Odisha State Board BSE Odisha Class 10 English Grammar Book Solutions Chapter 2 Types of Sentences Textbook Exercise Activity Questions and Answers.
BSE Odisha Class 10 English Grammar Solutions Chapter 2 Types of Sentences
Types Of Sentences
Look at the following sentences :
1. Mr. Anil Mohanty is a teacher (ଅଛନ୍ତି).
2. He teaches (ପଢ଼ାନ୍ତି) us English.
3. He has been teaching English for the last fifteen years (ପଢ଼ାଉଛନ୍ତି).
4. The underlined verbs are, teaches, and has or has been teaching are finite verbs. (ରେଖାଙ୍କିତ କ୍ରିୟାପଦ is, teaches, has ବା has been teaching ଗୋଟିଏ ଗୋଟିଏ ସମାପିକା କ୍ରିୟା ।)
5. The underlined verbs are called finite verbs as they have tense forms.
(କାଳ ରୂପ ବହନ କରୁଥିବାରୁ ଏସମସ୍ତ ରେଖାଙ୍କିତ କ୍ରିୟା ସମାପିକା କ୍ରିୟା ଅଟନ୍ତି ।)
What is a Finite verb ? ( ଏକ ସମାପିକା କ୍ରିୟା କ’ଣ)
⇒ The verb that is limited by the person and number of the subject, is called the Finite Verb. (ଯେଉଁ କ୍ରିୟାପଦ କର୍ତ୍ତା ବା ଉଦ୍ଦେଶ୍ୟ ପୁରୁଷ ଓ ବଚନ ଦ୍ଵାରା ସୀମିତ, ତାହାକୁ Finite Verb କୁହାଯାଏ ।)
ଅର୍ଥାତ୍, The verb that has tense (present or past form) is said to be a Finite Verb.
(Tense ବା କାଳ ଧାରଣ କରିଥିବା କ୍ରିୟାକୁ ସମାପିକା କ୍ରିୟା କୁହାଯାଏ ।)
Position of a Finite verb in a sentence (ଗୋଟିଏ ବାକ୍ୟରେ ସମାପିକା କ୍ରିୟାର ସ୍ଥିତି)
A Finite Verb occurs in a single verb or the first verb in a verb group.
( ବାକ୍ୟରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ଏକମାତ୍ର କ୍ରିୟାରୂପ ଓ କ୍ରିୟାପଦଗୁଡ଼ିକର ପ୍ରଥମ କ୍ରିୟାରୂପେ ଏକ ସମାପିକା କ୍ରିୟା ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ।)
⇒ But in Odia sentence, the last verb is said to be a Finite Verb since it completes the sentence. (କିନ୍ତୁ ଓଡ଼ିଆ ବାକ୍ୟରେ ଶେଷ କ୍ରିୟାପଦା କ୍ରିୟାପଦ ସମୂହ ସମାପିକା କ୍ରିୟା ଯେହେତୁ ଏହା ବାକ୍ୟକୁ ସମାପ୍ତ କରିଥାଏ ।)
See the differences:
|Odia sentence||English Sentence|
|ଗୋପାଳ ଭଲ ଖେଳିଲା ।||Gopal played well. (Past simple tense).|
|ଗୋପାଳ ତିନି ବର୍ଷ ଧରି ଭଲ ଖେଳୁଛି ।||Gopal has been playing well for three years.
(Present Perfect Progressive sentence).
(Here ‘has’ being the first verb is also a finite verb).
|ଗୋପାଳ ଭଲ ଖେଳିପାରେ ।||Gopal may play well.|
|ଗୋପାଳ ଭଲ ଖେଳିପାରିଥା’ନ୍ତା ।||Gopal could have played well.|
|ଗୋପାଳ ଭଲ ଖେଳୁଥାଇପାରେ ।||Gopal can / may be playing well.|
|(The last verb in the Odia sentence is the Finite Verb, while the verb in the post-subject (after the subject) is the Finite Verb.
(ଓଡ଼ିଆ ବାକ୍ୟର ଶେଷ କ୍ରିୟା ସମାପିକା କ୍ରିୟା; କିନ୍ତୁ ଇଂରାଜୀ ବାକ୍ୟରେ କର୍ତ୍ତା ବା ଉଦ୍ଦେଶ୍ୟ ପରବର୍ତ୍ତୀ କ୍ରିୟା ବା କେତେକ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ କ୍ରିୟା ସମୂହ ସମାପିକା କ୍ରିୟା ଅଟେ ।)
Kinds of Sentences (ବାକ୍ୟର ପ୍ରକାର):
Sentence: A combination of words that makes complete sense is called a sentence. (ଶବ୍ଦମିଶି ଅର୍ଥ ପ୍ରକାଶ କଲେ ତାହାକୁ ବାକ୍ୟ କୁହାଯାଏ ।)
My mother is unwell. (ଅସୁସ୍ଥ)
Do your duty.
Fire ! ( ଗୁଳି ଚଳାଅ)
How dirty the road looks!
May you live long. (ତୁମେ ଦୀର୍ଘଜୀବୀ ହୁଅ।)
What do you mean ? (ତୁମେ କ’ଣ କହିବାକୁ ଚାହୁଁଛ ?)
Thank you. (ଆପଣଙ୍କୁ ଧନ୍ୟବାଦ।)
⇒ There can be no sentence without a Subject (expressed or understood) and a Finite Verb. (ଗୋଟିଏ କର୍ତ୍ତା ବା ଉଦ୍ଦେଶ୍ୟ ଏବଂ ଗୋଟିଏ ସମାପିକା କ୍ରିୟା ବ୍ୟତୀତ ବାକ୍ୟ ତିଆରି ହୋଇ ପାରିବ ନାହିଁ ।) (କର୍ତ୍ତା ବା ଉଦ୍ଦେଶ୍ୟ ଗୋଟିଏ ବାକ୍ୟରେ ରହିପାରେ ବା ଊଦ୍ୟ ଥାଇପାରେ ।)
ଯେପରି Fire ! (You = The soldiers = understood)
Do your duty. (you = understood)
Thank you. (I = understood)
Simple Sentence (ସରଳ ବାକ୍ୟ):
Read the following sentences:
(i) Father is a man of principle.
(ii) Having lost the match, the team India returned home.
In sentence (i), we have one subject (Father) and one predicate (is a man of principle). Similarly in sentence (ii), we have one subject (the team India), and one predicate (having lost the match and returned home).
So these two sentences are called Simple Sentences.
(1) The sentence having one subject and one predicate or only one finite verb, is called simple sentence. (ଯେଉଁ ବାକ୍ୟରେ ଗୋଟିଏ କର୍ତ୍ତା ଓ ଗୋଟିଏ ବିଧେୟ ବା ଗୋଟିଏ ସମାପିକା କ୍ରିୟା ଥାଏ, ତାହାକୁ ସରଳବାକ୍ୟ କୁହାଯାଏ)
(One subject + One predicate with one finite verb – Simple sentence)
In a simple sentence, the subject may be expressed or understood. (ଏକ ସରଳବାକ୍ୟରେ କର୍ତ୍ତା ବା ଉଦ୍ଦେଶ୍ୟ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ ବା ଊଦ୍ୟ ରୁହେ ।)
|Subject||A predicate with italicized finite verb (s)|
|(You)||Feed the baby. (ପିଲାଟିକୁ ଖାଇବାକୁ ଦିଅ ।)|
|Nobody||loves that girl.|
|One part of the predicate||Sub||The second part of the predicate|
|How nicely||the girl||dances!|
|Why did||the children||laugh at the beggar?|
|What||a tall tree (the finite verb remains understood)||this is!|
|Predicate part with an italicized finite verb||Subject|
|How many legs has||a spider? (ବୁଢ଼ିଆଣୀ)|
|What is||your name?|
|Here comes||our headmaster.|
|There goes ((ବାଜୁଛି))||the school bell.|
Activity – 1
Pick out the finite verbs (ସମାପିକା କ୍ରିୟା) in the following sentences.
(i) Nilima has a good memory.
(ii) He shall not enter the house.
(iii) We have not yet received the money.
(iv) He has been studying to pass the examination.
(v) Ramesh works in a bank.
(vi) We must obey the rules of the road.
Declarative / Assertive Sentence (ତଥ୍ୟାତ୍ମକ ବା ବିବୃତିମୂଳକ ବାକ୍ୟ) |
(i) A Declarative/Assertive sentence is one which makes a statement of fact or opinion either positive or negative. (ଯେଉଁ ବାକ୍ୟ ଉକ୍ତି ବା ମତ ବିଷୟରେ ତଥ୍ୟ ପ୍ରଦାନ କରେ ବା ବିବୃତି ପ୍ରଦାନ କରେ, ତାହାକୁ ତଥ୍ୟାତ୍ମକ ବା ବିବୃତିମୂଳକ ବାକ୍ୟ କୁହାଯାଏ ।)
(ii) The Declarative sentence with positive statement is known as Affirmative sentence.
(iii) The Declarative sentence with a negative statement is known as a Negative sentence.
Let’s see through a diagram.
⇒ A declarative sentence be it affirmative (yes) or negative usually begins with a subject. ହେଉ ବା ନାସ୍ତିସୂଚକ ହେଉ, ଗୋଟିଏ ବିବୃତିମୂଳକ ବାକ୍ୟ ସାଧାରଣତଃ କର୍ଷା ବା ଉଦ୍ଦେଶ୍ୟରୁ ଆରମ୍ଭ ହୋଇଥାଏ ।)
(i) The bus will stop here. (affirmative)
(ii) The bus won’t (will not ନୁହେଁ) stop here. (negative)
(iii) I am your well-wisher (ଶୁଭେଚ୍ଛ). (affirmative)
(iv) I’m not (I amn’t ନୁହେଁ) your well-wisher. (negative)
A pattern of Declarative Sentence:
There are the Five important ‘Patterns’ (୫ଟି ମୁଖ୍ୟ ଗଠନ ପଦ୍ଧତି) of Simple/Declarative Sentence. They are :
(i) SV = [Subject + Verb (Intransitive)]
(ii) SVO = [Subject + Verb (Transitive) + Object]
|we||May buy||A new computer|
(iii) SVOO = [Subject + Verb (Transitive) + Object (Indirect) + Object (Direct)]
|The Postman||Gave||we||A letter|
|The teacher||Asked||The boys||Some questions|
⇒ Direct Object denotes thing and Indirect object denotes person.
ମୁଖ୍ୟ କର୍ମ ବସ୍ତୁ ବା ପଦାର୍ଥକୁ ସୂଚିତ କରେ ଓ ଗୌଣ କର୍ମ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି / ପ୍ରାଣୀକୁ ସୂଚିତ କରେ ।
ପୋଷ୍ଟ ପିଅନ ବାପାଙ୍କୁ ଗୋଟିଏ ଚିଠି ଦେଇଛନ୍ତି ।
The post peon has given father a letter.
Subject Verb(Transitive) Indirect Object Direct Object
(iv) SVC = Subject + Verb + Complement
⇒ Complement is used after ‘Be’ verbs (is/ am/are/ was/ were) and ‘Link’ verbs (smell/taste / grow/feel etc)
[Link Verbs; ଯଥା – smell (ଶୁଙ୍ଘିବା)/ taste(ଚାଖୁବା)/ grow (ବଢ଼ିବା) ।feel (ଅନୁଭବ କରିବା) ଏବଂ ‘Be’ verbs ( is / am / are / was / were) ପରେ Complement ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ ।]
A complement may be a Noun or Noun phrase or Adjective or Adverb or Preposition with Object etc. (ଗୋଟିଏ ପୂରକ ଏକ Noun ବା N.P. ବା ବିଶେଷଣ ବା Preposition + କର୍ମ ହୋଇପାରେ ।)
(v) SVOC = Subject + Verb (T) + Object + Complement
Subject Verb(Transitive Object Complement
We have proved him wrong.
⇒ (ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ ତା କଥାକୁ ଭୁଲ ପ୍ରମାଣିତ କରିଛୁ ।)
They Elected Mr Rout chairman
⇒ (ସେମାନେ ଶ୍ରୀଯୁକ୍ତ ରାଉତଙ୍କୁ ଚେୟାରମ୍ୟାନ ମନୋନୀତ କଲେ ।)
The book has made Naba Sir popular.
⇒ (ବହିଟି ନବସାର୍ ଙ୍କୁ ଲୋକପ୍ରିୟ କରିଛି ।)
Interrogative Sentence (ପ୍ରଶ୍ନୋତ୍ତର ବାକ୍ୟ):
(1) An Interrogative sentence with the mark of interrogation (?) at its end, makes question to elicit some information or to know something. (ଯେଉଁ ବାକ୍ୟର ଶେଷରେ ଏକ ପ୍ରଶ୍ନ ସୂଚକ ଚିହ୍ନ ( ?) ଥାଏ ଓ କିଛି ସୂଚନା ପାଇବା ପାଇଁ ବା କିଛି ଜାଣିବାପାଇଁ ଯେଉଁ ବାକ୍ୟ ପ୍ରଶ୍ନ କରେ, ତାହାକୁ ପ୍ରଶ୍ନ ସୂଚକ ବାକ୍ୟ କୁହାଯାଏ ।)
Where has Leena gone ? (ଲିନା କେଉଁଠାକୁ ଯାଇଛି ? )
How do you go to school ? (ତୁମେ କିପରି ସ୍କୁଲକୁ ଯାଅ ?) ବା (ତୁ’ କିପରି ସ୍କୁଲକୁ ଯାଉ ?)
Can you hear me ? (ତୁ’ ମୋ କଥା ଶୁଣି ପାରୁଛୁ ?)
Did anyone want me last night ? (କାଲି ରାତିରେ କେହି ମୋତେ ଖୋଜୁଥିଲେ ?)
(2) An interrogative sentence is of two types, i.e. Wh-interrogative and Yes-No interrogative.
Let’s see through a dialogue :
Imperative Sentence ( ଅନୁଜ୍ଞାତ୍ମକ ବାକ୍ୟ):
An imperative sentence is one with an order, advice, instruction or direction, warning, command, request, suggestion, or wishes to the person or person spoken.
(ଯେଉଁ ବାକ୍ୟ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତିକୁ ବା ଉଦ୍ଦେଶ୍ୟରେ କୁହାଯାଇଥିବା ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି ପ୍ରତି ଆଦେଶ, ଉପଦେଶ, ନିର୍ଦ୍ଦେଶ, ନୀତିନିର୍ଦ୍ଦେଶ, ସାବଧାନ, ଅନୁରୋଧ ପ୍ରସ୍ତାବ ବା ଶୁଭେଚ୍ଛାର ଅର୍ଥ ପ୍ରକାଶ କରେ, ତାହାକୁ ଅନୁଜ୍ଞାତ୍ମକ ବାକ୍ୟ କୁହାଯାଏ ।)
Write in H.B (High Bonded) pencil. (instruction)
Go to bed early. (advice)
Hand in (ଦେଇଦିଅ) your answer papers. (order)
Please sit here. (request)
Beware of the dog. (warning)
Remember: Imperative sentences are normally addressed to the second person (you) with a request, order, command, advice, warning, wishes. So ‘you’ is understood. (ଏ ସମସ୍ତ ଅର୍ଥ ସୂଚକ କରୁଥିବା ଅନୁଜ୍ଞାତ୍ମକ ବାକ୍ୟରେ ସାଧାରଣତଃ ଦ୍ଵିତୀୟ ପୁରୁଷ ‘you’ ଊଦ୍ୟ ରହେ ।)
(a) Order (ଆଦେଶ) :
Hurry up. (ଚଞ୍ଚଳ କର ।)
Leave this place.
Shut up ! (ଚୁପ୍ ରୁହ !)
Good wishes (ଶୁଭେଚ୍ଛା) :
(b) Advice (ଉପଦେଶ) :
Never tell a lie. (କେବେ ମିଛ କୁହନାହିଁ ।)
Don’t disobey your parents.
Be polite (ନମ୍ର ହୁଅ} to everybody.
Go to bed early.
(c) Instructions/Directions (ନିର୍ଦେଶ) :
(What to do / how to do / where to go etc.)
Don’t use a ball pen. (Examination) Take this medicine on an empty stomach. Go straight on. ( ସିଧାସଳଖ ଆଗକୁ ଚାଲ ।)
Turn left. (ବାମକୁ ମୋଡ଼ ।)
Stop near the SBI ATM.
Soak (ଭିଜାଅ) the rice in a bucket (ବାଲଟିରେ).
(d) Warning (ସତର୍କ | ସାବଧାନ) :
Don’t get into a running bus.
(ଚଳନ୍ତା ବସ୍ ଭିତରକୁ ପଶ ନାହିଁ ।)
Mind your own language.
(ନିଜର ଭାଷାପ୍ରତି ଧ୍ୟାନ ଦିଅ ।)
Mind your steps on the slippery road.
(ଖସଡ଼ା ରାସ୍ତା ଉପରେ ପାଦ ପ୍ରତି ଧ୍ୟାନ ଦିଅ ।)
Never betray your motherland.
(ମାତୃଭୂମି ପ୍ରତି ଆଦୌ ବିଶ୍ଵାସଘାତକତା କର ନାହିଁ ।)
(e) Good Wishes (ଶୁଭେଚ୍ଛା) :
Have a good time.
(ତୁମର ସମୟ ଭଲରେ ଅତିବାହିତ ହେଉ ।)
(I hope you have a good time.)
Have a nice day.
(ଦିନଟି ଭଲରେ କଟିଯାଉ ।)
(I hope you have a nice day.)
Have a happy journey.
( ଆପଣଙ୍କର ଯାତ୍ରା ସୁଖପ୍ରଦ ହେଉ ।)
(f) Request (ଅନୁରୋଧ) :
Buy me a book, please.
Please move a little.
(ଦୟାକରି ଟିକେ ଘୁଞ୍ଚୁଯାଅ ।)
Kindly inform the police.
Help me with this sum, please.
(ଦୟାକରି ଏହି ଅଙ୍କ କଷିବାରେ ମୋତେ ସାହାଯ୍ୟ କରନ୍ତୁ ।)
(g) Command (ଆଦେଶ) (ସେନାଧ୍ୟକ୍ଷଙ୍କ ତରଫରୁ) :
March on, soldiers (ଆଗେଇ ଚାଲ).
Keep firing (ଗୁଳି ଚଳାଇବା ଜାରିରଖ),
(h) Prayer (ପ୍ରାର୍ଥନା ) :
Have mercy on us.
(ଆମ୍ଭମାନଙ୍କ ଉପରେ କରୁଣା କର ।)
(i) Suggestion (ପ୍ରସ୍ତାବ) :
Let’s (let us) go on a picnic.
(ଏକ ବଣଭୋଜିରେ ଯିବା ।)
Let’s forget about it.
(ଏ ବିଷୟରେ ଭୁଲିଯିବା ଭଲ ।)
Let’s (us) work hard. (We should work hard.)
Let’s take a rest now.
(ଏବେ ଟିକେ ବିଶ୍ରାମ ନେବା ।)
(1) ‘LET’ with Other Subjects to denote other meanings : (ଅନ୍ୟ ଅର୍ଥରେ + Subject in the Objective form)
Let the girl go. (ଝିଅଟିକୁ ଯିବାକୁ ଦିଅ ।) (the girl = subject) (giving permission)
Let them play. ( ସେମାନଙ୍କୁ ଖେଳିବାକୁ ଦିଅ । ଦିଆଯାଉ ।) (giving permission)
Let me make you a cup of coffee. (ମୁଁ ତୁମପାଇଁ ଏକ କପ୍ କଫି କରୁଛି) (offer – ଯାଚିବା)
Let him speak now. (Allow him to speak now.) (ତାକୁ ଏବେ କହିବାକୁ ଦିଅ ।)
(2) ‘Let’ always takes the objective forms of
Let us (not ‘we’) …….,
Let him (not ‘he’) …….,
Let them (not ‘they’) ……..
Let her (not ‘she’) ……
Let me (not ‘I’) ……..
Exclamatory Sentence (ବିସ୍ମୟସୂଚକ ବାକ୍ୟ):
An Exclamatory sentence is one which expresses different emotions like joy, grief, wonder, shock, hatred or appreciation. (ଯେଉଁ ବାକ୍ୟ ବିଭିନ୍ନ ମାନବୀୟ ଆବେଗ, ଯଥା- ଆନନ୍ଦ, ଦୁଃଖ, ଆଶ୍ଚର୍ଯ୍ୟ, ଅପ୍ରତ୍ୟାଶିତ ଦୁଃଖ, ଘୃଣା ବା ପ୍ରଶଂସା ଆଦିକୁ ପ୍ରକାଶ କରେ, ତାହାକୁ ବିସ୍ମୟସୂଚକ ବାକ୍ୟ କୁହାଯାଏ ।)
Look at these sentences :
The tea is very strong. (Declarative) (ଚାହାଟି ଖୁବ୍ କଡ଼ା ।)
How strong the tea is ! (Exclamatory) (ଚାହାଟି କେତେ କଡ଼ା !) (ବିରକ୍ତି)
How brilliantly Sehwag batted! (କି ଚମତ୍କାର ଭାବରେ ସେହୱାଗ୍ ବ୍ୟାଟିଂ କଲେ !) (ପ୍ରଶଂସ୍କା)
What a fine cottage ! (କି ସୁନ୍ଦର କୁଡ଼ିଆଟିଏ !) (ପ୍ରଶଂସା)
(1) An Exclamatory sentence ends with an exclamatory sign (!).
(ଆହା) His father is dead. (ଦୁଃଖ)
What a dirty child! (କି ଅପରିଷ୍କାର ପିଲା !) (ଘୃଣା)
(2) Making of Exclamatory Sentence :
(i) What+ adjective + noun or noun phrase
(ii) How + adjective / adverb …………
(i) What + adjective + noun / noun phrase :
What a beautiful book!
What a long beard!
What a great leader Mahatma Gandhi was!
What a lot of languages he knows!
(ii) How + adjective /adverb + ………
How unfortunate (adjective) the girl was!
How painful (adjective) the disease is!
How quickly (adverb) the car passed!
How boldly (adverb) Amit faced the microphone!
Changing Declarative to Exclamatory:
By leaving out very, quite, so, such, indeed, etc. we change declarative to exclamatory sentences.
(i) I am very unfortunate.
How unfortunate I am!
(ii) The wind was quite ferocious.
How ferocious the wind was!
(iii) The girl has got very small hair.
What small hair the girl has/has got! or, How small the girl’s hair is!
(iv) Amitabh played the role very innocently.
How innocently Amitabh played the role!
(v) This is all nonsense.
Activity – 2
Some simple sentences are given below. Mention each, whether it is declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory. The first one has been done for you.
Why were you absent from class yesterday? (Interrogative)
(i) Abdul is a strong boy.
(ii) Let us move on.
(iii) Who told you that story?
(iv) How luckily I escaped the accident!
(v) Don’t touch a live wire.
(vi) Are you coming with him?
(vii) Turn to page 25 in your grammar book.
(viii) Who did you give it to?
Activity – 3
Turn the following declarative sentences into exclamatory sentences using ‘how’ or ‘what’s the beginning of the sentences:
(i) The weather is very fine.
How fine the weather is! (fine – adjective)
(ii) She is a very intelligent girl.
What an intelligent girl she is! (noun phrase)
(iii) He speaks very fluently.
How fluently he speaks! (adverb)
(iv) She has got a very sharp memory.
What a sharp memory she has got? (noun phrase)
(v) It is a very beautiful night.
What a beautiful night! (it is) (noun phrase)
(vi) She has put on a very costly necklace.
What a costly necklace she has put on! (noun phrase)
Activity – 4
There are some verbs in the brackets. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences choosing the appropriate verbs from the brackets.
(hope, concentrate, make, avoid, take, get)
The examination is at hand. ______ the best use of your time. ______ on your studies. _______ watching television. ______ the advice of your teachers when you are in difficulty. Don’t _____ nervous. Always ______ for the best.
The examination is at hand (ନିକଟ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ). Make the best use (ସଦୁପଯୋଗ କର) of your time. Concentrate (ମନଯୋଗ ଦିଅ) on your studies. Avoid (ଦୂରେଇ ରୁହ) watching television. Take (ଗ୍ରହଣ କର) the advice of your teachers when you are in difficulty. Don’t get (ହୁଅନାହିଁ) nervous. Always hope ଆଣାକର for the best.
Compound Sentence (Multiple Sentence) (ଯୌଗିକ ବାକ୍ୟ)
Read the following sentences:
(i) Bisu reached the station in time and got the train.
(ବିଶୁ ଠିକ୍ ସମୟରେ ଷ୍ଟେସନରେ ପହଞ୍ଚିଲା ଓ ଟ୍ରେନ୍ରେ ଯାତ୍ରାକଲା ।)
Here ‘we’ have two simple sentences. One is “Bisu reached the station in time”. The second simple sentence is (he) got the train’.
(ii) The second part of the sentence (‘and got the train’) coordinates with the earlier part (Bisu reached the station in time).
(iii) Each clause is independent of the other and is called a Principal or Main clause and they are both Co-ordinate clauses, being of equal status and joined by a coordinating conjunction ‘and’.
(ଉପର ଲିଖ୍ତ ବାକ୍ୟରେ ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ ଖଣ୍ଡବାକ୍ୟ ବା clause ଏକ ସ୍ଵାଧୀନ ଅର୍ଥ ପ୍ରକାଶ କରିଥିବାରୁ ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ ଗୋଟିଏ independent clause ବା Main clause ବା ସ୍ଵାଧୀନ ବାକ୍ୟଖଣ୍ଡ ।)
ଦ୍ଵିତୀୟ ଖଣ୍ଡବାକ୍ୟ (and got the train) ପ୍ରଥମଖଣ୍ଡ ବାକ୍ୟ (Bisu reached the station in time) କୁ co- ordinating conjunction (ସଂଯୋଜକ ଅବ୍ୟୟ) ‘and’ ଦ୍ଵାରା co-ordinating କରୁଥିବାରୁ ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ ହେଉଛି ଗୋଟିଏ ଗୋଟିଏ co-ordinating clause.
(iv) Compound sentence (definition): A sentence that is made up of two or more independent main clauses, joined by a co-ordinating conjuction, is called a compound sentence. (ତହିଁରୁ ଅଧିକ ମୁଖ୍ୟ ବା ପ୍ରଧାନ ଖଣ୍ଡବାକ୍ୟକୁ Co-ordinating conjunction ଦ୍ଵାରା ଯୋଗକରି ଯେଉଁବାକ୍ୟ ଗଠନ କରାଯାଏ, ତାହାକୁ ଯୌଗିକ ବାକ୍ୟ କୁହାଯାଏ ।)
(i) I can speak English but I can’t speak German. (Compound sentence)
(ମୁଁ ଇଂରାଜୀରେ କହିପାରିବି, କିନ୍ତୁ ଜର୍ମାନ୍ ଭାଷାରେ ନୁହେଁ ।)
[ଏଠାରେ can speak English. – Independent clause
I can’t speak German. – Independent clause, but – co-ordination/co-ordinating conjunction]
(ii) Rajesh worked hard but failed. (ରାଜେଶ କଠିନ ପରିଶ୍ରମ କଲା, କିନ୍ତୁ ସଫଳ ହେଲା ନାହିଁ ।)
[ଏଠାରେ Rajesh worked hard. – independent clause
(he) failed – independent clause, but – co-ordinating conjunction]
Compound Sentences with Co-ordinators:
The boy went to the counter and had a ticket booked.
(ବାଳକ କାଉଣ୍ଟର ପାଖକୁ ଗଲା ଓ ଟିକେଟ୍ଟି କଟାଇଲା ।)
Mr Dash drives a car and a bike.
He opened the door and went out.
(ii) But, Yet, Still, Nevertheless, Only, Whereas
(denoting a contrast between two statements)
(ଦୁଇଟି ଉକ୍ତି ମଧ୍ୟରେ ବିପରୀତ ଭାବ ଅର୍ଥା ପ୍ରଭେଦ ଦର୍ଶାଇବା ଅର୍ଥରେ)
He is poor but he is honest.
The man is rich, yet / still he is not happy.
Mitali failed twice; nevertheless, she tried again.
(ମିତାଲି ଦୁଇଥର ଫେଲ ହୋଇଗଲା, ତଥାପି ସେ ପୁଣି ଚେଷ୍ଟାକଲା ।)
He worked hard; whereas / while his brother sat idle.
(ସେ କଠିନ ପରିଶ୍ରମ କଲା; ଯେତେବେଳେ କି ତା’ର ଭାଇ ଅଳସୁଆରେ ବସି ରହିଲା ।)
You may do as you like, only don’t disturb me.
(ତୁମର ଯାହା ଇଚ୍ଛା ତାହା କର; ହେଲେ ମୋତେ ଅସୁବିଧାରେ ପକାଅ ନାହିଁ ।)
(iii) Or and Otherwise
You can stay here or you can go to a hotel.
He can’t read or write French. (ସେ ଫ୍ରେଞ୍ଚ୍ ପଢ଼ିପାରିବ ନାହିଁ କି ଫ୍ରେଞ୍ଚ୍ ଭାଷାରେ ଲେଖୁପାରିବ ନାହିଁ।)
Hurry up or/otherwise you will miss the train. (ଶୀଘ୍ର ଚାଲ, ତା’ନହେଲେ ତୁ ଟ୍ରେନ୍ ଧରିପାରିବୁ ନାହିଁ।)
(iv) So, Therefore, Then, For
Bharati was very ill, therefore / consequently (ଫଳରେ) she couldn’t attend school.
I have no money on me now; then, so / so then I can’t buy the book. (ତେଣୁକରି)
The teacher didn’t take our class because he was busy with picnic arrangements. (କାରଶ)
Conjunctions that go in pairs :
(v) Both …… and, Not only ……. But also
Both Rama and his brother are absent.
He not only played brilliantly but also powered his team to victory.
(vi) Either …… or, Neither ……. nor
Either he or his brother will come.
Neither the teacher nor the students are said to be involved in the matter.
Mohit is either listening to the radio or playing football.
The beggar neither ate nor drank anything.
Complex Sentence (ଜଟିଳ ବାକ୍ୟ):
Look at the following sentences:
(i) I am certain of completing the work today. (Simple sentence) (am – finite verb).
I am certain that I shall complete the work today. (Complex sentence)
(ii) Tell me the place of your birth. (Simple sentence) (Tell – finite verb)
Tell me where you were born. (Complex sentence)
(iii) Hard-working (a) students succeed in the examination. (Simple sentence) (succeed – finite verb)
Students who work hard succeed in the examination. (Complex sentence)
⇒ The underlined clauses in the different sentences are subordinating clauses or dependent clauses.)
(ଉପର ଲିଖ୍ତ ଜଟିଳ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକରେ ରେଖାଙ୍କିତ ଖଣ୍ଡ ବାକ୍ୟ ସବୁ ଗୋଟିଏ ଗୋଟିଏ subordinating clause ବା dependent clause ବା ନିର୍ଭରଶୀଳ ବାକ୍ୟଖଣ୍ଡ ବା ଆଶ୍ରିତ ଉପବାକ୍ୟ ।)
Sub-ordinating Clause Or, Dependent Clause (ନିର୍ଭରଶୀଳ ଖଣ୍ଡବାକ୍ୟ) :
(i) A subordinate clause is dependent on main clause for it can’t stand independently as a sentence. (ଗୋଟିଏ ନିର୍ଭରଶୀଳ ଖଣ୍ଡବାକ୍ୟ ମୁଖ୍ୟ ବା ପ୍ରଧାନ ଖଣ୍ଡବାକ୍ୟ ଉପରେ ନିର୍ଭର ବା ଆଶ୍ରା କରୁଥିବାରୁ ଏହାକୁ ନିର୍ଭରଶୀଳ ଖଣ୍ଡବାକ୍ୟ ବା ଆଶ୍ରିତ ଉପବାକ୍ୟ କୁହାଯାଏ । କାରଣ ଏପରି ବାକ୍ୟଖଣ୍ଡ ଗୋଟିଏ ବାକ୍ୟରେ (ମୁଖ୍ୟତଃ ଜଟିଳବାକ୍ୟରେ) ସ୍ଵାଧୀନଭାବରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୋଇପାରେ ନାହିଁ ।)
(ii) Complex Sentence (Definition): A sentence with at least one independent clause and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses is called a complex sentence. ଅତିକମ୍ ରେ ଗୋଟିଏ ପ୍ରଧାନ ବା ମୁଖ୍ୟ ଖଣ୍ଡବାକ୍ୟ ସହିତ ଏକ ବା ଏକାଧ୍ଵକ ନିର୍ଭରଶୀଳ ବାକ୍ୟଖଣ୍ଡ ବା ଆଶ୍ରିତ ବାକ୍ୟଖଣ୍ଡକୁ ନେଇ ଗଠିତ ବାକ୍ୟକୁ ଜଟିଳ ବାକ୍ୟ କୁହାଯାଏ ।)
Subordinate Clause in the Complex Sentence:
(1) A subordinate clause is called so as it begins with a subordinator (that, wh-words, as, because, since, if, though, etc).
(2) A subordinating clause is of three types:
- Noun clause
- Relative clause
- Adverb clause
Let’s see the classification (ଶ୍ରେଶା) of sentences:
(i) Ashis worked hard. (Simple sentence). (ଆଶିଷ କଠିନ ପରିଶ୍ରମ କଲା ।)
(ii) Ashis worked hard and got selected for admission to the Medical College. (Compound sentence).
(and got selected for admission in the Medical College = Co-ordinating Clause, and = co-ordinator)
(iii) Ashis worked hard and got a scholarship which helped him become a doctor. (Complex sentence)
(which helped him become a doctor = Subordinate Clause, which = Subordinator)
Activity – 5
Combine (join) each pair of the following sentences into a compound sentence using conjunctions such as: ‘and”, ‘but’, ‘or’, ‘so’, ‘yet’, ‘for’, otherwise.
(i) He finished his exercise. He put away his books.
He finished his exercises and put away (ରଖିଦେଲା) । his books.
(ii) He must not be late. He will be punished.
He must not be late, otherwise (ନହେଲେ । ନଚେତ୍) he will be punished.
(iii) Make haste. You will be late.
Make haste (ଚଞ୍ଚଳ କର) or you will be late.
(iv) He is rich. He is not contented.
He is rich; yet/but he is not contented (ସୁଖୀ).
(v) He was horrified. He saw bloodstain on the floor.
He was horrified (ଆତଙ୍କିତ) for (କାରଣ) he saw bloodstain (ରକ୍ତଛିଟା) on the floor.
Or, He saw bloodstain on the floor; so he was horrified.
(vi) He tried hard. He did not succeed.
He tried hard but he did not succeed.
(vii) They took every precaution. They suffered from the disease.
They took every precaution (ପ୍ରତିଷେଧକ), yet / but (ତଥାପି) they suffered from the disease.
(viii) I have a lot of work. I must do it now.
I have a lot of work, so (ତେଣୁ) I must do it now.
(ix) Be good. You will be happy.
Be good and you will be happy.
(x) He practiced daily. He became an expert player.
He practiced daily, so he became an expert (ଦକ୍ଷ) player.
Or, He became an expert player because he practiced daily.
Activity – 6
Combine each pair of the following sentences into a compound sentence using one of the correlatives: either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also, both…and.
(i) Energy is necessary for success in life. Patience is also necessary for success in life.
Not only energy (ଶକ୍ତି) but also patience (ଧୈର୍ଯ୍ୟ) is necessary for success in life.(noun)
(ii) I have left my glasses on the bus. I have left my glasses at the office.
I have left my glasses either on the bus or at the office. (place adverbial)
(iii) He cannot speak English. He cannot speak Hindi.
He can speak neither English nor Hindi. (noun).
(iv) The boy is very healthy. He is also very happy.
The boy is not only very healthy but also very happy. (adjective phrase)
Or, The boy is both very healthy and very happy.
(v) He does not drink tea. He does not drink coffee.
He drinks neither tea nor coffee. (noun)
(vi) She draws pictures neatly. She also paints them beautifully.
She not only draws pictures neatly (ପରିଷ୍କାର ଭାବରେ) but also paints them beautifully. (verb)
(vii) The artists will sing for us. They will dance for us too.
The artists (କଳାକାରମାନେ) will not only sing but also dance for us. (verb)
Or, The artists will both sing and dance for us.
Activity – 7
Break up each of the following sentences into separate clauses. Mark the main clause as M.C. and the subordinate clause as S.C.:
(i) He would go if you asked him.
He would go. (M.C) If you asked him. (S.C)
(ii) You should not disbelieve what he says.
You should not disbelieve. (M.C) What he says. (S.C)
(iii) He found the watch that he had lost.
He found the watch. (M.C) That he had lost. (S.C)
(iv) Though he was born of poor parents, he rose to greatness.
he rose to greatness. (M.C) Though he was born to poor parents. (S.C)
(v) We thought that he was a hermit.
We thought. (M.C) that he was a hermit. (S.C)
(vi) A dog that barks seldom bites.
A dog seldom bites. (M.C) that barks. (S.C)
(vii) The place where Buddha was buried has recently been discovered.
The place has recently been discovered. (M.C) Where Buddha was buried. (S.C)
(viii) It always pours when it rains.
It always pours. (M.C) When it rains. (S.C)
Activity – 8
Study the following sentences from your previous textbook. Write (S) against simple sentences, (D) against compound sentences, and (X) against complex sentences.
(i) I saw that some of the tables had been pushed into a corner.
I saw that some of the tables had been pushed into a corner. (Subordinate clause) (X)
(ii) I chose the corner table, seated myself, and started skimming through the newspaper.
I chose the corner table, seated myself, and started skimming through the newspaper. (D) (Co-ordinate clause)
(iii) When I had finished my lunch, I asked the waiter about her.
When I had finished my lunch, I asked the waiter about her. (Subordinate clause) (X)
(iv) The curiosity which I felt about the girl persisted.
The curiosity (g) which I felt about the girl persisted. (Subordinate clause) (X)
(v) I understood how she felt.
I understood how she felt. (Subordinate clause) (X).
(vi) Do you usually go this way?
Do you usually go this way? (One-clause) (S).
(vii) As we drank tea, I talked about India.
As we drank tea, I talked about India. (Subordinate clause) (X).
(viii) When I go to that part of the country, I shall visit your brother’s grave and write to you.
When I go to that part of the country, I shall visit your brother’s grave and write to you. (X).
When I go to that part of the county (Subordinate clause) and write to you (Co-ordinate clause)
(ix) Maggie, take Mr Gupta upstairs.
Maggie, take Mr Gupta upstairs. (S) (One-clause)
(x) I got up and held her hand.
I got up (ଉଠିପଡ଼ିଲେ) and held her hand. (D) (Co-ordinate clause)
At a glance:
I. A sentence is a group of words that are joined together to make a complete meaning.
II. It is made up of two parts, a subject (କର୍ତ୍ତା) and a predicate (ବିଧେୟ).
Subject (କର୍ତ୍ତା / ଉଦ୍ଦେଶ୍ୟ) :
I. Subject is the part of a sentence that names the person/thing being spoken about.
II. In a sentence, a subject is usually placed first, except in interrogative and exclamatory sentences. (ପ୍ରଶ୍ନସୂଚକ ଓ ବିସ୍ମୟସୂଚକ ବାକ୍ୟ ବ୍ୟତୀତ କର୍ତ୍ତା ବା ଉଦ୍ଦେଶ୍ୟ ସାଧାରଣତଃ ବାକ୍ୟର ପ୍ରଥମରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ।)
Notice that underlined 2 subject parts.
A: Children play football.
B: The children of this school play football.
Predicate (ବିଧେୟ) :
I. The predicate is that part of a sentence that must have at least one finite verb.
(ବିଧେୟ ହେଉଛି ଗୋଟିଏ ବାକ୍ୟର ସେହି ଅଂଶ ଯାହାର ଅତିକମ୍ରେ ନିଶ୍ଚୟ ଗୋଟିଏ ସମାପିକା କ୍ରିୟା ଥାଏ।)
II. Predicate provides information about the subject and the verb in a sentence.
(ଗୋଟିଏ ବାକ୍ୟରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ କର୍ତ୍ତା ଓ କ୍ରିୟା ସମ୍ବନ୍ଧରେ ଏକ ବିଧେୟ ସୂଚନା ପ୍ରଦାନ କରିଥାଏ।)
A sentence that is made up of one independent (main) clause and makes complete sense is called a simple sentence.
Note that …..
A simple sentence has :
(i) only one subject and
(ii) only one finite verb.
Meera loves animals.
subject finite verb
When two independent clauses are joined by a conjunction to make a sentence, it is called a compound sentence.
Rohan did not study for the test, yet he scored quite well.
Independent clause co-ordinate conjunction independent clause
Note that ….
(i) Compound sentences communicate more than one complete thought through independent clauses.
(ii) Co-ordinate clauses can be joined with the help of conjunctions, such as (ଯଥା) and, but, however, nevertheless, nonetheless, only, still, whereas, yet, or, otherwise, so, therefore and so on (ଇତ୍ଯାଦି).
[A grammatical unit that carries a finite verb and makes complete sentence by itself is called an independent clause or main clause.]
When an independent clause joins a dependent or subordinate clause to make a sentence, it is called a complex sentence.
A: I know the man Who came to see you yesterday
independent clause Conjunction dependent clause
B: Before I left for Mumbai I had finished all my work.
conjunction independent clause dependent clause
In a complex sentence, the subordinate clause is joined with the main clause with the help of.
(i) either conjunction (subordinator) such as because, after, before, while, since, that, as, if, unless, then, so that, though, etc.
(ii) or relative pronouns such as who, which, whom, whose, that, what, and so on.
Types of Sentences Additional Questions With Answer
(1) Read the following sentences and say what type of simple sentence it is.
1. English is a foreign language.
2. The cuckoo sings in spring.
3. Who wrote the Mahabharata?
4. Have a smooth journey.
5. How powerful America is!
6. Let’s start a new project.
7. Don’t write on the front page of the answer book.
8. Are you joining the picnic?
9. The children are not taking an interest in their studies.
10. How stupid he is!
11. What a sharp memory he has got!
12. Turn to page 10 in your grammar book.
13. Would you mind posting the letter?
14. The Himalayas is in the north of India.
15. Have you ever been to Puri?
16. Did you go to Cuttack?
17. Mr Mishra is a good doctor.
18. Come here, boys.
19. I never go to the cinema.
20. How fortunate I am!
(2) Read the following sentences and say what type of sentence it is.
1. I can speak English but I cannot speak Hindi.
2. As the weather is fine, we should enjoy it.
3. Do or die.
4. Bhubaneswar with all its lights looks beautiful at night.
5. You can do it if you like.
6. Who told you to go home?
7. Wait here until I return.
8. The people who have gone to the moon say that there is no water there.
9. A valuable thing was found yesterday.
10. I came, I saw and I conquered.
11. The boy described what he had seen.
12. If you turn the switch, the motor will start.
13. Maggie, take Mr. Gupta upstairs.
14. I understood how she felt.
15. I got up and held her hand.
16. I saw that some of the tables had been pushed into a corner.
17. He stood up and asked me a question.
18. The curiosity which I felt about the girl persisted.
19. When I had finished my lunch, I asked the waiter about the girl.
20. I have been waiting here since morning.
(3) Write the pattern of the following sentences.
1. Pragyan feels cold.
2. The babies are crying.
3. Shruti looks tired.
4. Mahesh offered me a gift.
5. Ashish asked her a question.
6. Krushna and Mahesh are on the way.
7. The mango tastes sweet.
8. Babul seems restless.
9. The baby broke the toy.
10. The book made him famous.
11. The boy appears innocent.
12. His father bought him a new bicycle.
13. We have proved him wrong.
14. They elected Mr. Prusty chairman.
15. Dr. Prativa Ray has written many novels.
16. It smells nice.
17. My father was an artist.
18. They found him death.
19. The sky got dark.
20. The guide showed us the temple.
(4) Combine each pair of the following sentences into a compound sentence using co-ordinating or co-relative conjunctions.
1. You may stay here. You may go home.
You may stay here or go home.
2. He joined the essay competition. He won the prize.
He joined the essay competition and won the prize.
3. He is not rich. He is happy.
He is not rich, yet he is happy.
4. He rebuked me. I was not angry.
He rebuked me, still, I was not angry.
5. Work hard. You will fail.
Work hard, or else you will fail.
6. I was tired. I went to bed early.
I was tired, so I went to bed early.
7. She can sing. She can dance.
She can both sing and dance.
8. I am ill with a fever. I shall sit for the examination.
I am ill with a fever nevertheless I shall sit for the examination.
9. It rained heavily. I could not go out.
It rained heavily, therefore I could not go out.
10. He is mad. He feigns madness.
He is either mad or he feigns madness.
11. He is not handsome. He is not smart.
He is neither handsome nor smart.
12. He was arrested. He was sentenced to death.
He was not only arrested but also sentenced to death.
13. I don’t want to go to the cinema. I am feeling tired.
I don’t want to go to the cinema, besides I am feeling tired.
14. He couldn’t speak. He was overcome with grief.
He could not speak for he was overcome with grief.
15. He knocked at the door. Nobody opened it.
He knocked at the door, but nobody opened it.
16. I can speak English. I can speak Hindi.
I can speak English, but I can’t speak Hindi.
17. He worked hard. He got a first division.
He worked hard and got a first division.
18. The knife is sharp. It cuts well.
The knife is sharp, so it cuts well.
19. He gave us dinner. He drove us back home.
He not only gave us dinner but also drove us back home.
20. His father will come here. His mother will come here.
Either his father or his mother will come here.