ଶୁଭେଚ୍ଛା ଜଣାଇଲି । ମୋର ଲଣ୍ଡନରେ ରହଣିର ଶେଷଦିନର ସକାଳ ହେଲା । ସେଦିନ ରାତିରେ ବିଦାୟ ନେବାର ଥିଲା । ମୁଁ ମୋର ଜଳଖିଆ ମାଗି ଶେଷ ବିଦାୟ ଜଣାଇବାପାଇଁ ଆସିଥିଲା । ସେ କଳା ପୋଷାକ ପରିଧାନ କରିଥିଲା । ସେ ପଚାରିଲା, ‘ଆଜି ଆପଣ ଯାଉଛନ୍ତି କି ?’ ମୁଁ ଉତ୍ତର ଦେଲି, ‘ହଁ, ଆଜି ମୋର ବିଦାୟ ଦିନ ।’ ସେ ଜାଣିବାକୁ ଚାହିଁଲା, ‘ଆପଣଙ୍କ ଦେଶରେ ପହଞ୍ଚିବାକୁ କେତେ ଦିନ ଲାଗିବ ? ଆପଣ ଦେଶର କେଉଁ ଭାଗରେ ରୁହନ୍ତି ?’ ‘ମୁଁ ପଞ୍ଜାବରେ ଚାକିରିରେ ଯୋଗ ଦେଉଛି । ସେଠାରେ ନ ପହଞ୍ଚିବା ଯାଏ କେଉଁ ନିର୍ଦ୍ଦିଷ୍ଟ ସ୍ଥାନରେ ମୋତେ ନିଯୁକ୍ତି ଦିଆଯାଇଛି ତାହା ଜାଣିପାରିବି ନାହିଁ ।’’ ‘ସେଠାରୁ ସୀମାନ୍ତ ଅର୍ଧ ଦୂର କି ?’ ‘ନା, ଅଧିକ ଦୂର ନୁହେଁ ?’ ହୋଇଯାଇଥିଲା । ‘ମୁଁ ଯେତେବେଳେ ଦେଶର ସେ ଅଞ୍ଚଳକୁ ଯିବି ତୁମ ଭାଇଙ୍କର ସମାଧ୍ଵସ୍ଥଳକୁ ବୁଲିଯିବି ଏବଂ ତୁମକୁ ଏ ବିଷୟରେ ଚିଠି ଲେଖୁ ।’

Text – 6
Maggie’sfacefilled with gratitude. As she thanked me her voice choked. She took a shilling out of her packet, saying, ‘Please buy flowers with this when you go, and lay them on my brother’s grave for me. ‘ In my emotion, I lowered my eyes. The child had earned the shilling with so much toil. I felt like returning it to her, explaining that in our country flowers grow in great profusion. But I considered, ‘Why should I deprive her of the joy this sacrifice would give her ?’ She was foregoing so much for the love of her brother.

The joy of doing it was beyond all price. The grief in her heart would be eased a little. I picked up the shilling. ‘Maggie’, I said, I shall use this shilling to buy flowers and put them on your brother’s grave.’ Maggie stood up. ‘How can I ever thank you, she said. ‘Goodbye. Remember to write. I got up and held her hand. ‘Goodbye, Maggie, God bless you, ’ I said. Maggie left. I wiped a tear from my eyes and went upstairs to pack my bags.

ଅନୁବାଦ :
ମାଗିର ମୁଖମଣ୍ଡଳ କୃତଜ୍ଞତାରେ ଭରିଗଲା । ସେ ମୋତେ ଧନ୍ୟବାଦ ଦେଲାବେଳେ ତା’ କଣ୍ଠ ରୁଦ୍ଧ ହୋଇଆସିଲା । ସେ ତା’ ପକେଟରୁ ଗୋଟିଏ ସିଲିଂ ମୁଦ୍ରା କାଢ଼ି କହିଲା, ‘ଆପଣ ସେଠାକୁ ଯିବାବେଳେ ଏଥ‌ିରେ କିଛି ଫୁଲ କିଣି ମୋ ଭାଇର ସମାଧ୍ ଉପରେ ଦୟାକରି ମୋ’ ପାଇଁ ବିଛାଇ ଦେବେ ।’ ଭାବବିହ୍ଵଳ ଅବସ୍ଥାରେ ମୁଁ ଚକ୍ଷୁ ଅବନତ କଲି । ପିଲାଟି ବହୁତ ପରିଶ୍ରମ କରି ସିଲିଂଟି ଉପାର୍ଜନ କରିଥିଲା । ଆମ ଦେଶରେ ଫୁଲ ପ୍ରଚୁର ପରିମାଣରେ ମିଳେ ବୋଲି ବୁଝାଇ ମୁଁ ତାକୁ ଏହା ଫେରାଇ ଦେବାକୁ ଚାହୁଁଥୁଲି । କିନ୍ତୁ ମୁଁ ବିଚାର କଲି, ‘ଏହି ତ୍ୟାଗ ତାକୁ ଯେଉଁ ଆନନ୍ଦ ଦେବ ସେଥୁରୁ ମୁଁ କାହିଁକି ତାକୁ ସେଥୁରୁ ବଞ୍ଚିତ କରିବି ?’ ଭାଇ ପ୍ରତି ଥ‌ିବା ଶ୍ରଦ୍ଧା ପାଇଁ ସେ ଅନେକ ତ୍ୟାଗ ପାଇଁ ପ୍ରସ୍ତୁତ ଥିଲା । ଏହି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କରିବାର ଆନନ୍ଦ ମହାର୍ଘ ଥିଲା । ତା’ ହୃଦୟର ବେଦନା ସାମାନ୍ଯ ଲାଘବ ହେବ । ମୁଁ ସିଲିଂଟି ଉଠାଇନେଲି । ମୁଁ କହିଲି, ‘ମାଗି, ମୁଁ ଏହି ସିଲିଂରେ ଫୁଲ କିଣିବି ଓ ତୁମ ଭାଇଙ୍କ କବର ଉପରେ ବିଛାଇଦେବି ।’ ମାଗି ଛିଡ଼ାହେଲା । ସେ କହିଲା, ‘ମୁଁ ଆପଣଙ୍କୁ କିପରି ଧନ୍ୟବାଦ ଜଣାଇବି । ମୋ ପାଖକୁ ମନେପକାଇ ଚିଠି ଲେଖିବେ ।’ ମୁଁ ଛିଡ଼ାହେଲି ଏବଂ ତା’ ହାତ ଧରିଲି । ମୁଁ କହିଲି ‘ଶୁଭ ବିଦାୟ ମାଗି, ଭଗବାନ୍ ତୋତେ ଆଶୀର୍ବାଦ କରନ୍ତୁ ।’ ମାଗି ଚାଲିଗଲା । ମୁଁ ମୋ ଆଖିରୁ ଝରି ଆସିଥିବା ଏକ ଲୁହବିନ୍ଦୁକୁ ପୋଛିଲି ଏବଂ ଜିନିଷପତ୍ର ବାନ୍ଧିବାକୁ ଉପର ମହଲାକୁ ଗଲି ।

Notes And GLOSSARY (ଟିପ୍‌ପଣୀ ଓ କଠିନ ଶବ୍ଦାର୍ଥ: )
Vegetarian Restaurant – an eating place where no animal food is served – ନିରାମିଷ ଭୋଜନାଳୟ, My uncle is running a vegetarian restaurant in Puri.
Pushed Into – taken into by force ଭିତରକୁ ଠେଲି ଦିଆଗଲା
Crowded – a lot of people ଜନବହୁଳ A daily market is a crowded place.
skimming through – reading something quickly ଖବରକାଗଜ ଉପରେ While waiting for the train, he was skimming through a newspaper.
priceless – extremely valuable or important
Gift – ଉପହାର a thing that we offer to somebody on a special occasion
waiter – a person who serves food in a hotel ଖାଦ୍ୟ ବିତରକ
cashier – a person who maintains cash in an organization ଭଲ ଭାବରେ
noticed – saw carefully He noticed me in a crowded street. ବିମର୍ଷ ଭାବ sad expression  I am worried about my friend’s sad expression over the issue of his family feud.
Aroused – awakened, stirred ଜାଗ୍ରତ କଲା The story has aroused my interest.
curiosity – a strong desire to know something – Our curiosity in space research has brought success to us
What was the matter ?- What was the problem? – ସମସ୍ୟା କ’ଣ?
payday – the day on which one gets wages – ମଜୁରି ମିଳିବା ଦିବସ
persisted – the day on which one gets wages – ବଳବତ୍ତର ରହିଲା, ଅବିରତ ଲାଗି ରହିଲା The pain persisted into the morning.
enquired about – wanted to know in details about somebody – (ଟିକିନିଖ୍) ଚାହୁଁଥିଲେ
mysterious – very strange and difficult to explain – ଅଦ୍ଭୁତ|ବିସ୍ମୟକର Her behavior is often mysterious.
poverty-stricken- suffering extremely because of lack of money – ଦାରିଦ୍ର୍ୟ ପ୍ରପୀଡ଼ିତ Most of the people of our country are poverty-stricken.
anxious figure – very worried person – ଅତ୍ୟନ୍ତ ବିବ୍ରତ/ବ୍ୟାକୁଳ ବା ଚିନ୍ତିତ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି
conversation- talk / discussion – କଥାବାର୍ତ୍ତା
widowed – ବିଧବା a woman having no husband
courage – boldness, effrontery, fearlessness, temerity ସାହସକତା
accompany – to go with / to travel with ସାଥିରେ ଯବା
got up – rose stood on the feet
usually – generally, as usual, normally, commonly – ସାଧାରଣତଃ
opposite – ସମ୍ମୁଖରେ
opportunity – a situation that makes it possible for you to do something that you want to do – ସୁଯୋଗ | We should not misuse any opportunity whenever it comes to serving our nation.
a thin latch key – ଏକ ପତଳା ଚାବି a thin key for a latch (lock) He uses a thin latch key to lock his room
chat (v) – to talk in a friendly way
festivity – celebration – ଉତ୍ସବ ପାଳନ
neighborhood – people living in a nearby place or a village – ଏକ ଅଞ୍ଚଳର ଲୋକମାନେ
descend (v) – went down –
doorway – an opening where there is a door – ପବେଶପଥ
stare – look at something or someone with wide-open eyes – ଆଖିରେ ଚାହିଁବା
concentrate – to give all attention – ଏକାଗ୍ର ହେବା . My father advised me to concentrate on my studies
resume – start again – ପୁନବାର ଆରମ୍ଭ କରିବା
miraculous – amazing, unbelievable, surprising, and fortunate ବିସ୍ମୟକର India’s victory in the third world cup cricket was miraculous.
eagerly (adv.) – ଉତ୍ସାହର ସହିତ, ଆଗ୍ରହ ସହିତ,
aggravated – worsened – ଅତି ଖରାପ ଅବସ୍ଥା Our country’s economy in pack (v) – was aggravated.
bake (v) – make something using dry heat – ସେକାବା
in a fix – in a dilemma – ଅନଜ୍ୟୋପାୟ, He was in a fix over the matter of his support to political parties.
excuse me – ମୋତେ କ୍ଷମା କରିବେ
crystal – a mineral or a rock (clear and transparent) – ଏକ ପଥର ଖଣିଜ ଦ୍ରବ୍ୟ (ଉଜ୍ଜ୍ଵଳ ଏବଂ ସ୍ଵଚ୍ଛ) Her innocence is crystal clear.
choke (v) – ଚକ୍କର
offenses – crime, wrong-doing – ଅପରାଧ Travelling without a ticket is an offense.
welled up – appeared – ଦେଖାଗଲା | He welled up suddenly in the morning.
deprive (v) – ବଞ୍ଚିତ କରିବା | ଛଡ଼େଇ ନେବା
mourning – lamenting or grieving for a dead person – ମୃତ୍ୟୁରେ ଶୋକାଭିଭୂତ ହେବା The entire nation was mourning after the death of Mahatma Gandhi
accompany (v)- travel with someone – ସାଙ୍ଗରେ ଯିବା
gaze (v) – look fixedly – ସ୍ଥିର ଦୃଷ୍ଟିରେ ଚାହିଁବା
shatter (v) – destroy something completely – ନଷ୍ଟ ବା ଧ୍ବଂସ କରିବା
anxiety – a feeling of worries ଚିନ୍ତା,
console (v) – give comfort to someone during sadness
virtuous (adj) – good quality of a person ନୀତିବାନ୍ | ସାଧୁ
approach (v)- come nearer
ease (v) – ଆରାମ ଦେବା
wipe (v) – clean something using a piece of dry cloth – ପୋଛି ସଫା କରିବା
toil (n) – hard work
emotion – a strong feeling of love and hatred – ଉତ୍କଣ୍ଠା
recover (v) – become well after illness ଆରୋଗ୍ୟ ହେବା
announcing – ଘୋଷଣା declaring, revealing, reporting Gandhi gave a call announcing non-cooperation.
poverty – suffering extremely due to lack of food and money ଦାରିଦ୍ର୍ୟ
bury – ସମାଧି
grave – a grave is a place where a dead person is buried – ସମାଧ୍ଵସ୍ଥଳ Everybody will go to the grave after death
dawn – ସକାଳ ହେବା
gratitude – କୃତଜ୍ଞତା ଅନୁଭବ କରିବା the feeling of being grateful I must express my gratitude to the chief guest for accepting our invitation.
bid goodbye – ବିଦାୟ
shilling – a unit of money (20 shillings make an English pound)- (ଏହା ଏକ ବ୍ରିଟିଶ୍ ମୁଦ୍ରା) My father gave me a shilling on my birthday.
grief (n) – ଦୁଖ
departure – ପ୍ରସ୍ଥାନ
profusion – abundance, plenty – ପ୍ରଚୁର Roses grow in profusion in the garden
sacrifice (n) – ତ୍ୟାଗ
foregoing – sacrificing – ତ୍ୟାଗ କରିବା She was foregoing so much for the love of her brother.
pack (v) – ପ୍ୟାକ୍ କରନ୍ତୁ |

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## BSE Odisha 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 7 ଉଭିଦ ଏବଂ ପ୍ରାଣୀମାନଙ୍କର ସଂରକ୍ଷଣ

Odisha State Board BSE Odisha 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 7 ଉଭିଦ ଏବଂ ପ୍ରାଣୀମାନଙ୍କର ସଂରକ୍ଷଣ Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers. Try More: INDIAMART Pivot Point Calculator

## BSE Odisha Class 8 Science Solutions Chapter 7 ଉଭିଦ ଏବଂ ପ୍ରାଣୀମାନଙ୍କର ସଂରକ୍ଷଣଅଧାତୁ

Question 1.
ଶୂନ୍ୟସ୍ଥାନ ପୂରଣ କର ।
(କ) ପ୍ରାଣୀମାନଙ୍କୁ ସେମାନଙ୍କର ନିଜ ପରିବେଶରେ ସୁରକ୍ଷା ଦେବା ସ୍ଥାନିକୁ ………… କୁହାଯାଏ ।
(ଖ) ଗୋଟିଏ ନିର୍ଦ୍ଦିଷ୍ଟ ସ୍ଥାନରେ ଦେଖାଦେଉଥ‌ିବା ପ୍ରାଣୀ |ଉଭିଦ ଜାତିକୁ ………………….. କୁହାଯାଏ ।
(ଗ) ପରିବ୍ରାଜକ ପକ୍ଷୀ ………………… ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତନ ଯୋଗୁଁ ବହୁ ଦୂରକୁ ଉଡ଼ିଯାଆନ୍ତି ।

(କ) ଅଭୟାରଣ୍ୟ
(ଖ) ସ୍ଥାନିକ ଜାତି
(ଗ) ପାଗ

Question 2.
ପ୍ରଭେଦ ଦର୍ଶାଅ :
(କ) ଅଭୟାରଣ୍ୟ ଓ ଜୀବମଣ୍ଡଳ ସଂରକ୍ଷିତ ସ୍ଥାନ (81)
(ଖ) ଚିଡ଼ିଆଖାନା ଓ ଅଭୟାରଣ୍ୟ
(ଗ) ବିପଦଗ୍ରସ୍ତ ଓ ବିଲୁପ୍ତ ଜାତି ଉଦ୍ଭଦସମୂହ ଓ ପ୍ରାଣୀକୁଳ
ଉ-
(କ) ଅଭୟାରଣ୍ୟ ଓ ଜୀବମଣ୍ଡଳ ସଂରକ୍ଷିତ ସ୍ଥାନ (81)

(ଖ) ଚିଡ଼ିଆଖାନା ଓ ଅଭୟାରଣ୍ୟ

(ଗ) ବିପଦଗ୍ରସ୍ତ ଓ ବିଲୁପ୍ତ ଜାତି ଉଦ୍ଭଦ ସମୂହ ଓ ପ୍ରାଣୀକୁଳ
ଉ-

Question 3.
ଜଙ୍ଗଲ ଧ୍ବଂସ ହେତୁ ନିମ୍ନଲିଖ୍ଯ ବିଷୟ ଉପରେ କ’ଣ ପ୍ରଭାବ ପଡ଼େ ଆଲୋଚନା କର । (କ) ବନ୍ୟପ୍ରାଣୀ (ଖ) ଗ୍ରାମାଞ୍ଚଳ (ଗ) ପୃଥ‌ିବୀ (ଘ) ପରିବେଶ (ଙ) ସହରାଞ୍ଚଳ (ଚ) ପରପିଢ଼ି
ଉ-
(କ) ବନ୍ୟପ୍ରାଣୀ :
ଜଙ୍ଗଲ ଧ୍ଵଂସ ଯୋଗୁଁ ବନ୍ୟପ୍ରାଣୀମାନଙ୍କର ପ୍ରାକୃତିକ ବାସସ୍ଥଳୀ ନଷ୍ଟ ହୋଇଥାଏ; ଫଳରେ ଏମାନେ ପ୍ରଥମେ ବିପଦଗ୍ରସ୍ତ ପ୍ରାଣୀ ଓ ପରବର୍ତ୍ତୀ ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟରେ ବିଲୁପ୍ତ ଜାତିରେ ପରିଣତ ହୋଇଥା’ନ୍ତି ।
(ଖ) ଗ୍ରାମାଞ୍ଚଳ :
ଜଙ୍ଗଲ ଧ୍ୱଂସ ଯୋଗୁଁ ସୃଷ୍ଟି ହେଉଥ‌ିବା ଅବସ୍ଥା; ଯଥା – ବୃଷ୍ଟିପାତରେ ଅନିୟମିତତା, ମୃତ୍ତିକାର ଉର୍ବରତା ହ୍ରାସ ଓ ବନ୍ୟା ଇତ୍ୟାଦିର ପ୍ରତିକୂଳ ପ୍ରଭାବ ଗ୍ରାମାଞ୍ଚଳ ଉପରେ ଅଧ୍ଵ ମାତ୍ରାରେ ପଡ଼ିଥାଏ ।

(ଗ) ପୃଥ‌ିବୀ :
ଜଙ୍ଗଲ ଧ୍ଵଂସ ଯୋଗୁଁ ମାଟିର ଧର୍ମ ବଦଳିଯାଉଛି । ମୃଭିକାର ଉପର ସ୍ତର କ୍ଷୟ ହେଉଥିବାରୁ ତଳେ ଥିବା କଠିନ ଓ ପଥୁରିଆ ସ୍ତର ଉପରକୁ ଦେଖାଯାଉଛି । ଏହି ସ୍ତରରେ ଖତିରର ପରିମାଣ କମ୍ ଥ‌ିବାରୁ ଧୀରେ ଧୀରେ ଉର୍ବର ମୃତ୍ତିକା ମରୁଭୂମିରେ ପରିଣତ ହେଉଛି ।

(ଘ) ପରିବେଶ :
ଜଙ୍ଗଲ ଧ୍ଵଂସ କାରଣରୁ ବାୟୁମଣ୍ଡଳରେ ଅଙ୍ଗରାକାମ୍ଳର ପରିମାଣ ବୃଦ୍ଧି ପାଇଥିବାରୁ ପୃଥ‌ିବୀର ତାପମାତ୍ରା ବୃଦ୍ଧି- ପାଉଛି; ଫଳରେ ଜଳଚକ୍ର ବାଧାପ୍ରାପ୍ତ ହେଉଛି ଏବଂ ବୃଷ୍ଟିପାତ କମିଯାଉଛି ଓ ମରୁଡ଼ି ଦେଖାଦେଉଛି ।

(ଡ) ସହରାଞ୍ଚଳ :
ଜଙ୍ଗଲ ଧ୍ୱଂସ ଯୋଗୁଁ ବାୟୁମଣ୍ଡଳରେ ଅଙ୍ଗାରକାମ୍ଳର ପରିମାଣ ବୃଦ୍ଧିପାଉଛି । ସହରାଞ୍ଚଳରେ ଗାଡ଼ିମଟରରୁ ନିର୍ଗତ ଧୂଆଁ ଏହି ବୃଦ୍ଧିକୁ ତ୍ୱରାନ୍ବିତ କରୁଛି । ଅଙ୍ଗାରକାମ୍ଳ ପୃଥ‌ିବୀରୁ ବିକିରିତ ତାପ ଶୋଷଣ କରିବାଦ୍ୱାରା ସହରାଞ୍ଚଳର ତାପମାତ୍ରା ଅତ୍ୟଧ୍ବକ ବୃଦ୍ଧି ପାଉଛି ।

(ଚ) ପରପିଢ଼ି
ଜଙ୍ଗଲ ଧ୍ଵଂସ ପ୍ରକ୍ରିୟା ବନ୍ଦ ନ ହେଲେ ବା ଧ୍ଵଂସରୁ ରକ୍ଷାପାଇବାପାଇଁ ପୁନଃବନୀକରଣ କରା ନଗଲେ ପର ପିଢ଼ିର ପ୍ରାଣୀମାନେ ପୃଥ‌ିବୀରେ ବଞ୍ଚିରହିବା ପାଇଁ ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ ମୁହୂର୍ତ୍ତରେ ପ୍ରକୃତି ବିରୁଦ୍ଧରେ ସଂଗ୍ରାମ କରିବାକୁ ବାଧ୍ୟହେବେ । ସୁତରାଂ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତର ସବୁଜ ଅରଣ୍ୟ ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନର ବୃକ୍ଷରୋପଣ ଉପରେ ହିଁ ନିର୍ଭରଶୀଳ ।

Question 4.
କ’ଣ ଘଟିବ ଯଦି
(କ) ଆମେ ଗଛ କାଟିଚାଲୁ
(ଖ) ଗୋଟିଏ ପ୍ରାଣୀର ପରିସ୍ଥାନ ବିପର୍ଯ୍ୟସ୍ତ ହୁଏ
(ଗ) ମାଟିର ଉପର ସ୍ତର ନଷ୍ଟ ହୁଏ
ଉ-
(କ) ଆମେ ଗଛକଟା ଚାଲୁରଖୁ :

• ବାୟୁମଣ୍ଡଳରେ ଅମ୍ଳଜାନର ସାନ୍ଦ୍ରତା କ୍ରମଶଃ ହ୍ରାସପାଇବ ଓ ପ୍ରାଣୀମାନଙ୍କର ବଞ୍ଚିବା ଅସମ୍ଭବ ହୋଇପଡ଼ିବ ।
• ପୃଥ‌ିବୀର ତାପମାତ୍ରା ବୃଦ୍ଧି ପାଇବା ସହ ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣର ମାତ୍ରା ବୃଦ୍ଧି ପାଇବ ।
• ପ୍ରାକୃତିକ ବିପର୍ଯ୍ୟୟ ଜନଜୀବନକୁ ପ୍ରଭାବିତ କରିବ ।
• ଚିରାଚରିତ ଜଳଚକ୍ର ବାଧାପ୍ରାପ୍ତ ହେବା ଫଳରେ ଜଳବାୟୁରେ ଘୋର ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତନ ଦେଖାଦେବ ।

(ଖ) ଗୋଟିଏ ପ୍ରାଣୀର ପରିସ୍ଥାନ ବିପର୍ଯ୍ୟସ୍ତ ହେଲେ :

• ସେହି ପ୍ରାଣୀର ସ୍ଥିତିପ୍ରତି ବିପଦ ସୃଷ୍ଟି ହେବ ଓ ତିଷ୍ଠିବା କଷ୍ଟକର ହୋଇପଡ଼ିବ ।
• ସେମାନଙ୍କ ସଂଖ୍ୟା କ୍ରମଶଃ ହ୍ରାସପାଇ ବିପଦଗ୍ରସ୍ତ ପ୍ରାଣୀ ଭାବେ ପରିଚିତ ହେବେ ।
• ସେମାନେ କ୍ରମଶଃ ବିଲୁପ୍ତ ହୋଇ ବିଲୁପ୍ତ ଜାତିରେ ପରିଣତ ହେବେ ।

(ଗ) ମାଟିର ଉପର ସ୍ତର ନଷ୍ଟ ହେଲେ :

• ମାଟିର ଉପର ସ୍ତର ତଳେ ଥିବା କଠିନ ଓ ପଥୁରିଆ ସ୍ତର ବାହାରକୁ ଦେଖାଯିବ ।
• ପଥୁରିଆ ସ୍ତରରେ ହ୍ୟୁମସ୍‌ର ପରିମାଣ କମ୍ ଥିବାରୁ ଉର୍ବରତା ହ୍ରାସପାଇବ ।
• ଧୀରେ ଧୀରେ ଉର୍ବର ମୃତ୍ତିକା ମରୁଭୂମିରେ ପରିଣତ ହେବ ।
• ମୃତ୍ତିକାରେ ପୋଷକ ପରିମାଣ ଓ ଗଠନ ଇତ୍ୟାଦି ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତିତ ହେବ ।

Question 5.
ସଂକ୍ଷେପରେ ଲେଖ :
(କ) ଆମେ କାହିଁକି ଜୈବବିବିଧତା ସଂରକ୍ଷଣ କରିବା ?
ଉ-
ଜୈବ ବିବିଧତା କହିଲେ ପୃଥ‌ିବୀପୃଷ୍ଠରେ ବାସକରୁଥିବା ବିଭିନ୍ନ ପ୍ରକାରର ଉଭିଦ ଓ ପ୍ରାଣୀ, ସେମାନଙ୍କ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ରହିଥ‌ିବା ପାରସ୍ପରିକ ସମ୍ପର୍କ ଓ ପରିବେଶ ସହ ସେମାନଙ୍କ ସମ୍ପର୍କକୁ ବୁଝାଇଥାଏ । ଜୈବବିବିଧତାର ସଂରକ୍ଷଣ ଦ୍ଵାରା ପରିସଂସ୍ଥାର ଉପଯୁକ୍ତ ରକ୍ଷଣାବେକ୍ଷଣ ସମ୍ଭବ ହୋଇଥାଏ କାରଣ ବିଭିନ୍ନ ଜାତିର ପ୍ରାଣୀ ଓ ଉଦ୍ଭିଦମାନେ ଖାଦ୍ୟଶୃଙ୍ଖଳ ଓ ଖାଦ୍ୟ ଜାଲିର ଗୋଟିଏ ଗୋଟିଏ ଅଂଶ ଅଟନ୍ତି । ଜୈବ ବିବିଧତାର ସଂରକ୍ଷଣ ଦ୍ବାରା ଉଭୟ ଜଙ୍ଗଲ ଓ ବନ୍ୟଜନ୍ତୁଙ୍କୁ ଧ୍ୱଂସମୁଖରୁ ରକ୍ଷା କରାଯାଇପାରିବ ।

(ଖ) ସୁରକ୍ଷିତ ଜଙ୍ଗଲ ମଧ୍ୟ କାହିଁକି ପ୍ରାଣୀମାନଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ସମ୍ପୂର୍ଣ ନିରାପଦ ନୁହେଁ ?
ଉ-
ସୁରକ୍ଷିତ ଜଙ୍ଗଲରେ କୌଣସି ପ୍ରାଣୀକୁ ଶିକାର କରିବା, ସେମାନଙ୍କୁ ଗୁଳିକରି ବା ଫାଶ ବସାଇ ଧରିବା ନିଷିଦ୍ଧ ଅଟେ । ଦୁଃଖର ବିଷୟ ଏହି ସୁରକ୍ଷିତ ଜଙ୍ଗଲଗୁଡ଼ିକ ପ୍ରାଣୀମାନଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ମଧ୍ଯ ନିରାପଦ ନୁହଁନ୍ତି କାରଣ ଆଖପାଖର ଅଧିବାସୀ ଏହାକୁ ଜବର ଦଖଲ କରି ଜୀବଜନ୍ତୁମାନଙ୍କୁ ନଷ୍ଟ କରିଥା’ନ୍ତି ।

(ଗ) କେତେକ ଆଦିବାସୀ ଜଙ୍ଗଲ ଉପରେ ନିର୍ଭର କରନ୍ତି । କିପରି ?
ଉ-
କେତେକ ଆଦିବାସୀ ଜଙ୍ଗଲ ଉପରେ ସମ୍ପୂର୍ଣ ନିର୍ଭରଶୀଳ କାରଣ ଏମାନେ ବଞ୍ଚିବାପାଇଁ ତାଙ୍କର ସମସ୍ତ ଆବଶ୍ୟକ ଦ୍ରବ୍ଯ ଜଙ୍ଗଲରୁ ହିଁ ସଂଗ୍ରହ କରିଥା’ନ୍ତି । ବାହ୍ୟଜଗତ ସହିତ ଏମାନଙ୍କର ପ୍ରାୟ ସମ୍ପର୍କ ନଥାଏ ।

(ଘ) ଜଙ୍ଗଲଧ୍ୱଂସର କାରଣ ଓ ପରିମାଣ କ’ଣ ?
ଉ-
ଚାଷ ଉପଯୋଗୀ କ୍ଷେତ୍ର ପ୍ରସ୍ତୁତି, ବାସ ଉପଯୋଗୀ ଗୃହ ଓ କଳକାରଖାନା ନିର୍ମାଣ,ଜାଳେଣି କାଠର ବ୍ୟବହାର ଏବଂ ବିଭିନ୍ନ ପ୍ରାକୃତିକ କାରଣ ଯଥା ମରୁଡ଼ି ଓ ବନାଗ୍ନି ଜଙ୍ଗଲ ଧ୍ଵଂସର କାରଣ ଅଟେ I ତାପମାତ୍ରା ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣର ମାତ୍ରା ବୃଦ୍ଧି, ବନ୍ୟା ଓ ମରୁଡ଼ି ଭଳି ପ୍ରାକୃତିକ ବିପର୍ଯ୍ୟୟ, ମରୁଭୂମିକରଣ ଇତ୍ୟାଦି ଜଙ୍ଗଲଧ୍ଵଂସର ପରିମାଣ ଅଟେ ।

(ଙ) ରେଡ୍ ଡାଟା ବୁକ୍ କ’ଣ ?
ଉ-
ସମସ୍ତ ସଂକଟାପନ୍ନ ବା ବିପଦଗ୍ରସ୍ତ ପ୍ରାଣୀ ଓ ଉଦ୍ଭଦମାନଙ୍କର ଅଭିଲେଖ ରେଡ୍ ଡାଟା ବୁକ୍‌ରେ ସ୍ଥାନ ପାଇଛି । ଉଭିଦ, ପ୍ରାଣୀ ଓ ଅନ୍ୟଜାତିମାନଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ପୃଥକ ପୃଥକ ରେଡ୍ ଡାଟା ବୁକ୍ ରହିଅଛି ।

(ଚ) ପରିବ୍ରଜନ କହିଲେ କ’ଣ ବୁଝ ?
ଉ-
ବସବାସକରୁଥିବା ଅଞ୍ଚଳର ପାଗ ଅତିଶୟ ଥଣ୍ଡା ବା ପ୍ରତିକୂଳ ହେଲେ ଅଣ୍ଡା ଦେବାପାଇଁ କେତେକ ପକ୍ଷୀ ଅନ୍ୟତ୍ର ଉଡ଼ିଯାଆନ୍ତି । ଏହାକୁ ପରିବ୍ରଜନ କୁହାଯାଏ । ବହୁଦୂର ଅତିକ୍ରମ କରୁଥିବା ପକ୍ଷୀମାନଙ୍କୁ ପରିବ୍ରାଜକ ପକ୍ଷୀ କୁହାଯାଏ ।

Question 6.
କଳକାରଖାନା ଓ ବାସଗୃହର ଆବଶ୍ୟକତା ପୂରଣ ପାଇଁ ଗଛକଟା ସବୁବେଳେ ଚାଲିଛି । ଏହିଭଳି ପ୍ରକଳ୍ପ ପାଇଁ ଗଛ କାଟିବା ବିଧେୟ କି ? ଆଲୋଚନା କରି ଏକ ରିପୋର୍ଟ ପ୍ରସ୍ତୁତ କର ।
ଭ-
କଳକାରଖାନା ଓ ବାସଗୃହର ଆବଶ୍ୟକତା ପୂରଣ ପାଇଁ ଗଛକଟା ସବୁବେଳେ ଚାଲିଛି । ଏହିଭଳି ପ୍ରକଳ୍ପ ପାଇଁ ଗଛ କାଟିବା ବିଧେୟ ନୁହେଁ କାରଣ-

• ଅଣଜଙ୍ଗଲ ଅଞ୍ଚଳରେ କଳକାରଖାନା ଓ ବାସଗୃହ ନିର୍ମାଣ କରାଯାଇପାରିବ ।
• ବୃକ୍ଷରୋପଣଦ୍ୱାରା ପୁନଃ ବନୀକରଣ କରାଯାଇ ପାରିବ ।

Question 7.
ତୁମ ଅଞ୍ଚଳର ସବୁଜ ସମ୍ପଦ ରକ୍ଷାକରିବାପାଇଁ ତୁମେ କ’ଣ କରି ପାରିବ ତା’ର ଏକ ତାଲିକା ପ୍ରସ୍ତୁତ କର 1
ଭ-
ଆମ ଅଞ୍ଚଳର ସବୁଜସମ୍ପଦ ରକ୍ଷାକରିବାପାଇଁ ଆମେ ନିମ୍ନଲିଖତ ପଦକ୍ଷେପମାନ ନେଇପାରିବା; ଯଥା

• ଗଛ କାଟିବାପାଇଁ କାହାକୁ ଅନୁମତି ଦେବା ନାହିଁ ।
• ବୃକ୍ଷରୋପଣ କରି ସବୁଜ ଅରଣ୍ୟ ସୃଷ୍ଟି କରିବା ।
• ଛୋଟ ଗଛରେ ପାଣିଦେଇ ବଢ଼ାଇବା ।
• ଛୋଟ ଗଛକୁ ତାରବାଡ଼ଦ୍ୱାରା ଆବଦ୍ଧ କରି ରଖୁବା ।
• ସବୁଜ ସମ୍ପଦର ସୁରକ୍ଷାପାଇଁ ଜନସଚେତନତା ସୃଷ୍ଟିକରିବା ।

Question 8.
ଜଙ୍ଗଲ ଧ୍ବଂସ ଫଳରେ ବୃଷ୍ଟିପାତ କିପରି କମିଯାଏ ବୁଝାଅ ।
ଭ-
ପ୍ରକ୍ରିୟାରେ ଜଳ ବାୟୁମଣ୍ଡଳକୁ ଆସିପାରେ ନାହିଁ । ମାଟିତଳେ ଥିବା ଜଳ ସ୍ତର ଆହୁରି ତଳକୁ ଖସିଯାଏ । ଗଛ ସଂଖ୍ୟା କମିବା ଫଳରେ ବାୟୁମଣ୍ଡଳ ରେ ଅଙ୍ଗାରକାମ୍ଳର ପରିମାଣ ବୃଦ୍ଧିପାଏ । ଏହି ଅଙ୍ଗାରକାମ୍ଳ ତାପମାତ୍ରା ବୃଦ୍ଧିପାଏ; ଫଳରେ ଜଳଚକ୍ର ବାଧାପ୍ରାପ୍ତ ହେବାଯୋଗୁଁ ବୃଷ୍ଟିପାତ ହ୍ରାସପାଏ ।

Question 9.
ତୁମ ରାଜ୍ୟରେ ଥ‌ିବା ଜାତୀୟ ଉଦ୍ୟାନଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଚିହ୍ନଟ କରି ଭାରତର ଏକ ରେଖା ମାନଚିତ୍ରରେ ସେ ଅଞ୍ଚଳ ଦର୍ଶାଅ ।
ଭ-
ଜାତୀୟ ଉଦ୍ୟାନ :

• ଶିମିଳିପାଳ,
• ଭିତରକନିକା

Question 10.
କାଗଜ ସଞ୍ଚୟ କରିବା କାହିଁକି ? କେଉଁ ଉପାୟରେ କାଗଜ ସଞ୍ଚୟ କରିହେବ ତା’ର ଗୋଟିଏ ତାଲିକା ପ୍ରସ୍ତୁତ କର ।
(a) ଜଙ୍ଗଲ ଲୋପପାଇବାର ଅନ୍ୟଏକ କାରଣ ହେଉଛି କାଗଜର ଅତ୍ୟଧିକ ବ୍ୟବହାର । ଗୋଟିଏ ଟନ୍ କାଗଜ ତିଆରି ପାଇଁ 17 ଟି ପୂରା ବଢ଼ିଥିବା ଗଛ ଆବଶ୍ୟକ ହୋଇଥାଏ । ଏହି କାରଣରୁ ଆମେ କାଗଜ ସଞ୍ଚୟ କରିବା ଉଚିତ ।
(b) ନିମ୍ନଲିଖତ ଉପାୟରେ କାଗଜ ସଞ୍ଚୟ କରିହେବ; ଯଥା –

• ଯଥାସମ୍ଭବ ଅଳ୍ପ କାଗଜ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରିବା ।
• କାଗଜର ପୁନଃ ବ୍ୟବହାର ଓ ପୁନଶ୍ଚକ୍ରଣ କରିବା । ନୋଟ୍‌ବୁକ୍‌ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରିବା ।
• ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନିକ
• ଗାଣିତିକ ହିସାବ ପାଇଁ log table ଓ calculator ବ୍ୟବହାର କରିବା ।
• Computer ରେ ତଥ୍ୟ ସଂରକ୍ଷିତ ରଖୁବା

ପରୀକ୍ଷା ଉପଯୋଗୀ ଅତିରିକ୍ତ ପ୍ରଶ୍ନୋତ୍ତର

ବସ୍ତୁନିଷ୍ଠ ପ୍ରଶ୍ନେ। ଭର

1. ଶୂନ୍ୟସ୍ଥାନ ପୂରଣ କର ।
(i) ଜୀବଜଗତ ଓ ………………. ପରସ୍ପରଦ୍ଵାରା ପ୍ରଭାବିତ ହୋଇଥାଏ ।
(ii) ଆମ ରାଜ୍ୟରେ ସର୍ବମୋଟ …………………. ଟି ଅଭୟାରଣ୍ୟ ଅଛି ।
(iii) ଆମ ରାଜ୍ୟରେ ………………. -ଟି ସାମୁଦ୍ରିକ ଅଭୟାରଣ୍ୟ ଅଛି ।
(iv) ଓଡ଼ିଶାରେ ସଂରକ୍ଷିତ ଜଙ୍ଗଲର ଆୟତନ ………………………. ବର୍ଗ କି.ମି.ରୁ ସାମାନ୍ୟ ଅଧିକ ।
(v) ଭିତରକନିକା ଅଭୟାରଣ୍ୟର କେନ୍ଦ୍ରସ୍ଥଳର ଅବସ୍ଥିତି ପ୍ରାୟ ………………. ବର୍ଗ କି.ମି ।
(vi) ଜଙ୍ଗଲ କ୍ଷୟ ଫଳରେ ପୃଥ‌ିବୀର …………………. ଓ ………………… ବିପଜ୍ଜନକ ଭାବେ ବୃଦ୍ଧିପାଇ ଚାଲିଛି ।
(vii) ଜଙ୍ଗଲରୁ ଗଛ କଟାହେଲେ …………………… ଓ …………………. ହ୍ରାସ – ପାଇଥାଏ ।
(viii) ଅଙ୍ଗାରକାମ୍ଳ ପୃଥ‌ିବୀରୁ ………………….. ଶୋଷଶ କରିବାଦ୍ୱାରା ପୃଥ‌ିବୀର ତାପମାତ୍ରା ବୃଦ୍ଧିପାଏ ।
(ix) ବିଶ୍ଵ ତାପନ ଯୋଗୁଁ …………………… ବିଶ୍ବ ତାପନ ଯୋଗୁ ବୃଷ୍ଟିପାତ କମିଯାଉଛି ।
(x) ଜଙ୍ଗଲ କ୍ଷୟ ଯୋଗୁଁ ମାଟିର ………………… ବଦଳିଯାଉଛି ।
(xi) ବୃକ୍ଷରୋପଣ ଓ ଉଭିଦରାଜି ମାଟିର ……………………….. ଧର୍ମ ଉପରେ ପ୍ରଭାବ ପକାଇଥା’ନ୍ତି ।
(xii) ଜଙ୍ଗଲସମ୍ପଦ ନଷ୍ଟ ହେବା ଫଳରେ ମାଟିର …………………….. ସାମର୍ଥ୍ୟ କମିଯାଉଛି ।
(xiii) ଜୈବ ବିବିଧତାର ସଂରକ୍ଷଣ ପାଇଁ ……………………. ରହିଥାଏ ।
(xiv) ଉଭିଦ ଏବଂ ପ୍ରାଣୀମାନଙ୍କର ଯେଉଁ ଜାତିଗୁଡ଼ିକ କେବଳ ଗୋଟିଏ ଜାଗାରେ ବାସକରନ୍ତି, ସେଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ସେଠାକାର ……………………. କୁହାଯାଏ ।
(xv) ପଚମାରୀ ଜୈବମଣ୍ଡଳର ………………….. ଗଛ ସ୍ଥାନିକ ଉଦ୍ଭାଦ ଅଟନ୍ତି ।

(i) ପରିବେଶ
(ii) 17
(iii) 1
(iv) 26,000
(v) 145
(vi) ତାପମାତ୍ରା, ପ୍ରଦୂଷଣ
(vii) ବୃଷ୍ଟିପାତ, ମାଟିର ଉର୍ବରତ
(viii) ବିକିରିତ ତାପ
(ix) ଜଳଚକ୍ର
(x) ଧର୍ମ
(xi) ଭୌତିକ
(xii) ଜଳଧାରଣ
(xiii) ଜୀବମଣ୍ଡଳ ସଂରକ୍ଷିତ ସ୍ଥାନ
(xiv) ସ୍ଥାନିକ ଜାତି
(xv) ଶାଳ ଓ ବଣୁଆ ଆମ୍ବ

2. ବନ୍ଧନୀ ମଧ୍ଯରୁ ଉପଯୁକ୍ତ ଶବ୍ଦ ବାଛି ଶୂନ୍ୟସ୍ଥାନ ପୂରଣ କର :
(i) ପଚମାରୀ ଜୀବମଣ୍ତଳ ସଂରକ୍ଷିତ ସ୍ଥାନରେ ……………… ଟି ଶିଳାଲିପି ଚିହ୍ନଟ ହୋଇଛି । [45, 50, 55, 60]
(ii) ଗୋଟିଏ ଟନ୍ କାଗଜ ତିଆରି ପାଇଁ ……………………. ଟି ପୂରା ବଢ଼ିଥ‌ିବା ଗଛ ଆବଶ୍ୟକ । [14, 15, 16, 17]
(iii) ଥରେ ବ୍ୟବହାର ହୋଇଥିବା କାଗଜର ପୁନଶ୍ଚକ୍ରଣ ଦ୍ଵାରା ……………………….. ଥର ବ୍ୟବହର କରିହେବ [2-3, 3-4, 4-5, 5-6]
(iv) ଭିତରକନିକା ଜାତୀୟ ଉଦ୍ୟାନରେ ………………………. ମିଳନ୍ତି । [70, 72,63, 73]
(v) ସମଗ୍ର ପୃଥିବୀରେ ……………………… ଜାତିର ଲୁଣା ଉଭିଦ ଦେଖିବାକୁ ମିଳନ୍ତି । [70,71,72,73]
(vi) ଆମ ରାଜ୍ୟରେ ସର୍ବମୋଟ …………………… ଟି ଅଦ୍ଭୟାରଣ୍ୟ ରହଛି I [14, 15, 16, 17]
(vii) ଭିତରକନିକା କେନ୍ଦ୍ରସ୍ଥଳର ଅବସ୍ଥିତି ପ୍ରାୟ ……………………… [140, 145, 150, 155]
(viii) …………….. ଜାତୀୟ ଉଦ୍ୟାନ ଭାରତର ପ୍ରଥମ ସଂରକ୍ଷିତ ଜଙ୍ଗଲ । [ଶିମିଳିପାଳ, ଭିତରକନିକା, କାଜିରଙ୍ଗା, ସାତପୁରା]

(i) 55
(ii) 17
(iii) 5-6
(iv) 63
(v) 72
(vi) 17
(vii) 145
(viii) legal

3. ବାମ ପାର୍ଶ୍ଵର ସମ୍ପର୍କକୁ ଲକ୍ଷ୍ୟ କରି ଦକ୍ଷିଣ ପାର୍ଶ୍ୱସ୍ଥ ଶୂନ୍ୟସ୍ଥାନ ପୂରଣ କର ।
(i) ହସ୍ତୀ ପ୍ରକଳ୍ପ : ଚନ୍ଦକା :: ବ୍ୟାଘ୍ର ପ୍ରକଳ୍ପ : …………………….. ।
(ii) ବିପଦଗ୍ରସ୍ତ ପ୍ରାଣୀ : ବାରଶିଂଘା :: ବିଲୁପ୍ତ ଜାତି :…………………….. ।
(iii) ପୃଥ‌ିବୀର ଲୁଣାଉଭିଦ ଜାତି : 72 :: ଭିତରକନିକାର ଲୁଣା ଉଭିଦ ଜାତି :…………………….. ।
(iv) ପଚମାରିର ସ୍ଥାନିକ ଉଦ୍ଭଦ : ବଣୁଆ ଆମ୍ବଗଛ :: ପଚମାରୀର ସ୍ଥାନିକ ପ୍ରାଣୀ: ……………………… ।
(v) ଭିତରକନିକା : ଶିମିଳିପାଳ :: ଜାତୀୟ ଉଦ୍ୟାନ : ……………………… ।
(vi) ଜଙ୍ଗଲ ଧ୍ବଂସ : ବିଶ୍ୱତାପନ :: ମୃତ୍ତିକାର ଉର୍ବରତା ହ୍ରାସ : ……………………… ।
(vii) ରାଜ୍ୟର ସର୍ବମୋଟ ଅଭୟାରଣ୍ୟ : 17 :: ରାଜ୍ୟର ସାମୁଦ୍ରିକ ଅଭୟାରଣ୍ୟ : ……………………… ।

(i) ଶିମିଳମାଳ
(ii) ଡାଇନୋସର
(iii) 63
(iv) ଗୟଳ
(v) ଜୀବମଣ୍ଡଳ ସଂରକ୍ଷିତ ସ୍ଥାନ
(vi) ମରୁ ଭୂମିକରଣ
(vii) 1
(viii) ସୁନ୍ଦରବନ

4. ସ୍ତମ୍ଭରେ ଥ‌ିବା ଶବ୍ଦ ସହିତ ‘ଖ’ ସ୍ତମ୍ଭରେ ଥିବା ସମ୍ପର୍କିତ ଶବ୍ଦକୁ ମିଳାଅ ।

 ‘କ’ ସ୍ତମ୍ଭ ‘ଖ’ ସ୍ତମ୍ଭ (i) ଦ୍ଭବିଷ୍ୟତର ସବୁକଥାରଣ୍ୟ (i) ବିଶ୍ୱତାପନ (ii) ପରିବ୍ରାଜକ ପକ୍ଷୀ (ii) ଶମିଳିପାଳ (iii) ବ୍ୟାଘ୍ର ପ୍ରକଳ୍ପ (iii) ରେଡ୍ ଡାଟା ବୁକ୍ (iv) ପ୍ରଥମ ସଂରକ୍ଷିତ ଜଙ୍ଗଲ (iv) ହେନ୍ତାଳ ବଣ (v) ଭିତରକନିକା (v) ପୁନଃବନୀକରଣ (vi) ସ୍ୱ-ଅଞ୍ଚଳୀୟ ଜାତି (vi) ମରୁଭୂମିକରଣ (vii) ଜଙ୍ଗଲ ଧ୍ବଂସ (vii) ଜୀବ ଓ ପରିବେଶର ସମ୍ପର୍କ (viii) ଜୈବବିବିଧତା (viii) ଚିଲିକା (ix) ମୃତ୍ତିକାର ଉର୍ବରତା ହ୍ରାସ (ix) ବୃହତ୍ ଗୁଣ୍ଡୁଚି (x) ସଂକଟାପନ୍ନ ପ୍ରାଣୀ ଓ ଉଦ୍ଭଦ (x) ସାତପୁରା

 ‘କ’ ସ୍ତମ୍ଭ ‘ଖ’ ସ୍ତମ୍ଭ (i) ଦ୍ଭବିଷ୍ୟତର ସବୁକଥାରଣ୍ୟ (v) ପୁନଃବନୀକରଣ (ii) ପରିବ୍ରାଜକ ପକ୍ଷୀ (viii) ଚିଲିକା (iii) ବ୍ୟାଘ୍ର ପ୍ରକଳ୍ପ (ii) ଶମିଳିପାଳ (iv) ପ୍ରଥମ ସଂରକ୍ଷିତ ଜଙ୍ଗଲ (x) ସାତପୁରା (v) ଭିତରକନିକା (iv) ହେନ୍ତାଳ ବଣ (vi) ସ୍ୱ-ଅଞ୍ଚଳୀୟ ଜାତି (ix) ବୃହତ୍ ଗୁଣ୍ଡୁଚି (vii) ଜଙ୍ଗଲ ଧ୍ବଂସ (i) ବିଶ୍ୱତାପନ (viii) ଜୈବବିବିଧତା (vii) ଜୀବ ଓ ପରିବେଶର ସମ୍ପର୍କ (ix) ମୃତ୍ତିକାର ଉର୍ବରତା ହ୍ରାସ (vi) ମରୁଭୂମିକରଣ (x) ସଂକଟାପନ୍ନ ପ୍ରାଣୀ ଓ ଉଦ୍ଭଦ (iii) ରେଡ୍ ଡାଟା ବୁକ୍

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## CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Using Graphics

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Invitation to English 3 Solutions Writing Using Graphics Textbook Activity Questions and Answers.

## CHSE Odisha 11th Class English Writing Using Graphics

Using Graphics

We think of composition as the writing of paragraphs or essays in words. But sometimes a description can be made clearer and easier to understand by the use of some kind of pictorial representation.
There are different kinds of graphic representations – they are :
(a) The table
(b) The Bar chart
(c) The Pie chart
(d) The Organisation chart
(e) Pictograms
An example of a graphic representation is given below :

Another example of a graphic representation is given below for reference.

Activity 1

Now, read the following passages and say if they can be represented graphically. Draw neat labelled diagrams to go with or to replace these passages. (More than one answer is possible.)

(a) Iron is not found pure in nature. It is found in the form of iron compounds, particularly compounds of iron and oxygen. Such compounds are called ores. To get iron from its ore, layers of iron ore are placed in a blast furnace with coke and limestone. Coke has a high proportion of carbon in it. The mixture of iron ore, coke and limestone is heated in the blast furnace. A blast of hot air enters the blast furnace from the bottom and passes upwards.

The carbon in the coke combines with the oxygen in the iron ore and forms a colourless gas called carbon monoxide. The oxygen in the iron oxide is thus removed. The other constituents of the ore combine with the limestone to form a slag which floats at the top. The slag is removed from the furnace through a tap. The metal which remains is called pig iron. It is 91 per cent pure.

(b) In Britain most schools are financed by the state and for the children attending these schools, they are free. However, about 5 per cent of the school population attend private schools, and these are financed from pupils’ fees. For state-run as well as private schools the general pattern of schooling in Britain is as follows. All children must start school at the age of 5. At the age of 11, children move to different schools, called Secondary Schools, where they are made to go through a set timetable of subjects for a period of 5 years.

After this, they take their first public examination at the age of 16. After the first public examination, most pupils leave school. Only about 30 per cent continue. Those that stay on spend the next two years concentrating on a small number of subjects. They take their second public examination at the age of 18. In Britain, there is also a provision for pre-primary schooling. However, pre-primary schooling is not compulsory. On the other hand, it is voluntary and is offered both by state-run schools and private schools.

(c) It was the season’s hottest day, in Orissa today. The temperature in many places went beyond 40° Celsius. Of all the places in Orissa, Angul recorded the highest temperature of 43.5°. The other places that experienced an equally warm day were Bolangir and Jharsuguda. In these two places, the mercury soared up to 42.7°. Bhubaneswar, the capital city, recorded a high temperature of 42.2°.

The other places that were as warm as Bhubaneswar were Sambalpur and Cuttack with a recording of 41.8° and 41.2° respectively. However, Puri, Gopalpur, Paradip and Balasore, places near the sea, were relatively cooler. They recorded maximum temperatures of around 32° Celsius.

(d) Ramesh walks to school at 10. It takes him hardly 20 minutes to get there. After prayers, he attends classes from 10.30 a.m. to 4 p.m. which includes games- break for half an hour, from 1 to 1.30. At 4, when the classes are over, he comes back home with his friends. He greatly enjoys the return trip home as his friends and he usually amuses themselves with innocent jokes, makes fun and indulge in different kinds of innocuous mischief. On reaching home he gobbles up something quickly and scampers away to join his friends either in volleyball or in some country games, which he plays for just one hour.

At 6 he has a wash, says his prayers and sits down to study, from 6.30 to 9.30 in the evening. At 9.30 he has dinner, does some light reading and goes to bed by 10.30. Next morning he is up by 6.30. Within one hour he brushes his teeth, has a wash, etc. and by 7.30 he is at his study table. He does his homework from 7.30 to 9.30. At 9.30 he has an early lunch, packs his books in the bag and is ready to go to school.

(e) The poor in Indian do not have a lot of money. Their annual family income, on an average, comes to Rs. 20,000. But they make a lot of purchases and constitute the mainstay for most products in the country. For example, families belonging to his category own 47 per cent of all bicycles. 17 per cent of mopeds, 9 per cent of scooters, 11 per cent of motor cycles and 10 per cent of colour televisions. They even own washing machines.

The rich, in contrast, have money, but their share of purchases of these products is comparatively much less. Despite the money they have, they buy only 3 per cent of bicycles, 7 per cent of mopeds, 17 per cent of scooters, 20 per cent of motor cycles and 19 per cent of colour TVs. The poor earn less, but spend more. And the rich earn more, but spend less.

(f) Go straight along the National Highway upto Jayadev Vihar. Then turn left and take the Nandan Kanan Road. Keep going for about two kilometres and then turn right at NALCO Chhak. Continue until you come to the Sainik School, on the left. Don’t stop. Go straight ahead. You will reach Vani Vihar after half a kilometre. You can see the gates of Vani Vihar on the left, just 400 metres after Acharya Vihar traffic post. Enter, and go straight to the Administrative Block of the university.

(g) Junagadh is an ancient city in Gujarat. It is situated among the shadows of Mount Gimar. The name “Junagadh” – Juna (old) and Gadh (fort) – literally means “old fort”. On the outskirts of the city, there is a dark basalt rock. It stands on the way to Mount Gimar. The rock hols the inscriptions of three mighty dynasties. They included the Maurya and Gupta dynasties. The incriptions are in Sanskrit. In a jungle nearby, there is a stupa and some Buddhist caves.

They were built between 100-700 A.D. At the foot of Mount Gimar there is the sacred Damodar Kund (pond). It is one of the most important places of pilgrimage for the Jains. Another place of interest is the 19th Century Rang Mahal Palace, which presently houses government offices.

(h) Two leaves are removed from a destarched plant. The upper side of one and the lower side of the other are greased with vaseline. The stalk of each leaf is dipped in water and the leaves are left in light for four hours so that photosynthesis takes place. Most of the vaseline is wiped off and the leaves are placed in a solution of potassium iodide. The leaf greased on the upper-side develops a blue colour, showing that starch has been formed by photosynthesis from carbon dioxide, which entered through the leaf pores which are mainly on the under side. No colour develops in the other leaf in which vaseline blocked the pores.

(a)

(b)

(c) Look at the table below, showing the maximum temperature recorded at different places in Orissa :

(d)

(e) Here is a chart that deals with the purchasing habits of the poor in India.

The following chart presents a contrasting picture of the purchasing habits of the rich :

(f)

(g) Let us look at the table that deals with the beautiful spots of the nearby areas of Junagarh an ancient of Gujarat.

 Places of interest Description of these places Rock dark and basalt with the inscriptions of mighii dynasties — Maurya and Gupta Stupa and some Buddhist caves builLhetween 100-7(X) A.D. Damodar Kund most important places of pilgrimage for the jams, situateLat the foot of Mount Girnar 19th century Rang Mahal Palace presently housing government offices

(h) The flow-chart throwing light on an experiment concerning photosynthesis

Question 1.
Write about 150 words in each of the following:
(a) The camel
(b) The ostrich

(a) The camel:
The camel is a big animal. There are two kinds. One has two humps on its back; it is called the Bactrian camel. The other has one hump; it is called the Arabian camel. The camel is called “the ship of the desert”. Why? Because, as men cross the sea in ships, so they cross the desert on camels. Camels can go a long time with very little food or drink.

How can they do this? They carry stores of water in their stomachs, and much fat in their “humps”. A fasting camel is really feeding on its hump. The camel is also very strong and can go on day after day without getting tired. So it can make long journeys over the hot, dry sandy deserts. It is a fine sight to see a line of camels marching in a caravan. They hold their heads up proudly and tread steadily on.

(b) The ostrich:
The ostrich is the largest of all birds. Some ostriches are eight feet high. The ostrich is so strong that it can carry a man, like a horse. It has a long neck and a small head. It carries its head and neck erect. Its wings are small, and it cannot fly. But it has very strong legs. It can run faster than a horse. It defends itself by kicking. A kick from an ostrich can lame a horse, or kill a man. The ostrich is found in Africa.

It lives in dry sandy wastes, or a country covered with low bushes. It feeds on grass, leaves, seeds and berries. Wild ostriches are very shy. They are hard to catch, for they run so fast. Ostriches are hunted for the sake of their feathers. Ostrich feathers are very costly. Ladies buy them for their hats. Ostriches are now bred in large farms in Africa. The sale of their feathers pays well.

Question 2.
Write a short paragraph on each of the following:
(a) Electronic calculator
(b) A type-writer

(a) Electronic calculator:
Electronic calculators are useful gadgets to have in homes, offices, shops and schools. They come in various sizes. There are desk models which are the size of a book or bigger. For personal use, there are mini-calculators that one can hold comfortably in one’s hand. Other models are even smaller. Every calculator has a keyboard showing numbers 0 to 9 plus mathematical symbols i.e. +, -, x, %. Above the keyboard is a display window and above the window, at one comer, is the switch with which one can turn the calculator on or off.

The calculator works this way. The operator presses the keys to feed a problem, say 13 x 12 = into the machine. The answer, 156, appears almost instantly in the form of some lighted numerals in the display window. All calculators help to do the basic functions of arithmetic. Some calculators, those with memory, can store numbers for use in future calculations.

(b) A type-writer:
A typewriter is a familiar machine in offices and homes. It is worked by hand. It prints letters or figures on a sheet of paper, one at a time. The type-writer consists of a metal frame, movable rollers and a set of keys. The metal frame also contains a set of small hammers with tiny letters or figures on the ends. The typewriter has a ribbon soaked in special ink which is held in position by two spools on either side of the metal frame. A sheet of paper is clipped against the roller. When one of the keys is tapped, a hammer goes and strikes the ribbon and presses it against the blank paper, thus printing the required letter. Then the roller automatically moves along, another key is tapped and the next letter is printed after the first.

Question 3.
Describe the following simple processes:
(a) Kite-making
(b) Mending a puncture

(a) Kite-making:
To make a kite, we take two sticks and tie them together in the shape of a cross. Then we tie a string, passing along the tips of the sticks to make a frame for the kite. We then cut a piece of thin paper to a size slightly larger than the frame and folding the edges over the frame, stick them with glue. We tie another string about IV2 times the length of the longer stick to the two tips of the longer stick; this is the bridle. We tie the flying cord to the bridle. We attach a tail to the kite at the narrower end.

(b) Mending a puncture:
The process of mending a puncture starts with the removal of the tube from the rim. Then we blow up the tube a little and dip it into a pan of water to find the puncture. We clean the tube around the puncture. Then we put on a sticky substance. We put on a patch and allow it to dry. We put the tube back on the rim after it gets dried. At last, we blow up the tyre. This is how the puncture is mended.

Question 4.
Prepare outlines and write an argument in support of the following proposition.
The Government should ban smoking in public places.

A. Stating the proposition :
The government should ban smoking in public places.

B. Reasons for the ban :
a. Cigarette smoking is responsible for a host of illnesses ranging from heart attacks, hypertension and strokes to cancers of the mouth, lung and kidneys. These illnesses cause thousands of deaths each year and a staggering number of hospital visits and bills.
b. Ban on cigarette advertising in several countries, and health warning required by law on every cigarette packet on sale.
c. Smoking injurious to the health of the non-smoker.
d. Unpleasant for non-smokers to sit in smoke-filled rooms and halls.
e. Smoking is a serious fire risk in crowded places.
f. Still people smoke; hence the need for a ban by the government.

C. The other side of the case :
a. There are already enough no-smoking areas such as cinema halls, for example, therefore total ban is unnecessary.
b. Ban will further curtail their freedom to smoke.

D. Smokers’ objections refuted
a. Smoking is harmful to smokers and non-smokers. Non-smokers are as much risk as smokers.
b. Smokers should not harm the health of non-smokers in the name of freedom to smoke.

The paragraph in the outlines :
Medical researchers have established cigarette smoking as the cause of a host of potentially fatal illnesses ranging from heart attacks, hypertension and strokes, to cancers of the mouth, lungs and kidneys. These illnesses are responsible for thousands of deaths each year and a staggering number of hospital visits and bills. Several countries have as a result banned cigarette advertising and made it compulsory by law for cigarette manufacturers to print a health warning on every cigarette packet on sale.

What is at stake is not just the health of the smoker; the non-smoker is as much at risk as a result of the passive smoking he or she is exposed to. It is extremely unpleasant for non-smokers to sit in smoke-filled rooms and halls. Finally, smoking is a serious fire risk in crowded places. Despite all this, people still smoke. The government, therefore, should intervene and ban smoking in public places.

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## CHSE Odisha Class 12 Foundations of Education Unit 4 Educational Statistics Questions and Answers

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 Foundations of Education Solutions Unit 4 Educational Statistics Questions and Answers.

## CHSE Odisha 12th Class Foundations of Education Unit 4 Educational Statistics Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is the formula to find out the mean?
(a) $$\frac{\sum F x}{N}$$
(b) $$\frac{F x}{N}$$
(c) L+$$\frac{N_2 F}{M}$$
(d) H.S.-L.S.
(a) $$\frac{\sum F x}{N}$$

Question 2.
Estimate the mode of the scores:
8, 9, 8, 9,10,11,8,9,10
(a) 9
(b) 10
(c) 11
(d) 8
(d) 8

Question 3.
What is a formula to find median?
(a) H.S. – L.S.
(b) $$\frac{Q_3-Q_1}{Q}$$
(c) 3 median – 2 mean
(d) None of the above
(c) 3 median – 2 mean

Question 4.
4. Estimate the mean of the scores: 8,9,10,11,12,13
(a) 8.5
(b) 10.5
(c) 11.5
(d) 12.5
(b) 10.5

Question 5.
5. Estimate the class interval of25-29.
(a) 4
(b) 3
(c) 5
(d) None
(c) 5

Question 6.
6. Estimate the mean of the scores:
2, 8, 10, 25,45
(a) 10
(b) 20
(c) 30
(d) 40
(a) 10

Question 7.
7. Select the formula to find out the median?
(a) A.M.+$$\frac{\sum F d}{N}$$ Xi
(b) U$$\frac{\frac{N}{2}-F}{f m}$$ xi
(c) 3 median – 2 mean
(d) None
(b) U$$\frac{\frac{N}{2}-F}{f m}$$ xi

Answer in single word / single sentence

Question 1.
How can you find out Mode?
The mode can be calculated as 3 median – 2 mean.

Question 2.
What is Mean?
The mean is the sum of the group of scores divided by the number of scores.
M = $$\frac{\sum x}{N}$$

Question 3.
What do you mean by Median?
The median is the midpoint or mid-value of the distribution of scores.

Question 4.
Give one use of Mean?
Mean is used when a quick and easily computerized measure of central tendency is needed.

Question 5.
Give one use of Mode?
Mode is used when the quickest of the central tendency is needed.

Question 6.
What is the limitation of the Median?
A median is an algebraic measure and hence not suitable for the function of algebraic treatment.

Question 7.
How can you calculate the Mean?
mean = L +$$\left|\frac{\frac{N}{2}-F}{F m}\right|$$ Xi

Question 8.
What is the limitation of Mode?
Mode is not based on all the observations in a series.

Question 9.
What is the formula for finding out the mean of the ungrouped data?
Mean = $$\frac{\sum X}{N}$$

Question 10.
What is the mode of an ungrouped set score?
The score which occurs frequently or number of times is known as a mode.

Question 11.
How can you measure the median in a simple method
Median = $$\left(\frac{N+1}{2}\right)^{t h}$$ Term

Question 12.
Find out the median of the following scores:
5.4, 3, 7, 8, 10, 4,6
Arrange is chronological order :
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Median = $$\left(\frac{N+1}{2}\right)^{t h}$$ Score
= $$\frac{8+1}{2}$$
= $$9 / 2$$
= 4.5th
= $$\frac{7+8}{2}$$
= $$\frac{15}{2}$$
=7.5

Question 13.
what is the midpoint of class interval: 1.3 -1.7?
Answer: The midpoint of C, I.
= 1.3- 1.7= 1.5

Question 14.
What is Mode? Give example.
The mode is the score that occurs frequently in a group.
Example – 5, 6, 7, 8,4, 8, 9 Here mode is = 5.

Question 15.
Find out H.S.&L.S. of 14.5 -19.5
14- 19 & 15-20

Question 16.
find out the mean: 40, 30,20, 80,60
Mean = $$\frac{\sum X}{N}$$
= $$\frac{160}{5}$$
= 32

Question 17.
Find out H.S. & L.S. of the three class intervals 100 – 109,10 – 14, 80 – 84

 C.I L.S. H.S. 100 – 109 99.5 109.5 10-14 9.5 14.5 80-84 79.5 84.5

Very Short Type Questions With Answer

Question 1:
Explain how the knowledge of statistics is helpful to a teacher.
1. Statistics helps the teacher to draw general conclusions.
2. It enables the teacher to predict the future performance of the pupils.

Question 2:
What is measures of central tendency?
Methods of finding out the central values or average value of a statistical series of quantitative information mean, median and mode are the measures of central tendency, to find out the arithmetic averages.

Question 3:
Explain the different steps for preparing a frequency distribution table.
The following are the steps of frequency distribution:

• Find out the range,
• Deciding the length of class interval.
• Making tallies to find out the frequency of scores with each class.
• Making the total number of tallies in each class.

Question 1:
1. What is statistics? What is measure of central tendency?
Statistics is a branch of mathematics. It is a science dealing with numerical facts collected systematically with the purpose of action and study. So statistics is a science dealing with the collection, analysis and interpretation of data. It always deals with numerical facts and figures. The data are collected from various sources, then it is analyzed, and tabulated for interpretation. Now, statistics is used to measure population growth in education, agriculture and industry in finding out the numerical facts and figures statistics is used.

Measures of Central Tendency

Measures of central tendency is the method of finding out the central values or average value of statistical series of quantitative information mean, median and mode are the measures of central tendencies. Mean is the arithmetical average of the scores of a group. Median is the score point in a distribution below and above which half of the cases live. Mode means the score which occurs most frequently.

Question 2:
Write the function of statistics in education.

• Statistics helps in the collection, presentation of data in a systematic manner.
• It helps in classification.
• It provides a technique for making comparison of examination results among the students.
• It helps to understand complex data by simplifying it.
• It helps to study the relationship between different results of examinations.

Question 3:
Explain the use of mean and Median.
Use of Mean :

• When the distribution is symmetrical score and are uniformly distributed mean is the centre of gravity have the same value and other scores distribute it to its distribution
• Mean is the most stable measure of central tendencies and is often in demand at the greatest statistical calculations.
• The mean has the greatest stability so when a measure of central tendency with the greatest stability is needed the mean is used.

Use of Median :

The Median is used when the exact midpoint the 50 % of the distribution is desired.

• It is scored that would markedly affect the mean.
• When it is desired that certain scores should influence the central tendency, the median is used.
• It is used when the distribution has no upper or lower class interval of complicated length.

Question 1.
What is statistics? What is measures of E.T. ? Explain.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics. It is a science dealing with numerical facts collected systematically with the purpose of action and study.

So statistics is a science dealing with the collection, analysis and presentation of data and interpretation. Statistics always deals with numerical facts and figures. The data are collected systematically from various sources then it is analysed, and tabulated for interpretation. How statistics is used to measure population, growth in education, agriculture and industry.

•  It helps the teacher to provide the most exact type of description.
• It makes the teaching definite and exact is procedures and thinking.
• It enables the teacher to draw general conclusions.
• It enables the teacher to predict to future performances of the pupils.

Functions of statistics:

• Statistics help into the collection and presentation the data in a systematic manner.
• It helps to understand complex data by simplifying it.
• It helps to classify data.
• It provides a technique for making comparisons of exams and results among students.
• It helps to study the relationship between different results of examination.

Needs :

• Statistical methods are used for standardisation of various tests and measures like – achievement tests in various subjects, like intelligence tests, interest, aptitude scales and various other measures of personality measurement.
• The scores obtained from various tests and measures are always relative. Statistical methods help their proper presentation, comparison, analysis and interpretation, and statistics help better.
• To make predictions regarding to further progress.
• Statistics is used for the ID of our students to study their interest and I.Q.
• To compare the variability some Mean, Median and Mode and its central tendency.

What is the Measures of C.T :
Central value or central tendency means the value which lies in the centre or middle of the distribution. Thus it is located somewhere in between two extreme values in the distribution. In simple words, it is the value of a variable around which other values are distributed
A measure of C.T. of the measure of a single typical value which is the best representative of the whole group.

Measures of CT is the methods finding at the central values on the average value of a statistical series of quantitative information. Mean median and mode are the measures of central tendencies.

Mean is the score point in a distribution in between and above which half of the cases like a sum total of the score divided by its number is mean.
So μ = $$\frac{\sum X}{N}$$

where ∑ = sum total
X = individual scores
N = total no. of frequencies

Mean = $$\frac{\text { the sum of all the values }}{\text { the number of values }}$$

Suppose, 5 boys of a class are selected for the cricket team and their ages are 15 16 16 17 17 18.
We can find out the arithmetic mean of the ages of students by adding the ages of 5 students and then dividing that sum by the number of boys 5.

Arithmetic mean $$\frac{75}{5}$$ = 15

Calculation of mean by the short method:

 Marks No of students Midpoints Deviations Fd C l F (m) (d) 0-10 6 5 -30 -180 10-20 14 15 -20 -280 30-40 16 25 -10 -160 40-50 27 35 o 0 50-60 22 45 10 220 15 55 20 300 N=100 F d = -100

Arithmetic mean = $$\overline{\mathbf{X}}$$ = A = $$\frac{\sum \mathrm{fd}}{\mathbf{N}}$$
Where A = Arithmetic means 35
∑Fd = Total deviations = -100
N=∑f=100
$$\overline{\mathbf{X}}$$
= 35+$$\frac{-100}{100}$$
=35-1
=34

Median: Median is the mid value of the middle item of the series when the series are arranged in ascending or descending order of magnitude, smallest to longest or largest to smallest.

Median = value of $$\left(\frac{N+1}{2}\right)^{\text {th }}$$ item

For example – if the ages of five boys are 7, 8, 9, 10, 11

Median age will be the age of $$\left(\frac{N+1}{2}\right)^{\text {th }}$$
Boy = $$\left(\frac{S+1}{2}\right)$$ boy

i.e. the 3rd boy which is equal to 9 years.
Example: Find out the median of the grouped data.

 C.T. F Count 45-50 1 30 41-50 2 29 35-40 2 27 31-34 2 25 26-30 4 23 21-25 5 19 16-20 1 14 11-15 6 13 6-10 4 7 1-05 3 3 N=31

Here L= 25 $$\frac{N}{2}$$
= $$\frac{30}{2}$$
= 15

F= I4 Fm=5 i=5
Median = 20.5+$$\frac{15-14}{5}$$ x 5
= 20.5+$$\frac{1}{5}$$ x5
= 20.5+$$5 / 5$$
= 20.5 + 1
= 21.5

Mode = mode is the frequently occurring value in a distribution.
Example = Calculate the mode from the following data of the marks obtained by 20 students 15, 10,25, 30, 25,40
Mode = 25
Formula = 3 median – 2 mean = mode
(1) Use of Mean: Mean is used:

• When the distribution is systematic, scores are distributed. Mean is the centre of gravity
of the scores of distribution.
• Mean is the most stable measure of C.T. and greater statistical calculation.
• When the measure of C.T. with its greatest stability is needed the mean is used.

(2)The use of Median :

• The Median is used when the exact midpoint of the distribution is desired.
• It is scores which would markable affect the mean.
• When it is desired that certain scores should be with CT median is used.
• It is used when the distribution has no upper or lower interval of complicated length. Use of Mode: Mode is used when the quickest of the central tendency is needed.

Question 2.
Find out mean and median of the distribution?

 C.L F 10 – 14 4 15 – 19 5 20 – 24 9 25 – 29 18 30 – 34 11 35 – 39 5 40 – 44 6 45 – 49 3 50 – 54 1 N=60

 C.I. F d1 Fd1 15-19 7 -3 -21 -39 20-24 5 -2 -10 25-29 8 -1 -8 30-34 15 0 0 35-39 10 +1 10 +49 40-44 6 +2 12 45-49 9 +3 27 N=60 +3 ∑fd1 = 10

Mean = A.m+ $$\frac{\sum f d}{N}$$ xi
= 32+$$\frac{10}{60}$$ x 5
= 32+ $$\frac{10}{12}$$
= 3282

Median = L + $$\left(\frac{\frac{N}{2}-F}{F m}\right)$$ x i

Where L = 29.5
N/2=30 ,F=20 ,Fm=15 ,¡=5
= 29.5+$$\left(\frac{30-20}{15}\right)$$ x5
= 29.5+$$\frac{10}{15}$$ x 5
= 29.5+$$\frac{50}{15}$$
= 29.5 + 3.3
= 32.8

Question 3.
Calculate the mean, median and mode of the following frequency distribution?

 CL F 20-21 1 18-19 2 16-17 3 14-15 5 12-13 3 10-11 3 8-9 2 6-7 1 N= 20

 C.I. Midpoint F X1 Fx1 20-21 20.5 1 3 3 18-19 18.5 2 2 4 16-17 16.5 3 1 3 14-15 14.5 5 0 0 12-13 12.5 3 -1 -3 10-II 10.5 3 -2 -6 8-9 8.5 2 -3 -6 8-7 6.5 1 -4 -4 N=20 Fx’ = -9

Mean = A.M. + $$\frac{\sum F x^1}{N}$$ x i

Where,   A.M. = Assumed Mean
∑ = Sum of
Fx1 = Frequency x deviates of the midpoints of the class intervals from the assumed mean in terms of class interval unit.
¡ = size of the class interval
Here,  A.M. = 14.5
∑FX1 = -9
i=2

Mean = A.M. + $$\frac{\sum F x^1}{N}$$ x i
= 14.5+$$\frac{-9}{20}$$ x 2
= 14.5 + -9
= 13.6

Median = L + $$\left(\frac{\frac{N}{2}-F}{F m}\right)$$ x i
Where L = Lower limit of the class interval containing the Median i.e. $$\frac{n}{2}$$th score.
F = Cumulative frequency up to ‘L’
Fm = Frequency of the C.I. containing the Medium
i = size of the class interval

When counting from the top or bottom we found that $$\frac{n}{2}$$th score i.e. the 10th. score lies in the class interval 14-15.
∴ L = 13.5
F=9 Fm=5 ¡=2

Mdn = 13.5+$$\left(\frac{\frac{20}{2}-9}{5}\right)$$ x2
=13.5+4=13.9
Mode = 3Mdn – 2 Mean
=3 x 13.9 – 2 X 13.6
=41.7 – 27.2
=14.5
∴ Calculated Mean = (3.6), Median = (13.9) and Mode = 14.5

Question 4.
Calculate the mean, and median of the following frequency distribution?

 C.I. F 90-94 1 85-89 3 80-84 5 75-79 7 70-74 9 65-69 6 60-64 4 55-59 3 50-54 2 N = 40

 C.I. Midpoint F X1 Fx1 90-94 92 1 4 4 85-89 87 3 3 9 80-84 82 5 2 10 75-79 77 7 1 7 70-74 72 9 0 0 65-69 67 6 -1 -6 60-64 62 4 -2 -8 55-59 57 3 -3 -9 50-54 52 2 -4 -8 N=40 ∑Fx’ = -l

Mean = A.M. + $$\frac{\sum F x^1}{N}$$ x i
= 72+$$\frac{-1}{10}$$ x 5
=72-125
=71.89

Median = L=69.5 L=69.5
N/20 =2O  N/20 =20
F= 15
Fm = 9
i = 5
= L+$$\left(\frac{\frac{\mathrm{N}}{2}-\mathrm{F}}{\mathrm{Fm}}\right)$$ xi
= 65.5+$$\frac{(20-15) \times 5}{9}$$
= 65.9+$$\frac{25}{9}$$
= 69.5 + 2.77
= 72.2

Questions 5.
Find Mean in a short method?

 Class interval Frequencies 90-94 2 85-89 2 80-84 4 75-79 8 70-74 6 65-69 11 60-64 9 N = 42

Calculation means by the short method :

 C.I. (M) F (d1) (Fd1) 90-94 92 2 +3 +6 85-89 87 2 +2 +4 80-84 82 4 +1 +4 75-79 77 8 0 0 70-74 77 6 -1 -6 65-69 67 11 -2 -22 60-64 62 9 -3 -27 N=42 ∑fd1= -41

Mean = A.M. + $$\frac{\sum F x^1}{N}$$ x i
Where, A.M. = 771
∑fd1 = -41
$$\frac{n}{2}$$ = 21
i = 5

So, mean  77+$$\frac{-41}{42}$$ x5
= 77+$$\left(\frac{-41}{42} \times 5\right)$$
= 77+$$\frac{205}{42}$$
= 77 + -4.8
= 72.7

questions 6.
Find out the Median of the scores?

 C.I. 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 F 10 05 15 20 10 10

 Class interval Frequency Cum F. 10-19 10 10 20-29 05 15 30-39 15 30 40-49 20 50 50-59 10 60 60-69 10 70

Median = L+$$\left(\frac{\frac{N}{2}-F}{F m}\right)$$ xi
L = Lower limit of the CI. in $$\frac{n}{2}$$ F = The frequency below the CI. of $$\frac{n}{2}$$
Fm = The F at N/2 scores
i = class Interval
$$\frac{n}{2}$$= $$\frac{70}{2}$$ = 35

L= 39.5   F = 30    F = 20  i =10
Median = L+$$\left(\frac{\frac{N}{2}-F}{F m}\right)$$ xi
= 39.5+$$\left(\frac{35-30}{20}\right)$$x10
= 39.5+$$\left(\frac{35-30}{20}\right)$$x10
= 39.5+$$\frac{5}{20}$$x10
= 39.5+$$\frac{5}{2}$$x10
= 39.5 + 2.5
= 42.6

questions 7.

 CL F 30-34 2 25-29 3 20-24 3 15-19 10 10-14 4 5-9 5 0-4 2 N =30

 CL F Cum F 30-34 2 30 25-29 3 28 20-24 3 25 15-19 10 19 10-14 4 9 5-9 5 5 0-4 2 2 N =30

Here $$\frac{n}{2}$$ =15
F=15(15-19) in the CI.
Fm=1O i =15
Median = L+$$\left(\frac{\frac{N}{2}-F}{F m}\right)$$ xi
= 14.5+$$\frac{(15-19)}{10}$$ x 5
= 14.5+$$\frac{4}{10}$$ x5
= 14.5+2
= 16.5

Questions 8.
Calculate the Mean, Median and Mode from the class interval given?

 CL F 35-39 2 30-34 3 25-29 5 20-24 7 15-19 5 10-14 3 5-9 3 N =28

 CL F D1 Fd1 35-39 2 +3 6 6 30-34 3 +2 5 +17 25-29 5 +1 5 20-24 7 0 0 15-19 5 -1 -5 10-14 3 -2 -6 -20 5-9 3 -3 -9 N =28 ∑fd1= -3

Mean=A.M. +C.I.
= 17+$$\frac{-3}{8}$$ x5
= 17+$$\frac{-15}{28}$$ x5
= 17-0.18
= 16.2

Median = L+$$\left(\frac{\frac{N}{2}-F}{F m}\right)$$ xi
= 14.5+$$\frac{14-11}{7}$$ x5
= 14.5+$$\frac{15}{7}$$
= 14.5+2.1
= 16.7

Mode = 3 Median -2 Mean
=3X 16.7- 2X 16.2
=50.1 -32.4
= 17.6
∴ Calculated Mean, Median and Mode are 16.2, 17.7 and 17.6 respectively

Questions 9.
Find out the Mean, Median and Mode by the long method?

 C.I. F 55-59 1 50-54 1 45-49 3 40-44 4 35-39 6 30-34 7 25-29 12 20-24 6 15-19 8 10-14 2 N = 50

 C.I. F X Fx 55-59 1 57 57 50-54 1 52 52 45-49 3 47 141 40-44 4 42 168 35-39 6 37 222 30-34 7 32 224 25-29 12 27 324 20-24 6 22 132 15-19 8 17 N = 50 ∑Fx1 = 1472

mean = $$\frac{\sum F x}{N}$$
= $$\frac{1472}{50}$$
= 29.4
Median = L+$$\left(\frac{\frac{N}{2}-F}{F m}\right)$$ xi

Where L = 34.5
N/2 = 25
F = 35
Fm = 6
i = 5

So, Median = L+$$\left(\frac{\frac{N}{2}-F}{F m}\right)$$ xi
= 34.5+$$\left(\frac{25-35}{6}\right)$$ x5
= 34.5+$$\frac{-10}{6}$$ x5
= 34.5+$$\frac{-50}{6}$$
= 34.5-8.3
= 26.2

Mode =3. Median -2 Mean
=3X 26.2 – 2X 29.4
= 76.6 – 58.8
= 19.5

Questions 10.
Find out the Mean, Median of the frequency distribution?

 C.I. F 20-21 1 18-19 2 16-17 3 14-15 5 12-13 3 10-11 3 8-9 2 6-7 1

 C.I. Midpoint F X1 Fx1 20-21 20-5 1 3 3 18-19 18-5 2 2 4 16-17 16-5 3 1 3 14-15 14-5 5 0 0 12-13 12-5 3 -1 -3 10-11 10-5 3 -2 -6 8-9 8-5 2 -3 -6 6-7 6-5 1 -4 -4 N = 20 ∑fx1= -9

Mean = A.M. + $$\frac{\sum F x^1}{N}$$ x i
where A.M, = Assumed mean
Σ=Sumtotal
Fx1 = Frequency x deviations of the points of the class intervals from the assumed mean X1 Terms of the class intervals.
i = size of the class intervals
Here, A.M. = 14.5
∑Fd =-9

Mean = 14.5+$$\frac{-9}{20}$$ x2
= 14.5-9
= 13.6

Where L = Lower limit of the class interval containing the Median $$\frac{n}{2}$$ score,
F = cumulative frequency up to L.

Fm = Frequency of the class interval containing the median.
i = size of the class interval
L= 13.5, f=9, Fm5, i=2
Median = 13.5+ $$\frac{10.9}{5}$$ x2
= 13.5+$$\frac{1}{5}$$x2
= 13.5+4
= 13.9
Mode = 3 Median – 2 Mean
= 3 x 13.9 – 2 x 13.8
= 41.7 – 27.2
= 14.5

Question 11.
Find out the Mean and Median by the long method.

 C.I. F 10-14 4 15-19 5 20-24 9 25-29 18 30-34 11 35-39 5 40-44 6 45-49 3 50-54 1 N = 60

 C.I. X F FX 10-14 12 4 48 15-19 17 5 85 20-24 22 9 198 25-29 27 18 486 30-34 32 11 352 35-39 37 5 185 40-44 42 6 252 45-49 47 3 94 50-54 5 1 52 N = 60 ∑Fx = 1760

Mean = $$\frac{\sum F x}{N}$$
= $$\frac{1760}{60}$$
= 29.0

Calculation of Median;
Median = L+$$\left(\frac{\frac{N}{2}-F}{F m}\right)$$ xi
Where
L = 24.5$$\frac{N}{2}$$
= $$\frac{60}{2}$$
= 30
Fm = 18,F = 17 ,i=5
So, Median = L+$$\left(\frac{\frac{N}{2}-F}{F m}\right)$$ xi
= 24.5+$$\left(\frac{30-17}{18}\right)$$ x5
= 24.5+3.6
= 28.0

Mode = 3 Median – 2 Mean
=3 X28-2X29=26.3

Question 12.
Find out the Mean of the following distribution?

 C.I. X 15-19 6 20-24 5 25-29 8 30-34 15 35-39 10 40-44 9 45-49 7 N = 60

 C.I. X D1 FD1 15-19 6 -3 -18 20-24 5 -2 -10 25-29 8 -1 -8 30-34 15 0 0 35-39 10 1 10 40-44 9 2 18 45-49 7 3 21 N = 60 ∑Fd1= -13

Mean = A.M.+$$\frac{\sum F d^{\prime}}{N}$$ x i
Suppose, the mean is within the 30-34 class interval
∴ A.M. = 32
In C.I. 25-29,
d = $$\frac{27-32}{5}$$
= $$\frac{-5}{6}$$
= -1

∴ Mean = A.M.+$$\frac{\sum F d^{\prime}}{N}$$ x i
= 32+$$\frac{13}{60}$$x5
= 32+$$\frac{13}{12}$$
= 32+1.09
= 33.09

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## CHSE Odisha Class 12 English Solutions Non-Detailed Chapter 4 The Monkey’s Paw

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 Invitation to English 2 Solutions Non-Detailed Chapter 4 The Monkey’s Paw Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

## CHSE Odisha 12th Class English Solutions Non-Detailed Chapter 4 The Monkey’s Paw

### CHSE Odisha Class 12 English Chapter 4 The Monkey’s Paw Text Book Questions and Answers

Scene – 1

Gist:
It is a dark and stormy winter night. The Whites.’ living room is comfortable and fine. Herbert plays chess with his father. An old friend of Mr. White, Sergeant-Major Morris comes to visit them after spending more than twenty years in India and entertains his hosts with exotic stories of life abroad. He narrates the story of a monkey’s paw. He pulls it out of his pocket. Herbert takes the paw and looks at it with curiosity. Mr. White is interested to know about its speciality. Morris becomes serious and says that an old holy man had put on a magic spell on the monkey’s paw and as a result, it will grant its owner three wishes.

At last he sells it to Mr. White. Morris warns the Whites not to wish anything from it at all, but they can do it with horrible consequences. Herbert believes that Sergeant Major Morris’s stories are nothing but a pack of tall tales and treats the monkey’s paw with irreverent humour. In his view, “Morris is quite a story-teller.” Mr. White is more willing to consider the truth of the monkey’s paw than Herbert, but Mrs. White is far less credulous than her husband. Herbert encourages his father to wish for an emperorship and then jokingly suggests to him to wish for two hundred pounds to pay off the mortgage; the latter obliges and then drops it in a state of fear. Herbert does not believe it for a moment that the paw is magical, but he unwittingly predicts the outcome of the wish when he tells his parents that he knows he’ll never see the money. He teases his mother. This unit comes to a close, with the family retiring to bed.

ସାରମର୍ମ :
ଏହା ଥିଲା ଏକ ଅନ୍ଧାର ଓ ଝଡ଼ତୋଫାନର ରାତି । Mr. Whiteଙ୍କର ପ୍ରକୋଷ୍ଠ ଥିଲା ଆରାମଦାୟକ ଓ ସୁନ୍ଦର । Herbert ତାଙ୍କ ବାପାଙ୍କ ସହ ଚେସ୍ ଖେଳୁଛନ୍ତି । ଏହି ସମୟରେ Mr. Whiteଙ୍କର ଜଣେ ପୁରୁଣା ବନ୍ଧୁ Sergeant Major Morris ଆସିଛନ୍ତି ଯିଏକି ଭାରତରେ କୋଡ଼ିଏ ବର୍ଷରୁ ଊର୍ଦ୍ଧ୍ବ ସମୟ ଅତିବାହିତ କଲା ପରେ ସ୍ଵଦେଶ ଫେରିଛନ୍ତି । ସେ ତାଙ୍କ ଅନୁଭୂତିର ଗଳ୍ପସବୁ କହି ଏହି ଅତିସତ୍କାରକାରୀମାନଙ୍କୁ ଖୁସି କରାଇଛନ୍ତି । ସେ ଗୋଟିଏ ମାଙ୍କଡ଼ର ପଞ୍ଝା ବିଷୟରେ ବର୍ଣ୍ଣନା କରନ୍ତି । ସେ ନିଜ ପକେଟରୁ ଏହାକୁ ବାହାର କରନ୍ତି । Herbert ଏହି ପଞ୍ଝାକୁ ନିଅନ୍ତି ଏବଂ ଆଗ୍ରହର ସହିତ ଦେଖନ୍ତି । Mr. White ମଧ୍ୟ ଏହାର ବିଶେଷତ୍ଵ ଜାଣିବାପାଇଁ ଆଗ୍ରହ ପ୍ରକାଶ କରନ୍ତି । Morris ଗମ୍ଭୀର ହୋଇଯାଇ କହନ୍ତି ଯେ ଜଣେ ବୃଦ୍ଧ ସନ୍ନ୍ୟାସୀ ଏହି ମାଙ୍କଡ଼ ପଞ୍ଝାରେ ମନ୍ତ୍ରଶକ୍ତି ବଳରେ ଯାଦୁ ଭରିଦେଇଛନ୍ତି । ଫଳସ୍ବରୂପ ଏହା ମାଲିକର ତିନୋଟି ମନୋବାଞ୍ଛା ପୂରଣ କରିପାରିବ ।

ଶେଷରେ ସେ ଏହି କୁହୁକ ମନ୍ତ୍ର ଥ‌ିବା ମାଙ୍କଡ଼ ପଞ୍ଝାଟିକୁ Mr. Whiteଙ୍କୁ ବିକ୍ରି କରି ଦେଇଛନ୍ତି । Morris ସେମାନଙ୍କୁ ସତର୍କ କରି ଦେଇଛନ୍ତି ଯେ ସେମାନେ ଏହାକୁ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି କୌଣସି ଇଚ୍ଛା ବା ଆଶ ପୂରଣ ନ କରନ୍ତୁ କାରଣ ଏହା ଭୟଙ୍କର ପରିଣାମ ସହ ଇଚ୍ଛାଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ପୂରଣ କରିବ । Herbert କିନ୍ତୁ Morrisଙ୍କର କଥାକୁ ବିଶ୍ୱାସ କରନ୍ତି ନାହିଁ । ସେ ଭାବନ୍ତି ଏଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଅତି ବାହାଦୁରୀ କଥା । ସେ ମାଙ୍କଡ଼ ପଞ୍ଝାକୁ ଥଟ୍ଟା କରନ୍ତି । ତାଙ୍କ ମତରେ ମୋରିସ୍ ଜଣେ କଥାକାର । Herbertଙ୍କ ଅପେକ୍ଷା Mr. White ମାଙ୍କଡ଼ ପଞ୍ଝାର ସତ୍ୟତା ପରୀକ୍ଷା କରିବାକୁ ଅଧ‌ିକ ଆଗ୍ରହ ପ୍ରକାଶ କରନ୍ତି । କିନ୍ତୁ Mrs. White ତାଙ୍କ ସ୍ଵାମୀଙ୍କ ଅପେକ୍ଷା ଏହାକୁ କମ୍ ବିଶ୍ଵାସ କରନ୍ତି । Herbert ତାଙ୍କ ବାପାଙ୍କୁ ଏକ ସାମ୍ରାଜ୍ୟର ଅଭିଳାଷ କରିବାପାଇଁ ଉତ୍ସାହିତ କରନ୍ତି ଏବଂ ତା’ପରେ ପରିହାସ ଛଳରେ ସେ ବନ୍ଧକ ମୁକାଳିବାପାଇଁ ଦୁଇ ଶହ ପାଉଣ୍ଡ ଇଚ୍ଛା କରିବାକୁ କୁହନ୍ତି ଏବଂ Mr. White ଏଥ‌ିରେ ରାଜି ହୋଇଯାଆନ୍ତି । ତା’ପରେ ଭୟସଙ୍କୁଳ ଅବସ୍ଥାରେ ମାଙ୍କଡ଼ ପଞ୍ଝାକୁ Mr. White ପକାଇ ଦିଅନ୍ତି । Herbert କିଛି ସମୟ ପାଇଁ ଏହି ପଞ୍ଝାର ମନ୍ତ୍ରଶକ୍ତି ବିଷୟରେ ବିଶ୍ଵାସ କରନ୍ତି ନାହିଁ । କିନ୍ତୁ ସେ ବେଖାତିର ଢଙ୍ଗରେ ଏହି ଅଭିଳାଷର ପରିଣାମ ବିଷୟରେ ଅନୁମାନ କରିପାରନ୍ତି ଏବଂ ତାଙ୍କ ବାପାମା’ଙ୍କୁ କହନ୍ତି ଯେ ସେ ଜାଣନ୍ତି ସେ କେବେହେଲେ ଟଙ୍କା ପାଇପାରିବେ ନାହିଁ । ସେ ତାଙ୍କ ମା’ଙ୍କୁ ମଧ୍ୟ ପରିହାସ କରନ୍ତି । ଏହି ଦୃଶ୍ୟଟିର ସମାପ୍ତି ଘଟେ ଯେତେବେଳେ ପରିବାରର ସଦସ୍ୟମାନେ ବିଶ୍ରାମ ନେବାପାଇଁ ଶୋଇବାକୁ ଯାଆନ୍ତି ।

Glossary :
stormy: ଝଡ଼ମୟ
thunderclap: ଘଡ଼ଘଡ଼ି ଶବ୍ଦ
cozy: comfortable
quiet: silent (ଶାନ୍ତ|ନୀରବ)
concentrate : focus (ମନୋନିବେଶ କରିବା)
howling: blowing violently (ଅଶାନ୍ତ ଭାବେ ପବନ ବହିବା)
guiltily: ଦୋଷୀ ଭାବରେ
bangs: ଖଡ଼ଖଡ଼୍ ହେବା
wiping: ପୋଛିବା
miracles: ଅଲୌକିକ ଘଟଣା
performing: ସମ୍ପାଦନ କରିବା
monkey’s paw : ମାଙ୍କଡ଼ର ପଞ୍ଝା
better off here : ଏଠାରେ ଭଲରେ ଅଛି
mummified: ସାଇତି ରଖାଯାଇଛି
horror: great fear ( ଅତ୍ୟଧ୍ଵ
curiously: କୌତୂହଳ ସହକାରେ
spell: ମନ୍ତ୍ର
solemnly: seriously (ଗମ୍ଭୀର ଭାବେ)
show …. lives: how fate governs human lives
uneasily: uncomfortably
show up: appear (ଦେଖାଦେବା )
bet: ବାଜି ମାରିବା
our ……..count: Herbert family’s votes don’t have any importance
soothingly: ସାନ୍ତନା ଦେଇ
amusement: delight (ଆନନ୍ଦ)
annoyance:displeasure
shrugging : କାନ୍ଧ ଉପରକୁ ଟେକି
fairy tale: ପରୀ କାହାଣୀ
pauses: ଅଟକିଯାଏ
alarmed: ସତର୍କ କଲେ
get rid of: ମୁକ୍ତ ହେବା
give up: ତ୍ୟାଗ କରିବା
pay off: ଶୁଝି ଦେବା
mortgage: ବନ୍ଧକ
ridiculous : funny (ହାସ୍ୟାସ୍ପଦ)
twisted: ମୋଡ଼ ନେଲା
depressing: ବିଷାଦଜନକ
silence: ନିରବତା
teasing: ଥଟ୍ଟା
squatting up : ଗୋଡ଼ ଟେକି ବସିବା
ill-gotten gains: ଖରାପ ଲାଭ

Scene – 2

Gist :
The writer takes us to the following afternoon when Mr. and Mrs. White do not desire to look at the paw that lies on the shelf. Mr. White recollects the dreadful experience as a result of his wish on the monkey’s paw. Meanwhile, there is a knock on the door. To her shocked disbelief, Mrs. White learns from the representative of Maw and Meggins that Herbert is hurt. She understands the significance of his visit. The visitor shatters their happiness with news of Herbert’s death. Herbert died because he became entangled in the machinery. The representative announces that his company will decline to take any responsibility for the accident. At last he hands over two hundred pounds to Mr. White.

ସାରମର୍ମ :
ଲେଖକ ଆମକୁ ପରଦିନର ଅପରାହ୍ନକୁ ନେଇଯାଇଛନ୍ତି ଯେତେବେଳେ Mr. ଏବଂ Mrs. White ଥାକରେ ଥ‌ିବା ପଞ୍ଝା ଉପରେ ନଜର ପକାଇବାକୁ ଇଚ୍ଛା କରିନାହାନ୍ତି । Mr. White ମାଙ୍କଡ଼ ପଞ୍ଝାଟିକୁ ପ୍ରଥମ ଅଭିଳାଷ କରିବାବେଳର ଭୟଙ୍କର ଅନୁଭୂତିକୁ ମନେ ପକାଇଛନ୍ତି । ଏହି ସମୟରେ କବାଟରେ ଏକ ଠିକ୍‌ଠିକ୍ ଶବ୍ଦ ଶୁଣାଯାଇଛି । Mrs. White Maw and Meggins ର ପ୍ରତିନିଧ୍ଵଙ୍କଠାରୁ Herbert ଆଘାତପ୍ରାପ୍ତ ହୋଇଥିବା କଥା ଶୁଣି ଅବିଶ୍ବାସରେ ଭାଙ୍ଗିପଡ଼ନ୍ତି । ସେ ପ୍ରତିନିଧ୍ଵଙ୍କର ବୁଲି ଆସିବାର ଗୁରୁତ୍ଵକୁ ବୁଝିପାରିଛନ୍ତି । ସେହି ଆଗନ୍ତୁକ ଜଣକ Herbertଙ୍କର ମୃତ୍ୟୁ ଖବର ଦେଇ ସେମାନଙ୍କର ଆନନ୍ଦକୁ ଧୂଳିସାତ୍‌ କରିଦେଇଛନ୍ତି । Herbert ମେସିନ୍‌ରେ ଚାପି ହୋଇ ମୃତ୍ୟୁବରଣ କରିଥିଲେ । ସେହି ପ୍ରତିନିଧ୍ଵଜଣକ ଘୋଷଣା କଲେ ଯେ କମ୍ପାନୀ ଏହି ଦୁର୍ଘଟଣା ପାଇଁ କୌଣସି ଦାୟିତ୍ଵ ନେବାପାଇଁ ମନା କରିଛନ୍ତି । ଶେଷରେ ସେ Mr. Whiteଙ୍କୁ ଦୁଇ ଶହ ପାଉଣ୍ଡ ମୁଦ୍ରା ପ୍ରଦାନ କରିଛନ୍ତି ।

Glossary :
sorting : ବାଛିବା
mails: letters (ଚିଠିପତ୍ର)
shelf: ଥାକ
ignored: ଅଣଦେଖା
plenty: ପ୍ରଚୁର
funny: କୌତୂହଳପ୍ରଦ
gets: reaches (ପହଞ୍ଚ)
swear: ପ୍ରତିଜ୍ଞା କରିବା
soothingly: softly (ଆଶ୍ଵାସନା ଦେଇ)
knock: ଠକ୍ ଶବ୍ଦ
conclusions: ସିଦ୍ଧାନ୍ତ
calm down: ଶାନ୍ତ ହୋଇଯିବା
frantic: ପାଗଳଭାବେ
breaks off: stops suddenly
squeeze: hold firmly
disclaim: ଦାବି ଗ୍ରହଣ ନ କରିବା
liability: burden (ବୋଝ)
compensation : କ୍ଷତିପୂରଣ
faint: ଚେତା ବୁଡ଼ିଯିବା

Scene – 3

Gist :
It is night. The death of her son makes Mrs. White grief-stricken. She changes from an intelligent, self-possessed woman into a raving, shrieking, weeping mourner. Mr. White’s grief is two-fold as he laments his son’s death as well as his decision to wish on the monkey’s paw in the first wish. However, Mrs. White suggests wishing on the monkey’s paw a second wish to bring Herbert back to life, but Mr. White is reluctant to do it. At last he succumbs to his wife’s insistence.

Holding up the paw, he wishes his son come back to life again. He drops the paw and driven by despair, he sits on a chair in a state of trembling. An element of horror descends on the Whites’ family. Doors bang unexpectedly, stairs squeak, and silence interrupted by the tickling of the clock. The Whites do not do what they really want. Knocks repeatedly on the Whites’ door, however suggests that the caller may not really be Herbert’s revived corpse. The frantic knocking at the door is perhaps someone else entirely who goes away just as Mr. White makes his third wish.

ସାରମର୍ମ :
ଏହା ରାତ୍ରି ସମୟ । Mr. Whiteଙ୍କୁ ତାଙ୍କ ପୁଅର ମୃତ୍ୟୁ ଦୁଃଖ-ପୀଡ଼ିତା କରିଦେଇଛି । ସେ ଜଣେ ବିଜ୍ଞ ସ୍ତ୍ରୀ ଲୋକରୁ ଜଣେ କ୍ରନ୍ଦନରତା ନାରୀରେ ପରିଣତ ହୋଇଛନ୍ତି । ମାଙ୍କଡ଼ ପଞ୍ଝା ନିକଟରେ ନିଜର ଅଭିଳାଷ ପ୍ରାପ୍ତି ଇଚ୍ଛା କାରଣରୁ ପୁଅର ମୃତ୍ୟୁ ହେବା Mr. Whiteଙ୍କ ଦୁଃଖକୁ ଦ୍ବିଗୁଣିତ କରିଦେଇଛି । ଏତିକିବେଳେ Mrs. White Herbertଙ୍କୁ ବଞ୍ଚାଇବାକୁ ମାଙ୍କଡ଼ ପଞ୍ଝା ନିକଟରେ ଦ୍ଵିତୀୟ ଅଭିଳାଷ କରିବାକୁ Mr. Whiteଙ୍କୁ କହିଛନ୍ତି; କିନ୍ତୁ Mr. White ଏଥ‌ିପାଇଁ ଅନିଚ୍ଛା ପ୍ରକାଶ କରିଛନ୍ତି । ଶେଷରେ ତାଙ୍କ ସ୍ତ୍ରୀଙ୍କ ଆଗ୍ରହ ନିକଟରେ ହାର ମାନି ସେ ଦ୍ଵିତୀୟ ଅଭିଳାଷ ପ୍ରାର୍ଥନା କରିବାକୁ ବାଧ୍ୟ ହୁଅନ୍ତି । ସେହି ମାଙ୍କଡ଼ର ପଞ୍ଝା ନିକଟରେ ସେ ଅଭିଳାଷ କରନ୍ତି ତାଙ୍କ ପୁଅର ଜୀବନ ଆଉଥରେ ବଞ୍ଚିଯାଉ ।

ସେ ସେହି ପଞ୍ଚୋଟିକୁ ତଳେ ପକାଇଦିଅନ୍ତି ଏବଂ ଭୟରେ ଶିହିରି ଉଠି ଚୌକି ଉପରେ ବସିପଡ଼ନ୍ତି । Whiteଙ୍କ ପରିବାରରେ ଭୟର ବାତାବରଣ ଖେଳିଯାଏ । ହଠାତ୍ କବାଟ ବାଡ଼େଇ ହେବାର, ଶିଡ଼ି କେଁ କେଁ ହେବାର ଶବ୍ଦ ଶୁଣାଯାଏ ଏବଂ ଘଣ୍ଟାର ଟିକ୍‌ଟିକ୍ ଶବ୍ଦରେ ନୀରବତା ଭାଙ୍ଗିଯାଏ । କିଏ କବାଟ ଠକ୍‌ଠିକ୍ କରୁଛି ତାହା White ପରିବାରର କେହି ଜାଣିପାରନ୍ତି ନାହିଁ । ଏହି ବାରମ୍ବାର ଠକ୍‌କ୍ ଶବ୍ଦରୁ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତିଜଣକ ପୁନର୍ଜୀବିତ ଶବ ନୁହେଁ ବୋଲି ସୂଚନା ମିଳେ । ଏହି ପାଗଳଭାବେ ଠକ୍ କରୁଥିବା ବ୍ୟକ୍ତିଜଣକ Mr. Whiteଙ୍କ ତୃତୀୟ ଅଭିଳାଷ

Glossary :
sobs: weeps, cries (କାନ୍ଦିଛନ୍ତି)
straighten: ସିଧା ହେବା
clutch: ଜାବୁଡ଼ି ଧରିବା
get rid of: to be free from (ମୁକ୍ତ ହେବା)
hysterically: ପାଗଳଙ୍କ ପରି
horror: ଭୟ
mangle: ଚାପି ହୋଇଯିବା
trembling : ଥରିବା
grabs arm: ବାହୁକୁ ଜାବୁଡ଼ି ଧରିବା
loud wait: ଉଚ୍ଚ କାନ୍ଦଣା
picks up : ଉଠାଇ ଆଣିବା
thunderous knocking: loud knocking (ଜୋର୍‌ରେ ଠକ୍‌ଠିକ୍ ଶବ୍ଦ)
Wail: bitter weeping

Think it out

Scene – 1
Question 1.
Describe the weather and its influence on the theme.
The story opens on a dark and stormy night. There is also the sound of heavy rain and an intermitent thunderclap. The inhospitable weather heightens the tension and informs the readers that something dreadful could occur at any moment. Jacobs here depicts the White’s home and domestic sphere in general as a safe, comfortable place separate from the dangerous world. The hostile weather greatly influences the theme of the play: Wanting more than what’s sufficient may bring disaster. The White’s family is a burning instance.

Question 2.
What was special about the monkey’s paw?
A holy man had put a magic spell on the monkey’s paw as a result of which it would grant each of its owner’s three wishes. That was the speciality about the monkey’s paw.

Question 3.
How did the first owner of the monkey’s paw use it?
The first owner of the monkey’s paw had three wishes, yet the writer was. not aware of what the first two were for, but it was certain that his third wish was for death.

Question 4.
Why couldn’t Morris sell the monkey’s paw?
Morris could not sell the monkey’s paw, because it had already caused enough harm. In addition to this fact, to some people it was nothing, but a sheer fairy tale and others were interested to test it first and pay him afterwards.

Question 5.
How did the Whites get the monkey’s paw?
The Whites got the monkey’s paw from Sergeant Major Morris. He had thrown the monkey’s paw into the fire. Mr. White hastily retrieved it from the fire before it started to bum. At last he bought it from Major Morris.

Question 6.
How does Morris describe the monkey’s paw?
Morris indirectly states that the monkey’s paw is dangerous. Thanks to a holy man it possessed a magical power. As a result, its owner could possibly wish for anything and it would be fulfilled. No one could go beyond the world of three wishes. In other words, the Morris refers to the paw’s omnipotent power.

Question 7.
What did Morris say about how to use the monkey’s paw? What was his warning to the Whites?
Morris instructed Mr. White to hold the monkey’s paw in his right hand and wish anything loudly. His warning to the Whites was that they would dislike the consequences of their wishes.

Question 8.
What were the things mentioned by Sergeant Major hinted at the Whites’ fate?
The things mentioned by Sergeant Major Morris hinted at the Whites’ fate were that Morris wanted Mr. White to throw the monkey’s paw back in the fire and warned him of its consequences. Above all, Morris sincerely advised them to wish for something sensible.

Question 9.
What was the first wish? How was it made?
The first wish was for two hundred pounds. Mr. White wished it by holding up the paw as Herbert taped a drumroll on the table with his hands.

Question 10.
Compare Mr. White’s and Herbert’s attitudes toward the monkey’s paw. Why was it logical that Herbert would be the victim of the first wish?
Mr. White’s attitude towards monkey’s paw was initially one of the credulousness. To him, wishing on it was ridiculous. At last, he used it as a token of his first wish- partly in jest and partly out of curiosity. Herbert believed that Sergeant Major Morris’s stories were nothing but a pack of tall tales and treated the monkey’s paw with irreverent humour. He encouraged his father to wish for an emperorship and then jokingly suggested him to wish for two hundred pounds to pay off the mortgage. Herbert did not believe for a moment that the paw was magical, but he unwittingly predicted the outcome of the wish when he told his parents that he would never see the money. So it was logical that Herbert would be the victim of the first wish.

Scene – 2

Question 11.
What was the effect of the first wish?
The effect of the first wish was horrific. Mr. White’s wish was granted, but not immediately. The next day the representative of Maw and Meggins gave the Whites the news of Herbert’s death, because he became entangled in the machinery. His body was mangled. He handed over two hundred pounds to Mr. White as a compensation. In short, White’s first wish was granted, but at the cost of his son. Mrs. White was inconsolable at her son’s untimely death. It shattered their happiness.

Scene – 3

Question 12.
Why didn’t Mr. White want to make the second wish?
Mrs. White tried to convince her husband to wish their son back to life. But Mr. White did not want to make the second wish, because it would be foolish and disastrous. He feared that his wife would be unable to recognize mutilated body of Herbert. In his view, the second wish would be more dangerous than the first one.

Question 13.
“Bring him back! Do you think I would fear my own son?” Why does Mrs. White say so?
Mrs. White says so, because she is curious to see her son come back alive. The death of her son and the belief that it might have been prevented nearly drive her insane made her say so. Her transformation is dramatic, but she still changes from an intelligent, self-possessed woman into a raving, shrieking, weeping mourner.

Question 14.
What was the final wish?
The final wish was to put an end to repeated knockings on the Whites’ door. Instead of passing off the knocking as an unrelated coincidence, Mr. White immediately jumps to the conclusion that evil stands on the other side, as if believing; the paw has punished him for being greedy. His decision to make the unwanted visitor away with his third wish may reflect his desire not to save him and his lover, but also redeem for his sins.

Question 15.
Did the Whites get what they really wanted? Give reasons for your answer.
The Whites did not get what they really wanted. They got two hundred pounds, but lost their son. Their happiness has collapsed like a house of cards. Mr. White understands the significance of the wishes. Mrs. White is inconsolable at her son’s untimely death. Unchecked greed put paid to the tranquillity in their house.

Question 16.
What role did the author want the monkey’s paw to play here?
The author wanted the monkey’s paw to play a practical role here. As Jacobs suggests, making one seemingly harmless wish only intensifies and magnifies desire as each subsequent wish becomes more outlandish.

Question 17.
What did the holy man want to prove to people by putting the spell on the paw?
The holy man wanted to prove to people something practical by putting the spell in the paw. The monkey’s paw symbolises desire and greed- everything that its owner could possibly wish for and the unrestricted ability to make it happen. This paw makes one alluring, even to unselfish people who desire nothing and have everything they need.

Question 18.
In your opinion, did the holy man make his point? Why or why not?
By putting the spell on the monkey’s paw, the holy man sent a message to mankind: Greed leads to unhappiness, no matter how much more one asks for. Intense desire also gives rise to unfulfilled expectations or unintended consequences as with Herbert’s unexpected death and rise from the grave as a living corpse. The holy man made his point in order to expose human weakness for obtaining more power and pelf.

### CHSE Odisha Class 12 English The Monkey’s Paw Important Questions and Answers

Question 1.
The White family is in a _________mood.
(A) serious
(B) relaxed
(D) frustrating
(B) relaxed

Question 2.
Mr. White is ____________ of politicians.
(A) jealous
(B) proud
(C) critical
(D) none of these
(C) critical

Question 3.
Sergeant Major Morris visits the White family in a __________weather.
(A) fine
(B) dull
(C) hostile
(D) typical
(C) hostile

Question 4.
That the story of the monkey’s paw is about magic evokes a ________ response from the Whites.
(A) curious
(B) cold
(C) cheerful
(D) mysterious
(A) curious

Question 5.
While narrating the story of monkey’s paw, there was a ring of ____________in his tone.
(A) pathos
(B) poignancy
(C) irony
(D) seriousness
(D) seriousness

Question 6.
A magic spell on the paw, grants ____________ wishes to its user.
(A) four
(B) three
(C) more than three
(D)none of these
(B) three

Question 7.
One who uses monkey’s paw invites _________.
(A) disaster
(B) pressure
(C) pleasure
(D) happiness
(A) disaster

Question 8.
Herbert is a __________ believer in the magical power of monkey’s paw.
(A) firm
(B) reluctant
(C) rational
(D) none of these
(B) reluctant

Question 9.
The monkey’s paw behaved ___________in response to Mr. White’s first wish.
(A) nicely
(B) menacingly
(C) mockingly
(D) hesitantly
(B) menacingly

Question 10.
Mr. White’s first wish has been fulfilled __________.
(A) dramatically
(B) immediately
(C) after a pretty long time
(D) none of these
(A) dramatically

Question 11.
Which one of the following statements is false?
(A) Mr. White is sure of Herbert having plenty funny remarks after his return from the factory.
(C) Mrs. White has seen him several times.
(D) She has a look at his strange behaviour.
(C) Mrs. White has seen him several times.

Question 12.
Which one of the following statements is true?
(A) Mr. White allows the unknown person to come in.
(B) He does not feel at home.
(C) This unknown person belongs to the Maw and Meggins.
(D) His words do not surprise Mrs. White.
(C) This unknown person belongs to the Maw and Meggins.

Question 13.
Now, now. Calm down. No point jumping to the conclusions. The underlined words means-
(A) indecisive
(B) arriving at a conclusion in a haste
(C) jumping from one statement to another
(D) coming to the conclusion after a careful thought
(B) arriving at a conclusion in a haste

Question 14.
The expression ‘badly hurt’ means –
(A) seriously beaten
(B) injured in an accident
(C) seriously injured
(D) none of these
(C) seriously injured

Question 15.
“She breaks off ……….” The underlined phrasal verb means-
(A) stops suddenly
(B) breaks into tears
(C) collapses or faints
(D) occurs
(C) collapses or faints

Question 16.
‘Caught in the machinery.’ This statement implies-
(A) Herbert, the only child of his parents, is dead.
(B) The Whites’ son handles the machine with great skill.
(C) Herbert is fighting for his life.
(D) Mechanical work gives Mr. White a great pleasure.
(A) Herbert, the only child of his parents, is dead.

Question 17.
“Stranger. Two hundred pounds.” These statements signifies –
(A) winning two hundred pounds
(B) the stranger’s joke
(C) Mrs. White’s gleeful response to the receipt of two hundred pounds
(D) fulfilment of Mr. White’s first wish
(D) fulfilment of Mr. White’s first wish

Question 18.
The news of Herbert’s death makes Mrs. White –
(A) silent
(B) scream
(C) terribly grief-stricken
(D) unbelievably calm
(C) terribly grief-stricken

Question 19.
Mrs. White’s reference ‘to the other two wishes’ is one of devastating –
(A) shock
(B) anger
(C) roughness
(D) none of these
(A) shock

Question 20.
The word ‘mangled’ means –
(A) distinguished
(B) marked
(C) disfigured
(D) mixed
(C) disfigured

Question 21.
Mrs. White wishes her son come to __________.
(A) meet her
(B) be fair
(C) light
(D) life again
(D) life again

Question 22.
Mr. White yields to his wife’s _________ to go for the other two wishes.
(A) request
(C) pressure
(D) none of these
(C) pressure

Question 23.
Putting the spell on the monkey’s paw indicates man’s _____________.
(A) insatiable greed for more
(B) insanity
(C) disenchantment with life
(D) craving for achieving more
(A) insatiable greed for more

Introducing the Author :
William Wymark Jacobs (1863-1943) is an English author of short stories and novels like 0. Henry’s. Jacobs was famous during his life-time for writing a particular type of story rather than for any particular work. Similar to O. Henry’s stories, his tales are tightly constructed, humorous stories that usually revolve around surprise-ending plots. Many of his stories are set on the water-fronts and docks of London, which Jacobs knew from his own childhood. In addition to humour, Jacobs explored the macabre in several tales. ‘The Monkey’s Paw’ is probably a case in point.

Jacob’s play adheres to the traditional belief that we do not really want what we think we want and that wanting more than what’s sufficient may bring ruin. Intense desire also often leads to unfulfilled expectations or unintended consequences as with Herbert’s unexpected death and rise from the grave as a living corpse. In short unchecked greed only results in unhappiness. In this play, the first wish leads to unexpected and dissatisfying results, the hastily made second wish fails to reverse the first wish and only worsens the situation, and the third wish manages to undo the disastrous second wish.

‘The Monkey’s Paw’ is W.W. Jacobs’ most famous story and is considered to be a classic of horror fiction. It first appeared in Harper’s Monthly magazine in 1902, and was reprinted in his third collection of short stories The Lady of the Barge, also published in 1902. The story has since been published in many anthologies, adapated for the stage, and made into films. ‘The Monkey’s Paw’ was well received when Jacobs first published it; the story garnered rave reviews from some of the most important cities writing at the turn of the century. The story was also very popular with readers.

Jacobs uses foreshadowing, imagery and symbolism in this play to explore the consequences of tempting fate. His careful, economical creation of setting an atmosphere adds suspense to the tale, while his use of dialogue and slang help readers to feel that the characters are genuine.

ବିଷୟ ସୂଚନା :
Jacobsଙ୍କର ନାଟକଗୁଡ଼ିକରେ ପାରମ୍ପରିକ ବିଶ୍ଵାସ ଉପରେ ଆଲୋକପାତ କରାଯାଇଛି । ଆମେ ବାସ୍ତବରେ ଯାହା ପାଇବାକୁ ଇଚ୍ଛା କରୁଛୁ ବୋଲି ଭାବୁ ତାହା ଆମର ପ୍ରକୃତ ଇଚ୍ଛା ନୁହେଁ । ଆବଶ୍ୟକତାଠାରୁ ଅଧିକ ଇଚ୍ଛା କରିବା ଧ୍ଵଂସକୁ ଆମନ୍ତ୍ରଣ କରିଥାଏ । ଅତ୍ୟନ୍କ ଆଶା ଓ ଆକାଂକ୍ଷା ପରିପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ହୋଇ ନ ଥାଏ, ବରଂ ଏହାର ଫଳାଫଳ ଭୟଙ୍କର ହୋଇଥାଏ । Herbertଙ୍କର ହଠାତ୍ ମୃତ୍ୟୁ ହୋଇଯିବା ଏବଂ ଜୀବନ୍ତ ଶବଭାବେ ସମାଧୁରୁ ଉଠିଆସିବା ଏହାର ଦୃଷ୍ଟାନ୍ତ ।

ସଂକ୍ଷେପରେ କହିଲେ, ଅତି ଲୋଭ ଦୁଃଖର କାରଣ ହୋଇଥାଏ । ଏହି ନାଟକଟିରେ ପ୍ରଥମ ଇଚ୍ଛା ଅସନ୍ତୋଷଜନକ ଫଳାଫଳ ଆଣିଦେଇଛି, ତରବରିଆ ଭାବେ କରାଯାଇଥିବା ଦ୍ଵିତୀୟ ଇଚ୍ଛା ପ୍ରଥମର ଫଳାଫଳକୁ ବଦଳାଇବା ପାଇଁ ଅସମର୍ଥ ହୋଇଛି ଓ ପରିସ୍ଥିତିକୁ ଅଧୁକ ଖରାପ କରି ଦେଇଛି ଏବଂ ତୃତୀୟ ଇଚ୍ଛା ଦ୍ଵିତୀୟ ଇଚ୍ଛାଟିକୁ କୌଣସି ପ୍ରକାରେ ପ୍ରତିରୋଧ କରିପାରିଛି । ‘The Monkey’s Paw’ Jacobsଙ୍କର ଏକ ପ୍ରସିଦ୍ଧ ଗଳ୍ପ ଏବଂ ଭୟଙ୍କର ଉପନ୍ୟାସର ଏକ ଉଚ୍ଚକୋଟୀର ସାହିତ୍ୟ ଭାବେ ବିବେଚିତ । ଏହା ପ୍ରଥମେ ୧୯୦୨ ମସିହାରେ Harperଙ୍କର ମାସିକ ପତ୍ରିକାରେ ପ୍ରକାଶିତ ହୋଇଥିଲା ଏବଂ ତାଙ୍କର ତୃତୀୟ ଗଳ୍ପଗ୍ରନ୍ଥ The Lady of the Bargeରେ ୧୯୦୨ ମସିହାରେ ପୁନର୍ବାର ମୁଦ୍ରିତ ହୋଇଥିଲା ।

ଏହି ଗଳ୍ପଟିକୁ ମଧ୍ୟ ମଞ୍ଚସ୍ଥ କରାଯାଇଥିଲା ଏବଂ ଚଳଚ୍ଚିତ୍ର ଭାବେ ପ୍ରଦର୍ଶିତ ହୋଇଥିଲା । ଯେତେବେଳେ ଏହା ପ୍ରଥମେ ପ୍ରକାଶ ପାଇଲା, ଏହା ଖୁବ୍ ଉତ୍କଣ୍ଠାର ସହ ଆଦୃତ ହେଲା । ଏହା ମଧ୍ୟ ଉଚ୍ଚ ପ୍ରଶଂସିତ ହେଲା । ପାଠକମାନଙ୍କଦ୍ୱାରା ଏହା ମଧ୍ୟ ଖୁବ୍ ଆଦୃତ ହୋଇପାରିଲା । ‘ଅତି ଲୋଭର ପରିଣାମ’’କୁ Jacobs ଏଥରେ ଚିତ୍ରକଳ୍ପ ମାଧ୍ୟମରେ ପ୍ରକାଶ କରିଛନ୍ତି । ଏଥ‌ିରେ ଅଂଶଗ୍ରହଣ କରିଥି ଚରିତ୍ରମାନେ ବାସ୍ତବ ଭଳି ମନେ ହୁଅନ୍ତି । ସେମାନେ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରିଥିବା ସଂଳାପ ଚରିତ୍ରଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ଜୀବନ୍ତଭାବେ ଉପସ୍ଥାପିତ କରିଥାଏ ।

Summary :
‘Jacobs’ ‘The Monkey’s Paw’ opens on a dark and stormy winter night. We find the White family spending a cozy evening together around the hearth. In the meantime an old friend Sergeant Major Morris comes to visit them. He comes home after spending more than twenty years in India. Mrs. White is as eager as Herbert and Mr. White to hear the tales of his exploits abroad. Morris entertains his hosts with exotic stories of life abroad. He narrates the story of a monkey’s paw. He pulls it out of his pocket. Herbert takes the paw and looks at it with curiosity. Mr. White is interested to know about its speciality. Morris becomes serious and says that an old holy man had put on a magic spell on the monkey’s paw and as a result, it will grant its owner three wishes. At last he sells it to Mr. White. Morris warns the Whites not to wish anything from it at all, but they can do it with horrible consequences.

Morris departs. Herbert believes that Sergeant Major Morris’s stories are nothing but a pack of tall tales and treats the monkey’s paw with irreverent humour. In his view, “Morris is quite a story-teller.” Mrs. White is more willing to consider the truth of the monkey’s paw than Herbert, but she is far less credulous than her husband. Herbert encourages his father to wish for an emperorship and then jokingly suggest to : him to wish for two hundred pounds to pay off the mortgage and the latter obliges. He recoils in horror after wishing on the monkey’s paw for the first time that the paw moved like a snake in his hand. Herbert doesn’t believe it for a moment that the paw is magical, but he unwittingly predicts the outcome of the wish when he tells his parents that he knows he’ll never see the money.

The writer takes us back to the following afternoon when Mr. and Mrs. White do not desire to look at the paw that lies on the shelf. Mr. White recollects the dreadful experience as a result of his wish on the monkey’s paw. Meanwhile, there is a knock on the door. To her shocked disbelief, Mrs. White learns from the representative of Maw and Meggins that Herbert is hurt. She understands the significance of his visit. The visitor shatters their hapiness with news of Herbert’s death. Herbert died because he became entangled in the machinery. The representative announces that his company will decline to take any responsibility for the accident. At last he hands over two hundred pounds to Mr. White. His small and sensible wish, however, is enough to tempt fate into killing Herbert.

The grief-stricken Mrs. White still talks about the monkey’s paw and the other two wishes. She wants Mr. White to make another wish to bring Herbert to life again. Mr. White is reluctant to respond to her wish. He tries to convince his wife that ten days have already passed since Herbert’s death. Mr. White’s grief is two-fold as he laments the loss of his son as well as his decision to wish on the monkey’s paw in the first place. However, he succumbs to his wife’s insistence on second wish. Mr. White drops the paw. Fear and despair grip him. Doors bang unexpectedly, stairs squeak and tickling of the clock interrupts the silence that descends on the family. At last, a silent knock is heard. Mrs. White is anxious to know that who is knocking. But Mr. White says : “It is just a mouse in the wall.”

The knock grows louder. The frantic knocking at the door is perhaps someone else entirely who goes away just as Mr. White makes his third wish. The fact that the writer never actually describes who or what knocks repeatedly on the White’s door, however, is suggestive of the fact that the caller may not really be Herbert’s revived dead body.

ସାରାଂଶ:
Jacobsଙ୍କର ‘The Monkey’s Paw’ ନାଟକଟି ଏକ ଅନ୍ଧକାର ଓ ଝଡ଼ତୋଫାନ୍ ରାତ୍ର ସମୟରୁ ଆରମ୍ଭ ହୁଏ । ଆମେ ଦେଖୁ ଯେ White ପରିବାରର ସଦସ୍ୟମାନେ ଚୁଲିର ଚାରିପଟେ ଏକାଠି ବସି ସନ୍ଧ୍ୟା ସମୟରେ ଆରାମ କରୁଛନ୍ତି । ଏହି ସମୟରେ ସେମାନଙ୍କର ଜଣେ ପୁରୁଣା ବନ୍ଧୁ ସର୍ଜେଣ୍ଟ Major Morris ବୁଲିବାକୁ ଆସିଛନ୍ତି । ସେ ଭାରତରେ କୋଡ଼ିଏ ବର୍ଷରୁ ଊର୍ଦ୍ଧ୍ବ ସମୟ ରହିବା ପରେ ଘରକୁ ଫେରିଛନ୍ତି । Mrs. White, Mr. White ଏବଂ Herbert ବିଦେଶରେ ତାଙ୍କର ଅନୁଭୂତିକୁ ଶୁଣିବାକୁ ଆଗ୍ରହ ପ୍ରକାଶ କରିଛନ୍ତି । Morris ସେମାନଙ୍କୁ ବିଦେଶରେ ତାଙ୍କର ଅନୁଭୂତିର ଗଚ୍ଛସବୁ ଶୁଣାଇ ଖୁସି କରାନ୍ତି । ସେ ମାଙ୍କଡ଼ର ପଞ୍ଝା ଗଛଟିକୁ ବର୍ଣନା କରିଛନ୍ତି । ତାଙ୍କ ପକେଟରୁ ସେ ପଞ୍ଝାଟିକୁ ବାହାର କରନ୍ତି । Herbert ଆଗ୍ରହର ସହ ଟାଣି ନେଇ ସେହି ପଞ୍ଚୋଟିକୁ ଦେଖନ୍ତି । Mr. White ଏହାର ବିଶେଷତ୍ଵ ଜାଣିବାକୁ ଆଗ୍ରହ ପ୍ରକାଶ କରନ୍ତି । Morris ଗମ୍ଭୀର ହୋଇଯାଇ କହନ୍ତି ଯେ ଜଣେ ବୃଦ୍ଧ ସନ୍ୟାସୀ ଏହି ମାଙ୍କଡ଼ ପଞ୍ଝା ଭିତରେ କୁହୁକ ଶକ୍ତି ଭରି ଦେଇଛନ୍ତି । ଫଳରେ ଏହାର ମାଲିକଙ୍କୁ ଏହା ତିନୋଟି ଆଶା ପୂର୍ବ କରିବାର ବର ପ୍ରଦାନ କରିବ । ଶେଷରେ ସେ ଏହାକୁ Mr. Whiteଙ୍କୁ ବିକ୍ରି କରି ଦିଅନ୍ତି । Morris ତାଙ୍କୁ ସତର୍କ କରାଇ ଦେଇଛନ୍ତି ସେ ଏହାଠାରୁ କିଛି ଆଶା ନ କରିବାପାଇଁ, କାରଣ ଭୟଙ୍କର ଫଳାଫଳ ସହ ଏହା ସେମାନଙ୍କର ଇଚ୍ଛାକୁ କରିପାରିବ ।

Morris ବିଦାୟ ନେଇଯାଆନ୍ତି । ସେ ବିଦାୟ ନେବା ପରେ Herbert ସର୍ଜେଣ୍ଟ Morrisଙ୍କ କାହାଣୀକୁ ଅବିଶ୍ଵାସ କରିଛନ୍ତି ଏବଂ ମାଙ୍କଡ଼ର ପଞ୍ଝାକୁ ବ୍ୟଙ୍ଗ ବିଦ୍ରୁପ କରିଛନ୍ତି । ସେ କହିଛନ୍ତି Morris ଜଣେ ଭଲ ଗଛକଥକ ! Herbertଙ୍କ ଅପେକ୍ଷା Mr. White ମାଙ୍କଡ଼ର ପଞ୍ଝାର ସତ୍ୟତାକୁ ବିବେଚନା କରିବାକୁ ଅଧ୍ଵକ ଇଚ୍ଛା କରିଛନ୍ତି । Mrs. White କିନ୍ତୁ ଏହାକୁ ତାଙ୍କ ସ୍ବାମୀଙ୍କ ଅପେକ୍ଷା କମ୍ ବିଶ୍ଵାସ କରିଛନ୍ତି । Herbert ତାଙ୍କ ବାପାଙ୍କୁ ଏକ ସାମ୍ରାଜ୍ୟ ପାଇବାକୁ ଇଚ୍ଛା କରିବାକୁ ଉତ୍ସାହିତ କରନ୍ତି ଏବଂ ତା’ପରେ ଥଟ୍ଟା ପରିହାସ ଛଳରେ ବନ୍ଧକ ମୁକାଳିବାପାଇଁ ଦୁଇ ଶହ ପାଉଣ୍ଡ ପାଇଁ ଇଚ୍ଛା କରିବାକୁ କହନ୍ତି । Mr. White ରାଜି ହୋଇଯାଆନ୍ତି । ପ୍ରଥମଥର ପାଇଁ ସେ ଇଚ୍ଛା ପୂରଣ କରିବାପାଇଁ ଚାହିଁବାରୁ ତାଙ୍କ ମନ ଭୟସଙ୍କୁଳ ହୋଇଯାଏ । ମାଙ୍କଡ଼ର ପଞ୍ଝାଟି ଏକ ସାପ ଭଳି ତାଙ୍କ ହାତରେ ଗତି କରେ । Herbert ପ୍ରଥମେ ପଞ୍ଚୋଟିର ଯାଦୃଶକ୍ତି ଅଛି ବୋଲି ବିଶ୍ଵାସ କରିପାରନ୍ତି ନାହିଁ । କିନ୍ତୁ ସେ ବେଖାତିର ଭାବେ ଇଚ୍ଛାର ଫଳାଫଳର ଭବିଷ୍ୟ ସୂଚନା ଦେଇ କହନ୍ତି ଯେ ସେ କେବେ ବି ଟଙ୍କା ପାଇପାରିବେ ନାହିଁ ।

ଲେଖକ ଆମକୁ ନେଇଯାଆନ୍ତି ପରଦିନର ଅପରାହ୍ନ ସମୟକୁ ଯେତେବେଳେ ଥାକରେ ଥିବା ପଞ୍ଝାକୁ Mr. White ଏବଂ Mrs. White ଦେଖିବାକୁ ଇଚ୍ଛା କରନ୍ତି ନାହିଁ । Mr. White ସେହି ଭୟଙ୍କର ଅନୁଭୂତିର ସ୍ମୃତିଚାରଣ କରନ୍ତି । ଏହି ସମୟରେ କେହି ଜଣେ କବାଟ ଠକ୍‌ଠକୁ କରନ୍ତି । Mrs. White Maw and Megginsର ପ୍ରତିନିଧୂଙ୍କଠାରୁ Herbert ଆଘାତ ପାଇଛନ୍ତି ବୋଲି ଦୁଃଖଦ ଅବିଶ୍ୱାସ୍ୟ ଖବର ଶୁଣିବାକୁ ପାଆନ୍ତି । ତାଙ୍କର ପରିଦର୍ଶନ କରିବାର ଗୁରୁତ୍ଵକୁ Mrs. White ବୁଝିପାରନ୍ତି । ଆଗନ୍ତୁକଜଣକ ସେମାନଙ୍କର ଖୁସିକୁ Herbertଙ୍କର ମୃତ୍ୟୁ ଖବର ଜଣାଇ ଧୂଳିସାତ୍‌ କରିଦିଅନ୍ତି । Herbert ମେସିନ୍ ମଧ୍ଯରେ ଚାପି ହୋଇ ମୃତ୍ୟୁବରଣ କରିଛନ୍ତି। ସେହ ପ୍ରତିନିଧ୍ଵଜଣକ ଘୋଷଣା କରନ୍ତି ତାଙ୍କ ଦୁର୍ଘଟଣା ପାଇଁ କମ୍ପାନୀ କୌଣସି ଦାୟିତ୍ଵ ନେବାପାଇଁ ମନା କରିଛନ୍ତି । ଶେଷରେ ସେ Mr. Whiteଙ୍କୁ ଦୁଇ ଶହ ପାଉଣ୍ଡ ମୁଦ୍ରା ଦେଇଛନ୍ତି । ତାଙ୍କର ସେହି ଛୋଟ ଆଶାଟି Herbertଙ୍କ ମୃତ୍ୟୁ ପରେ ହିଁ ପୂରଣ ହୋଇପାରିଛି ।

ଦୁଃଖ-ପୀଡ଼ିତା Mrs. White ଏବେବି ମାଙ୍କଡ଼ ପଞ୍ଝା ବିଷୟରେ ଏବଂ ଅନ୍ୟ ଦୁଇଟି ଆଶା ପୂରଣ କରିବା ବିଷୟରେ କଥା ହେଇଛନ୍ତି । ସେ ଆଉ ଏକ ଇଚ୍ଛା ମାଧ୍ୟମରେ Herbertକୁ ପୁନର୍ବାର ବଞ୍ଚାଇବାକୁ Mr. Whiteଙ୍କୁ କହିଛନ୍ତି । Mrs. Whiteଙ୍କର ଇଚ୍ଛାକୁ ପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ କରିବାପାଇଁ Mr. White ଅନିଚ୍ଛା ପ୍ରକାଶ କରିଛନ୍ତି । ସେ ତାଙ୍କ ସହଧର୍ମିଣୀଙ୍କୁ ବୁଝାଇଛନ୍ତି ଯେ Herbert ମରିବାର ଦଶଦିନ ଅତିକ୍ରମ କରିଗଲାଣି । ମାଙ୍କଡ଼ ପଞ୍ଝା ନିକଟରେ ନିଜ ଅଭିଳାଷ ପ୍ରାପ୍ତି ଇଚ୍ଛା କାରଣରୁ ପୁଅର ମୃତ୍ୟୁ କଥା ମନେପକାଇ ବିଳାପ କରିବାରୁ ତାଙ୍କ ଦୁଃଖ ଦ୍ଵିଗୁଣିତ ହୋଇଛି । ମାତ୍ର ନିଜ ସ୍ତ୍ରୀଙ୍କ ପ୍ରବଳ ଅନୁରୋଧରେ ସେ ଦ୍ଵିତୀୟ ଇଚ୍ଛା ମାଗିବା ପାଇଁ ବାଧ୍ୟ ହୁଅନ୍ତି । Mr. White ପଞ୍ଝାଟିକୁ ତଳକୁ ପକାଇ ଦିଅନ୍ତି । ଭୟ ଏବଂ ହତୋତ୍ସାହ ତାଙ୍କୁ କବଳିତ କରେ । ହଠାତ୍ କବାଟଗୁଡ଼ିକର ଶବ୍ଦ, ଶିଡ଼ିର କେଁ କେଁ ଶବ୍ଦ, ଘଣ୍ଟାର ଟିକ୍ ଟିକ୍ ଶବ୍ଦ ପରିବାରର ନୀରବତାକୁ ଭଙ୍ଗ କରିଛି । ଶେଷରେ କେବଳ ଠିକ୍‌ଠିକ୍ ଶବ୍ଦ ଶୁଣାଯାଇଛି । Mrs. White କିଏ ଠକ୍‌କ୍ କରୁଛି ବୋଲି ଜାଣିବାକୁ ଇଚ୍ଛା କରିଛନ୍ତି। ମାତ୍ର Mr. White କାନ୍ଥରେ ମୂଷାଟିଏ ଚଢ଼ିଛି ବୋଲି କହିଛନ୍ତି ।

ଶବ୍ଦ ଅଧ‌ିକ ଜୋର୍‌ରେ ଶୁଭେ । Mr. White ତାଙ୍କର ତୃତୀୟ ଇଚ୍ଛା ପୂରଣ ପାଇଁ ଚାହାନ୍ତି । ଲେଖକ ସ୍ପଷ୍ଟ ଭାବେ କହିନାହାନ୍ତି କିଏ କିମ୍ବା କ’ଣ ପାଇଁ Whiteଙ୍କର କବାଟରେ ବାରମ୍ବାର ଠକ୍‌ଠିକ୍ କରିଛି । ସତ୍ୟ ଏହା ଯେ ଆଗନ୍ତୁକ Herbertଙ୍କର ଜୀବିତ ମୃତଦେହ ହୋଇ ନ ଥାଇପାରେ ।