Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 Approaches to English Book 1 Solutions Unit 1 Text A: ‘Cures’ for the Common Cold Textbook Activity Questions and Answers.
CHSE Odisha 12th Class Alternative English Solutions Unit 1 Text A: ‘Cures’ for the Common Cold
Relation Between Parts of a Text:
If you are asked to divide the lesson into 5 sections in order to make notes, where possibly could you draw the lines separating the sections?
Write the paragraph number and the last word of the paragraph after which you will start a new section. Suggest a title for each section.
Section- 1: Paragraph-1 …………… harmful
Title: Old Fashioned Remedies for Cold
Section- 2: Paragraphs – 2-4 …………avoided
Title: Morphine, Codeine and Papaverine as Remedies.
Section- 3: Paragraphs 5-6 ………… cold
Title: What The Scientists Studied.
Section- 4: Paragraphs 7-8 ………………..complications
Title: Opium Derivatives and Bed Rest.
Section- 5: Paragraph-9 ……………………..before
Title: Hot Baths and Cold Measurement
Activity – 2
Of the following six statements only three are main points of the passage. Identify them:
(i) Many widely advertised cures and home remedies for cold are worthless or harmful
(ii) Students treated with sugar tablets showed little improvement.
(iii) Neither vaccines, nor vitamins and any other dietary measures prevent cold.
(iv) Nasal drops and sprays are found to be dangerous.
(v) Staying in bed for the duration of the cold was the only remedy that showed any result.
The second paragraph possesses a question, what is it?
The question is: Is there any remedy, then, of value in the treatment of colds?
What answer does the writer suggest?
The writer says that there is scarcely any viable alternative for the treatment of common cold. However, there are a good many kinds of medicines which can be administered against cold.
How does the writer establish his answer?
The writer picks up names like Morphine, Codeine, Papaverine combination, quinine hot water, air and stream baths were used as common therapies for cold but not as permanent cures.
What further recommendations did the writer make?
The writer also brought out the names of different experts such as Dr. Russell Cecil, Dr. FitzHutter, De Quineeywhose findings were the best recommendations in the treatment of cold.
Activity – 4
Sequence In an Experiment:
What are the steps of the experiments mentioned in paragraph 4 and 5? Rearrange the steps given below in proper order:
(i) Record the health conditions of the patients at regular intervals.
(ii) Record initial health conditions of all the patients.
(iii) Compare the health conditions of the experiments group with that of the control group.
(iv) Prepare dummy to mixture.
(v) Draw inference after analysis of findings.
(vi) Divide the patients into experimental and control groups.
(vii) Select sample patients.
(viii) Prepare Codeine- Papaverine mixture.
In this part of the country Tulsi leaves with honey are considered remedies for common cold. If you have to conduct an investigation to ascertain the truth of this belief, how will you organise the experiment? You can take clues from the reading passage and write down the steps of your proposed experiment.
Activity – 6
Morphine (which is) a derivative of opium, showed excellent results. (Paragraph – 3)
This preparation (which is) common called copavin, is not advertised to the public (Paragraph- 5)
In these sentences you have seen examples of non-defining relative clauses. Such clauses are separated from the main clauses with the help of commas. Secondly, the relative pronoun (like ‘which) and the ‘be’ verb can be omitted. The relative clauses without the relative pronoun and the ‘be’ verb are called the reduced relative clause. Similar reduction is possible in defining relative clauses also. Now reduce the relative clauses in the following sentences:
(a) They stood on the bridge which was connecting Cuttack with Jagatpur.
(b) The girl who is standing at the bus stop over there is my sister.
(c) The weapon that was used in the murder has been found.
(d) The boys who are being chosen for the college team are all under 18.
(e) The wooden beams which were holding up the roof have been damaged.
Activity – 7
1. Nasal congestion and stillness are reduced.
2. It was found that powered opium and Dover’s powder were beneficial.
3. The progress of the cold seemed to be arrested.
4. Commercial remedies are still sold.
In scientific tests were offer to see the examples of passive sentences. Whatever reduced nasal congestion, whoever found it out are unimportant in the first two sentences above. Similarly, we get examples of get-passive and have-passive scientific texts e.g.
When the boy gets chilled ___________.
I had my eyes tested.
Now rewrite the following sentences using passive structures like have/get + v + past participle.
The first one has been done for you.
1 . Our houses looked ugly. Its paint was pelling off.
So we got /had it painted.
2. Raman’s watch book. He could not afford to buy a new one.
3. Lili split coffee on her favourite dress. She could not wash it by hand.
4. In the super cyclone the roof was flown flourished and a wall fell down.
5. Sharukh’s car was not starting well and seemed to be using too much petrol. But he did not want to sell his lucky car.
2. Raman’s watch broke. He could not afford to buy a new one.
So he had it repaired.
3. Lili split coffee on her favourite dress. She could not wash it by hand.
So she got it washed.
4. In the super cyclone the roof was flown of four shed and a wall fell down.
So we had it rebuilt.
5. Sharukh’s car was not starting well and seemed to be using too much petrol But he did not want to sell his lucky car.
So he got it repaired.
Section – A
New look at the little of the first passage. “Cures for The Common Cold.” What possible cures can you think of? Do you know that science has not yet brought us a cure for this disease? However, the quest continues to find a possible remedy, can you guess any home remedy that may cure common cold?
Now go through the text quickly and see if you guess right. You have only two minutes to do so. Read the text again and identify the cures that have been short-listed.
Section – B
In section A we read about a sequence of experiments to find a cure for the common cold. In Section B we shall read about a different kind of experiment whose purpose is to find out the types of human blood. What’s more interesting, you can learn how to determine your blood type as well as that of others.
‘Cures’ for the Common Cold Summary in English
Cures for the common cold comprise general skepticism. Millions of dollars is being spent for this every year. Obsolete cures like asafetida and camphor are not longer in vogue and popular remedies like vitamins, vaccines, nasal medications and other drugs have substituted them. Advertised remedies now available in the market sometimes prove worthless and harmful. There is absolutely to effective prevention of the common cold. Morphine which is a derivative of opium showed excellent results, but was rejected on account of its danger. But some other derivatives of opium which are less toxic and carry no practical danger of habituation proved to be definitely valuable. Codline and papaverine both proved valuable in the treatment of acute colds.
The codlin-papaverine combination proved to be, after Morphine, the most valuable of all cold medications. A preparation, consisting of one quarter grain of codeine and one quarter of grain of papaverine was finally selected as the most effective dosage. The main efficacy was a marked decrease or complete disappearance of nasal congestion and discharge. Most of the students were up and doing while taking this medication. Had they remained in bed while using it is probable that even better result have been obtained. This preparation commonly called copavin, is not advertised to the public. But it is available through physicians who should decide when and in what dosage it should be used. Dr. Russel CecilofNew York and Dr. Fritz Hutter of Vienna, both found that the codeine, paparine mixture was particularly beneficial if used by their patients at the very beginning of the affection.
Dr. Quincy, in his “Confessions” wrote that during the years in which he had taken opium he “never once caught cold, one the phrase in nor even the slightest cough. But after discontinuing the use of opium, a violent cold attacked me and a cough soon after.” Less effective, but still of moderate value were several other opium derivatives. In addition to codeine and papaverine it was found that powered opium and the old fashioned Dover’s powder were beneficial. Quinine also came to be included in this group of moderately valuable medications. In the end, certain general hygienic measures are helpful in the treatment of colds. Going to bed and remaining there until recovery is good advice.
The value of bed rest lies in protecting others from exposure, in necessary general resistance and in keeping the body warm. Hot baths for the treatment of colds may consist of hot water, hot air stream. The effect of these baths is to dialate the blood vessels of the skin and to increase blood flow through them. As a result, nasal congestion and stiffness are reduced. Other effects may be obtained with message of or other forms of physiotherapy, with hot or cold compresses, mustard plasters and certain, medicated ointments. If such treatments are followed by rest in bed with sufficient covers to prevent cooling, the effect is prolonged and the possibility of their being more than temporary benefit is increased.
- Cures for the common cold comprise of general skepticism.
- Millions of dollars is being spent for this every year.
- Asafetida and camphor are considered as obsole cures.
- These are no longer in vogue.
- These have been so far substituted.
- The substitutions are popular remedies.
- These are vitamins, vaccines, nasal medications etc.
- Now advertised remedies are available in the market.
- These are proved worthless and harmful.
- There is absolutely no effective prevention of common cold.
- Morphine is a derivative of opium.
- Morphine should excellent results.
- But it was rejected on account of its danger.
- However, some other derivatives of opium are taken.
- These are less toxic.
- They also carry no practical danger of habituation.
- Hence, it proved to be definitely valuable.
- Codeine and papaverine both proved valuable in the treatment of acute cold.
- The codeine-papaverine combination proved to be the most valuable of all cold medication after morphine.
- The preparation is made.
- One-quarter grain of codeine and one-quarter grain of papaverine are prepared together.
- It is finally selected as the most effective dosage.
- The main result was the marked decrease or complete disappearance of nasal congestion and discharge.
- Most of the students were up and doing while taking this medication.
- They had to remain in bed.
- So that they would have obtained better results.
- This preparation is commonly called copavin.
- It is not advertised to the public.
- But it is available through physicians.
- He is to decide about the dosage.
- Dr. Russell of New York and Dr. Fritz Hutter of Vienna found something about it.
- They found something beneficial about the mixture of codeine and papaverine.
- It is particularly beneficial for the patients at the very beginning of affection.
- Dr. Quincy in his “Confessions” wrote something.
- He wrote that the had taken opium for something.
- He marked that the had never caught by cold once.
- There was not even the slighest cough.
- But he discontinued the use of opium.
- He was attacked by a variant cold then.
- It was followed by a cough soon after.
- Several other opium derivative were less effective.
- They were still having with moderate value.
- It was found that powered opium and the old fashioned Dover’s powder were beneficial.
- Quinine belongs to this group.
- It is also accepted as the moderately valuable medication
- Certain general hygienic measures are considered.
- They are found helpful in the treatment of cold.
- Complete bed rest up to full recovery is a good advice.
- It lies in protecting others from exposure.
- It is necessary for general resistance.
- Again it keeps the body warm.
- We can accept hot baths for the treatment of cold.
- It may consist of hot water, hot air or stream
- Its effect is very important.
- It can dialate the blood vessels of the skin.
- Again, it can increase blood flow through them
- As a result of this, nasal congestion and stiffness are cured.
- Other effects may be obtained with message.
- We can also adopt other forms of physiotherapy.
- This can be done with hot or cold compresses.
- This can be done with hot or cold compresses.
- It can also be done by other medicated ointments.
- Such treatment should be followed with complete bed rest.
- It should be with sufficient covers to prevent cooling.
- Its effect to some extent prolonged.
- Again, the possibility of temporary benefit is increased.
Meaning Of Difficult Words:
remedies – panaceas: ways and means of cure.
in vogue – in prevalence, in operation
investigation – searching or examining carefully, enquiry into a matter.
uniformly – identically, almost the same, equally
distinct – distinguished, different, separate
discarded – cast off rejected, thrown away, not accepted
one- quarter- one-fourth something
De Quincey – Thomas De Quincey (1 785 – 59), English essayist and critic famous for “Confession of an English Opium- eater”, fascinating memories of distinguished by great imaginative power and splendid prose.
Octean – Jean Octean (1 889 – 1963) French poet, novelist, dramatist, film writer and director who was in the vanguard of almost every experimental artistic movement of the 20th century.