Odisha State Board BSE Odisha Class 9 English Grammar Book Solutions Chapter 3 Time and Tense Textbook Exercise Activity Questions and Answers.
BSE Odisha Class 9 English Grammar Solutions Chapter 3 Time and Tense
Time and Tense aren’t the same thing.
[Time ଓ Tense ସମାନ ଭାବ ବା ଜିନିଷକୁ ବୁଝାଏ ନାହିଁ ।]
(i) Sasmita is getting married tomorrow. (ସସ୍ମିତାର ବିଭାଘର କାଲି ହେବ ।)
[ଏହି ବାକ୍ୟରେ ‘is getting’ Present Tense ରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୋଇଛି; କିନ୍ତୁ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତ ସମୟକୁ ବୁଝାଉଛି; କାରଣ ସସ୍ମିତାର ବିଭାଘର ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ ହେବ ।]
(ii) The Purusottam Express leaves New Delhi at 11 P.M. today. (Future Time) [ପୁରୁଷୋତ୍ତମ ଏକ୍ସପ୍ରେସ୍ ଆଜି ରାତି ୧୧ଟାରେ ନୂଆଦିଲ୍ଲୀ ଛାଡ଼ିବ ।]
[ଏଠାରେ ‘leaves’ – Present Tense ; ତେଣୁ ଏଠାରେ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ ଛାଡ଼ିବା ସମୟକୁ Present Simple Tense · leaves’ ଦ୍ଵାରା ସୂଚିତ କରାଯାଉଛି । ]
What is time? (Time ବା ସମୟ କ’ଣ/ କାହାକୁ କୁହାଯାଏ?)
TIME is a concept which we express in terms of year, month, week, day, hours, minutes, second. [ସମୟ ଏକ ଧାରଣା ଯାହାକୁ ଆମ୍ଭେ ବର୍ଷ, ମାସ, ସପ୍ତାହ, ଦିନ, ଘଣ୍ଟା, ମିନିଟ୍, ସେକେଣ୍ଡ ମାଧ୍ୟମରେ ପ୍ରକାଶ କରୁ ।]
(i) Amit is playing cricket now. (Present Time)
(ଅମିତ୍ ଏବେ କ୍ରିକେଟ୍ ଖେଳୁଛି ।) ( ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନ ସମୟ)
(ii) Amit was playing cricket yesterday. (Past Time)
(ଅମିତ୍ ଗତକାଲି କ୍ରିକେଟ୍ ଖେଳୁଥିଲା ।) (ଅତୀତ ସମୟ)
(iii) Amit is playing cricket tomorrow. (Future Time)
(ଅମିତ୍ ଆସନ୍ତାକାଲି କ୍ରିକେଟ୍ ଖେଳିବ ।) (ଭବିଷ୍ୟତ ସମୟ)
(i) Present Time Action – At the time of the speaking of the speaker:
Example: Father is reading the paper. (ବାପା ଖବରକାଗଜ ପଢୁଛନ୍ତି ।)
[ଏଠାରେ ବକ୍ତାଙ୍କର କହିବା ସମୟରେ ପଢ଼ାଚାଲିଛି ।]
(ii) Past Time action – Before the time of the speaking of the speaker: Example : Father was reading the paper. (ବାପା ଖବରକାଗଜ ପଢୁଥିଲେ ।) [ଏଠାରେ ବକ୍ତାଙ୍କର କହିବା ପୂର୍ବରୁ ପଢ଼ା ସମାପ୍ତ ହୋଇଥିଲା ।]
(iii) Future Time action – After the time of the speaking of the speaker :
Example: Father is reading the paper tomorrow. (ବାପା କାଲି ଖବରକାଗଜ ପଢ଼ିବେ ।)
[ଏଠାରେ ବକ୍ତାଙ୍କର କହିବାପରେ ପଢ଼ାହେବ ।]
Before ‘now’ – Past Time
Now – Present Time
After ‘now’ – Future Time କୁ ବୁଝାଏ ।
What is tense? (Tense କ’ଣ ବା କାହାକୁ କୁହାଯାଏ?)
TENSE is the form of the Verb that is used to express Time.
[TENSE ହେଉଛି Verb ବା କ୍ରିୟାପଦର ସେହି ରୂପ ଯାହାକୁ ସମୟକୁ ସୂଚିତ କରିବାପାଇଁ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ
A VERB must have a TENSE to denote TIME. (ମନେରଖ ଏକ କ୍ରିୟାପଦର ନିଶ୍ଚୟ ଏକ tense ଥାଏ, ଯାହା ସମୟ ସୂଚିତ କରେ ।)
(i) Father has written a novel. (Present Time) (ବାପା ଗୋଟିଏ ଉପନ୍ୟାସ ଲେଖୁଛନ୍ତି ।)
[ଏଠାରେ has written – Present Tense,
has – Helping Verb,
written – Main Verb ଅଟନ୍ତି |]
(ii) Father wrote a novel last year. (Past Time) (ବାପା ଗତବର୍ଷ ଗୋଟିଏ ଉପନ୍ୟାସ ଲେଖୁଥଲେ ।)
[ଏଠାରେ wrote – Past Tense]
Kinds of Tense (କାଳର ପ୍ରକାରଭେଦ)
Tense is of two kinds; Present Tense and Past Tense.
[କାଳ ଦୁଇପ୍ରକାରର; ଯଥା – ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନ କାଳ ଓ ଅତୀତ କାଳ]
1. Present Tense (ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନ କାଳ):
The present tense of the Verb(s) refers to the Present Time action.
[Verb(s) ବା କ୍ରିୟାପଦର Present Tense କହିଲେ Present Time ବା ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନ ସମୟରେ ହେଉଥୁବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକୁ ବୁଝାଏ ।]
(i) The players are coming onto the fields. (ଖେଳାଳିମାନେ ପଡ଼ିଆକୁ ଆସୁଛନ୍ତି ।)
(ii) The players have a lot of talents. (ଖେଳାଳିମାନଙ୍କର ବହୁତ ପ୍ରତିଭା ଅଛି ।)
(iii) The players have won the match for the country. (ଖେଳାଳିମାନେ ଦେଶପାଇଁ ମ୍ୟାଚ୍ ଜିତିଛନ୍ତି ।)
(iv) The players have been fielding for three hours.
(ଖେଳାଳିମାନେ ତିନିଘଣ୍ଟା ଧରି କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରକ୍ଷଣ କରୁଛନ୍ତି ।)
[ଏହି ଚାରୋଟି ବାକ୍ୟରେ ରେଖାଙ୍କିତ କ୍ରିୟାପଦଗୁଡ଼ିକ ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନ ସମୟରେ ଚାଲୁଥିବାରୁ ବା ଏଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଘଟଣାଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ସୂଚିତ କରୁଥିବାରୁ Present Tense ରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୋଇଛନ୍ତି ।]
Forms of Present Tense (ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନ କାଳର ପ୍ରକାରଭେଦ)
The Present Tense has four forms (ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନ କାଳର ଚାରୋଟି ରୂପ ରହିଛି ।) :
(i) Present Simple Tense
(ii) Present Progressive/Continuous Tense
(iii) Present Perfect Tense
(iv) Present Perfect Progressive Tense
(i) ‘ Be’ verb – is / am / are ( ଅଟେ, ଅଟୁ, ଅଟନ୍ତି, ଅଛି)
(ii) ‘Have’ verb – has/have ( ଅଛି, ନିଜର)
(iii) Main Verb – go / goes ( ଯାଏ, ଯାଉ, ଯା’ନ୍ତି)
Subject ବା କର୍ରା ତୃତୀୟ ପୁରୁଷ ଏକବଚନରେ ଥିଲେ :
(i) Main Verb +s (goes / takes / asks etc.)
(ii) ବାକ୍ୟ negative ବା ନାହିଁ ଅର୍ଥରେ ଥିଲେ : doesn’t + Main Verb
(iii) ବାକ୍ୟ Interrogative ବା ପ୍ରଶ୍ନ ଅର୍ଥରେ ଥିଲେ does + Main Verb
Subject ବା କର୍ତ୍ତା ପ୍ରଥମ ପୁରୁଷ ଓ ଦ୍ବିତୀୟ ପୁରୁଷ ଏବଂ ତୃତୀୟ ପୁରୁଷ ବହୁବଚନରେ ଥିଲେ :
(i) Main Verb (go / take / ask etc.)
(ii) ବାକ୍ୟ Negative ବା Interrogative ଅର୍ଥରେ ଥିଲେ : do + Main Verb (not)
|I (ମୁଁ)||you (ତୁମେ, ତୁମ୍ଭେ||it (ଏହା)|
|we (ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ)||ଆପଣ, ଆପଣମାନେ)||he, she (ସେ)
Rama, Ratan, gold, book
they, people, girls etc.
Use of Present Simple Tense :
(i) To refer to habitual actions :
[ଅଭ୍ୟାସଗତ ବା ବାରମ୍ବାର ଘଟୁଥିବା କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ ବାକ୍ୟରେ Adverbs ବା କ୍ରିୟା ବିଶେଷଣ; ଯଥା – always, very often, usually /generally, sometimes, never (କେବେ ନୁହେଁ) ଆଦି ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୋଇଥାଏ :]
(i) I go to school every day. (ଯାଏ)
(ii) Uncle often comes to our house. (ଆସକ୍ତି) (‘Uncle’ = third person singular number)
(iii) My grandfather never eats meat. (ଖାଆନ୍ତି ନାହିଁ)
(iv) Father usually goes to the office late. (ଯା’କ୍ତି) (father = third person singular number)
(ii) To talk about laws of nature, general or scientific truth
(ପ୍ରକୃତିର ନିୟମ, ସାଧାରଣ ବା ବୈଜ୍ଞାନିକ ସତ୍ୟ ଅର୍ଥରେ) :
The sun rises (ଉଦୟ ହୁଏ) in the east.
Water boils (ଗରମ ହୁଏ) at 100°C.
Pigs eat (ଖାଇପକାନ୍ତି) everything.
Tiger is (ଅଟେ a dangerous animal.
Iron expands (ସଂପ୍ରସାରିତ ହୁଏ, ବଢ଼େ) as temperature rises.
(iii) To talk about the present or permanent state
(ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନର ଅବସ୍ଥା ବା ସ୍ଥାୟୀ ଅବସ୍ଥା ଅର୍ଥରେ):
(i) My uncle lives (ବାସକରନ୍ତି) in Cuttack.
(ii) They have (ଅଛି) an imported car.
(iii) The Mahanadi falls into (ପଡ଼ିଛି) the Bay of Bengal.
(iv) To talk about running commentaries of sport events (ଖେଳର ପ୍ରତ୍ୟକ୍ଷଦର୍ଶୀ ଧାରା ବିବରଣୀ ଅର୍ଥରେ):
Zaheer bowls (ବୋଲିଂ କଲେ / ପ୍ରହାର କଲେ) to Jayasuriya and the batsman hits the ball to the boundary.
(v) To talk about the process of doing something (କୌଣସି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟର କରିବା ପ୍ରଣାଳୀ) :
Lopa breaks (ଭାଙ୍ଗୁଛି) an egg and adds (ମିଶାଉଛି) salt to it.
Father washes dust off (ଧୂଳି ଝାଡ଼ୁଛନ୍ତି) the shoes.
(vi) To talk about planned future action (ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ ହେବାକୁ ଥିବା ଯୋଜନାବଦ୍ଧ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ):
[ଏ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତକୁ ସୂଚିତ କରୁଥିବା tomorrow, next month, next Sunday ଇତ୍ୟାଦି ସହିତ]
(i) The Parliament opens (ଆରମ୍ଭ ହେବ) tomorrow.
(ii) Mini’s birthday comes off (ଆରମ୍ଭ ହେବା ଅନୁଷ୍ଠିତ ହେବ) tomorrow.
(iii) Father retires (ଅବସର ନେବେ) in 2021.
Present Progressive Tense:
Making: is/am/ are + Main Verb (+ ing)
(i) To talk about an action/situation which is in progress at the time of speaking or over a period of time (ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ) :
(i) It is raining (ବର୍ଷା ହେଉଛି) now.
(ii) Don’t disturb the girl; she is reading (ପଢୁଛି).
(iii) We are still waiting (ଅପେକ୍ଷା କରିଛୁ) for the train.
(iv) Presently the teachers of this school are discussing (ଆଲୋଚନା କରୁଛନ୍ତି) over a problem.
(ii) To talk about an action happening over a long period around now (ଦୀର୍ଘଦିନଧରି ଚାଲିଆସୁଥୁବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ) :
Mr Sahoo is writing (କିଛିଦିନଧରି ଲେଖୁଛନ୍ତି) a guide of English for the students of class X.
They are building (କିଛି ଦିନା ମାସ ଧରି ତିଆରି କରୁଛନ୍ତି) a new factory in Bhubaneswar.
(iii) [To talk about a changing situation (ବାରମ୍ବାର/କ୍ରମଶଃ ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତନ ହେଉଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ):
Prices of green vegetables, are going up everyday. (ବଢ଼ିଚାଲିଛି। ପ୍ରତିଦିନ)
More and more pupils are learning spoken English. (ଶିଖୁଛନ୍ତି କିଛି ବର୍ଷ ଧରି)
The old man is gradually getting weaker and weaker. (ଦୁର୍ବଳ ହୋଇ ପଡ଼ୁଛନ୍ତି)
(iv) To talk about something unpleasant happening again and again
(ବାରମ୍ବାର ଘଟୁଥିବା ବିରକ୍ତିକର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ always, forever, constantly ଆଦି ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ)
He is always borrowing my book. (ଧାର ନେଉଛି/ ବିରକ୍ତିକର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ)
The villagers are constantly quarrelling among themselves. (କଳି କରୁଛନ୍ତି। ନିନ୍ଦନୀୟ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ)
My mobile is always going out of order. (ଖରାପ ହୋଇଯାଇଛି/ ବିରକ୍ତିକର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ)
|Present Simple||Present Progressive|
|(Permanent Action) (ସ୍ଥାୟୀ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ)
Mr Mishra usually goes (ଯାଆନ୍ତି) to his office on his bike (ଅଭ୍ୟାସଗତ ସ୍ଥାୟୀ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ)
|(Temporary action) (ଅସ୍ଥାୟୀ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ)but today he is going (ଯାଉଛନ୍ତି)on foot. (ଚାଲିଚାଲି) (ଅସ୍ଥାୟୀ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ)|
Non-Progressive/Stative Verbs (ଅବସ୍ଥାବାଚକ/ଗୁଣବାଚକ କ୍ରିୟା)
(i) Verbs denoting feelings, emotions, opinions, relations etc. are called VERBS OF STATE or STATIVE VERBS or NON-PROGRESSIVE VERBS as they don’t take ‘ing’ with them.
[ଅନୁଭୂତି, ଆବେଗ, ମତ, ସମ୍ପର୍କ, ଅଧ୍ବକାର, ମାନସିକତା ଇତ୍ୟାଦିର ଅର୍ଥ ବୁଝାଉଥବା କ୍ରିୟାପଦ (Verbs) ଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ STATIVE VERBS ବା NON-PROGRESSIVE VERBS କୁହାଯାଏ ଏବଂ ଏଭଳି Verb ରେ Progressive form ବା ‘-ing” ନଥିବାରୁ ଏଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ମଧ୍ୟ NON-PROGRESSIVE VERBS ଏଭଳି Verbs ହେଲା –
(i) Verbs of Possession (ଅଧ୍ବକାରଜନିତ କ୍ରିୟା) : have, own, possess, belong (to), contain, consist.
(ii) Verbs of Likes/Dislikes (ଇଚ୍ଛା/ଘୃଣାଜନିତ କ୍ରିୟା) : like, dislike, want, love, hate, prefer.
(iii) Verbs of Senses (ଇନ୍ଦ୍ରିୟାନୁଭୂତିଜନିତ କ୍ରିୟା) : see (eye), hear (ear), smell (nose), taste (tongue), feel (skin).
(iv) Verbs of Thinkings (ଭାବଜନିତ କ୍ରିୟା) : think, believe, understand, know, opine.
(v) Verbs of Mental Activities (ମାନସିକ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକଳାପଜନିତ କ୍ରିୟା) : hope, forget, expect,
(vi) Verbs of Appearance (194): appear, seem, look, resemble (ଏକାପରି )
(vii) Other verbs (ବିବିଧ କ୍ରିୟା) : depend, promise, cost, weigh, measure, deny, refuse etc.
Correct the Errors (ଭୁଲ୍ ଥିଲେ ଠିକ୍ କର) :
(i) Are you loving your parents?
Do you love your parents?
(ii) This book is belonging to me.
This book belongs to me.
(iii) We are hoping better crops.
We hope better crops.
(iv) The girl is resembling her grandmother.
The girl resembles her grandmother.
(v) I am having a brother.
I have a brother.
(vi) Rose is smelling sweet.
Rose smells sweet.
(vii) We are understanding your problem.
We understand your problem.
Making: has/ have + past participle (third form of the Main Verb)
(i) To talk about a just concluded action the result of which is still visible. (ନିକଟ ଅତୀତରେ ସରିଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ଯାହାର ଫଳାଫଳ ଏବେ ବି ଥାଏ ।)
Asima has lost her mobile. (ହଜାଇଦେଇଛି । ଏ ପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ ମିଳି ନାହିଁ)
The players have left the ground. (ଛାଡ଼ି ଚାଲିଯାଇଛନ୍ତି । ଏବେ ଖେଳପଡ଼ିଆ ଶୂନ୍ଯ)
(ii) For the living writer/founder etc. (ଏବେ ବଞ୍ଚିଥିବା ଲେଖକ/ପ୍ରତିଷ୍ଠାକାରୀଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ) Examples:
Mr Dash has built this temple. (ତିଆରି କରିଛନ୍ତି। ଏବେ ବଞ୍ଚୁଛନ୍ତି)
Prem Ananda has given music in the film ‘Prem Kumar’.
(ସଂଗୀତ ନିର୍ଦ୍ଦେଶନା ଦେଇଛନ୍ତି Iପ୍ରେମ ଆନନ୍ଦ ଏବେ ଜୀବିତ)
(iii) With the expressions ‘this is the first time, for the second time, the only time and the+ superlative degree’.
This / It is the first time I have spoken at a meeting. (ଏଇ ପ୍ରଥମଥର ପାଇଁ ମୁଁ ଗୋଟିଏ ସଭାରେ ଭାଷଣ ଦେଇଛି ।)
Father has gone to hospital for a check-up for the second time.
(ଦ୍ଵିତୀୟଥର ପାଇଁ ବାପା ଡାକ୍ତରଖାନାକୁ ସ୍ବାସ୍ଥ୍ୟ ପରୀକ୍ଷା କରିବାକୁ ଯାଇଛନ୍ତି ।)
This is the best film I have ever seen.
(ମୁଁ ଦେଖୁଥିବା ଚଳଚ୍ଚିତ୍ରଗୁଡ଼ିକ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ଏହା ସବୁଠାରୁ ଭଲ । the best = the + superlative degree.)
(iv) With Adverbs like just, never, ever, always, lately, already, yet etc.
(ବାକ୍ୟମାନଙ୍କରେ କ୍ରିୟା just, never, ever, always, lately, already, yet ବିଶେଷଣ ଇତ୍ୟାଦି ଥିଲେ)
The train has just come. (ପହଞ୍ଚିଛି)
Hasn’t mother milked the cow yet? (ଦୁହିଁ ନାହାନ୍ତି ?)
Lately (ନିକଟରେ) the price of vegetables (ବଢ଼ିଯାଇଛି) । has gone up.
Have you ever told lies? (କହିଛ ?)
(v) With Time Adverbials (ସମୟସୂଚକ କ୍ରିୟାବିଶେଷଣ) like this morning, this afternoon, today, this week, this month, etc.
Satish has rung me up three times this afternoon.
(ଫୋନ୍ କଲାଣି ଏବେ ବି ଅପରାହ୍ଣ ଅଛି ।)
Samir has written ten letters this morning. (ଲେଖୁସାରିଲାଣି/ ଆଜି ସକାଳ ସରି ନାହିଁ ।)
Father has grown vegetables in the garden this year. (ଚାଷ କରିଛନ୍ତି। ଏ ବର୍ଷ ସରି ନାହିଁ ।)
has/have gone (Present Perfect) has/have been (Present Perfect)
Sarat has gone to Mumbai. Sarat has been to Mumbai.
(ଯାଇଛି । ଫେରି ନାହିଁ) (ଯାଇ ଫେରିଆସିଲାଣି)
(vi) For Newspaper headlines, letters, radios, televisions.
(ସମ୍ବାଦପତ୍ରର ମୁଖ୍ୟଶ, ଚିଠି, ରେଡ଼ିଓ, ଦୂରଦର୍ଶନର ମୁଖ୍ୟ ସମ୍ବାଦ ।)
The terrorists (ଆତଙ୍କବାଦୀମାନେ) have destroyed (ଧ୍ୱଂସ କରି ଦେଇଛନ୍ତି) the Hotel Taj.
Present Perfect Progressive:
Making :|has been / have been + ‘ing” (Main verb)
(i) To talk about an action that began in the past and is still continuing. (ଅତୀତରେ ଆରମ୍ଭ ହୋଇଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନ ପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ ଚାଲୁଥିଲେ)
(Since + point of time ଓ for + period of time ସହିତ)
(i) It has been raining since 10 A.M. today.
(ii) They have been living in this rented house for ten years.
(ଦଶବର୍ଷଧରି ସେମାନେ ଏହି ଭଡ଼ାଘରେ ରହିଆସୁଛନ୍ତି ।)
(iii) Since when has the girl been typing the letter? (ଝିଅଟି କେବେଠାରୁ ଚିଠିଟିକୁ ଟାଇପ୍ କରୁଛି ?)
(iv) How long have the children been doing the sums? [କେବେଠାରୁ ପିଲାମାନେ ଅଙ୍କଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ କଷୁଛନ୍ତି ? ]
(v) I am very tired; I have been working hard all day. (ମୁଁ ଅତ୍ୟନ୍ତ କ୍ଳାନ୍ତ ଅଟେ; ମୁଁ ଦିନସାରା କଠିନ କାମ କରୁଛି ।)
( ଏଠାରେ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ଏବେ ବି ଚାଲିଛି ।)
(vi) The hands of the mechanic are black; he has been washing the engine for ten minutes. (ମେକାନିକ୍ର ହାତ କଳା ହୋଇଛି; ସେ ଦଶମିନିଟ୍ ଧରି ଇଞ୍ଜିନ୍ ସଫାକରୁଛନ୍ତି । )
(ଏଠାରେ ସଫାକରିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ଏବେ ବି ଚାଲିଛି ।)
2. Past Tense (ଅତୀତ କାଳ):
Past Tense refers to the Past Time Action of the Verb.
(କ୍ରିୟାର ଅତୀତ ସମୟର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକୁ Past Tense କୁହାଯାଏ ।)
(i) Mother offered tea to the guest. (ଯାଚିଲେ/ ଦେଲେ)
(ii) He had a Samsung Mobile set. (ଥ୍ଲା)
Forms of Past Tense :
Present Tense ଭଳି Past Tenses ର ଚାରୋଟି forms (ରୂପ) ରହିଛି ।
(i) Past Simple
(ii) Past Progressive
(iii) Past Perfect
(iv) Past Perfect Progressive
Making (ଗଠନ) :
‘Be’ verb: was/were (ଥିଲେ ଥିଲୁ, ଥିଲା/ ଥିଲ)
‘Have’ verb: had (ନିଜର ଥୁଲା)
Main Verb: got / took / went, etc.
(ପାଇଲେ ପାଇଲୁ ପାଇଥିଲେ| ନେଲେ ନେଲା/ନେଇଥିଲେ/ ଗଲା/ ଗଲେ ଗଲୁ ଯାଇଥୁଲୁ ଇତ୍ୟାଦି ।)
Negative (ନାସ୍ତିବାଚକ ଅର୍ଥରେ) didn’t + Main Verb ଓ Interrogative (ପ୍ରଶ୍ନ)ରେ Did……Main Verb.)
(i) For the completed action done in a short moment
(ଅଚ୍ଛ ମୁହୁର୍ଭରେ ସମାପ୍ତ ହୋଇଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ):
I saw a beggar on the way to school. (ଦେଖୁଲି/ଦେଖୁଥୁଲି)
The dog bit the child in the leg. (କାମୁଡ଼ିଦେଲା)
(ii) For a completed action done over a longer period
(ଦୀର୍ଘସମୟବ୍ୟାପୀ ଅତୀତର ସମାପ୍ତ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ) :
Father was ill for two months. (ଥିଲେ)
The English ruled India for over three hundred years. (ଶାସନ କରିଥିଲେ)
(iii) Repeated actions done in the past (ଅତୀତରେ ବାରମ୍ବାର ହୋଇଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ) :
Sister walked to college while we were in Cuttack. (ଚାଲିଚାଲି ଯାଉଥିଲା)
It rained a lot last month. (ବର୍ଷା ହୋଇଥିଲା)
(iv) With the expressions I wish ………..
(I wish ……… ରୁ ଆରମ୍ଭ ହୋଇଥିବା ଉକ୍ତିରୁ)
I wish I had the wings of a bird! (ମୋର ଗୋଟିଏ ପକ୍ଷୀଭଳି ଡେଣା ଥା’ନ୍ତା କି !)
I wish I knew your address ! (ମୁଁ ତୁମର ଠିକଣା ଜାଣିଥା’ନ୍ତି କି !)
Making: was / were + ‘ing’ (Main Verb)
(i) To talk about the ongoing action in the past
(ଅତୀତରେ ବହୁତ ସମୟ ଧରି ଚାଲୁଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ)
Malati was having her lunch at 1 p.m. (ଖାଉଥିଲା)
It was raining all night. (ବର୍ଷା ହେଉଥିଲା)
They were waiting for the train at the platform. (ଅପେକ୍ଷା କରିଥିଲେ)
(ii) If two actions were going on in the past at the same time
(ଅତୀତରେ ଯଦି ଦୁଇଟି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ଏକ ସମୟରେ କିଛିସମୟ ଧରି ହୋଇଥିଲେ)
My sister was watching TV while I was reading.
(ମୁଁ ପଢୁଥିଲାବେଳେ ମୋ ଭଉଣୀ ଟିଭି ଦେଖୁଥିଲା ।)
What were you doing when your father was reading the paper?
(ତୁମ ବାପା ଯେତେବେଳେ ଖବରକାଗଜ ପଢୁଥିଲେ ତୁମେ କ’ଣ କରୁଥିଲ ?)
(iii) To talk about the unpleasant action done repeatedly in the past with ‘always’.
(ଅତୀତରେ ବାରମ୍ବାର ଘଟିଥିବା ଅସୁଖୀକର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟପାଇଁ (always ସହିତ)
This dog was always barking at my brother.
(ଏହି କୁକୁରଟି ବାରମ୍ବାର ସବୁବେଳେ ମୋ ଭାଇକୁ ଦେଖ୍ ଭୁକୁଥିଲା ।)
The children of this village were always quarrelling among themselves.
ଏହି ଗାଁର ପିଲାମାନେ ସବୁବେଳେ ନିଜ ନିଜ ଭିତରେ କଳି କରୁଥିଲେ ।)
(iv) Past Simple for the shorter action and Past Progressive tense for the longer action in the past (ଅତୀତରେ ସମାପ୍ତ ହୋଇଥିବା ଅଳ୍ପ ଅବଧୂର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟପାଇଁPast Simple ଓ ଦୀର୍ଘ ଅବଧୂର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟପାଇଁ Past Progressive Tense କରୁଥିଲେ ।)
While I was bathing (Past Progressive Tense) the phone rang (Past Simple)
(ମୁଁ ଯେତେବେଳେ ଗାଧୋଉଥଲି, ଫୋନ୍ ବାଜିଉଠିଲା ।)
Father came in (Past Simple) while I was singing (Past Progressive)
(ମୁଁ ଯେତେବେଳେ ଗାଉଥଲି, ବାପା ଭିତରକୁ ଆସିଲେ ।)
(v) Past Simple for two short-timed actions in the past:
(i) The students stood up when the teacher came in.
(ଯେତେବେଳେ ଶିକ୍ଷକ ଭିତରକୁ ଆସିଲେ, ପିଲାମାନେ ଠିଆହୋଇଥିଲେ ।)
Past Perfect Tense:
Making: had + past participle of main verb
(i) Of the two finished actions in the past, Past Perfect (had+Past Participle of Main Verb) for the former/earlier action and Past Simple for later action:
(ଅତୀତରେ ସମାପ୍ତ ହୋଇଥିବା ୨ଟି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ମଧ୍ୟରୁ ପ୍ରଥମ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟପାଇଁ (had + Past Participle of Main Verb) ଓ ପରବର୍ତୀ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟପାଇଁ Past Simple )
The concert (ସଂଗୀତ ସଭା ) had started before we entered the hall.
(ହଲ୍ରେ ପହଞ୍ଚିବାପୂର୍ବରୁ ସଂଗୀତ ସଭା ଆରମ୍ଭ ହୋଇଯାଇଥିଲା ।)
He refused to go until he had seen his mother.
(ସେ ତା’ ମା’କୁ ନ ଦେଖିବା ପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ ଯିବାକୁ ମନାକରିଦେଲା ।)
(ii) Past Perfect is used with verbs like: hope, expect, think, intend etc.
(hope, expect, think, intend Verb କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ Past Perfect ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ)
They had hoped that they would finish their work in time.
I had intended (ଚାହୁଁଥୁଲି) of helping my classmates.
(iii) Past Perfect tense in the If-Clause and would have + Past Participle of Main Verb in the Main Clause.
[If-Clause ରେ (If – ଖଣ୍ଡବାକ୍ୟ had + Past Participle of Main Verb 21666, Main Clause ରେ would have + Past Participle of Main Verb ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ)
If I had studied hard, I would have got more marks.
(ମୁଁ ପରିଶ୍ରମ କରି ପଢ଼ିଥିଲେ, ଅଧ୍ଵକ ନମ୍ବର ରଖୁଥା’ନ୍ତି ।)
If the driver hadn’t driven terrifically, the accident wouldn’t have happened.
(ଡ୍ରାଇଭର ପ୍ରଚଣ୍ଡ ବେଗରେ ଗାଡ଼ି ଚଳାଇ ନଥଲେ, ଦୁର୍ଘଟଣା ଘଟି ନ’ଥାନ୍ତା ।)
Past Perfect Progressive:
Making: had been + ‘ing’ of Main Verb
(i) To talk about an action continued over a longer period of time in the past before the happening of the result (ଅତୀତରେ ଫଳାଫଳ ଘଟିବା ପୂର୍ବରୁ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟଟିକୁ ଦୀର୍ଘସମୟ ଧରି କରାଯାଉଥିଲେ) :
The trees were wet; it had been raining all night.
(ଗଛଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଓଦା ଥିଲା; ରାତିସାରା ବର୍ଷା ହେଉଥିଲା ।)
I was tired; I had been teaching for three hours.
(ମୁଁ କ୍ଳାନ୍ତ ଥୁଲି; ମୁଁ ତିନିଘଣ୍ଟା ଧରି ପଢ଼ାଉଥଲି ।)
3. Future tense (ଭବିଷ୍ୟତ ସମୟ):
Modals like ‘shall’, ‘should’, ‘will’, ‘would’, ‘may’, ‘might’, ‘can’, ‘could’, ‘need’, ‘must’ express the future in some situations particularly shall and will speak of the future in most cases. (ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ କେତେକ ପରିସ୍ଥିତିରେ ଉପରୋକ୍ତ modal ସବୁ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ । କିନ୍ତୁ ଅଧିକାଂଶ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ shall ଓ will କୁ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟପାଇଁ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ ।)
I / we shall / will go. (ମୁଁ । ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଯିବି । ଯିବୁ)
You will go. (ତୁମ୍ଭେ । ତୁମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଯିବ ।)
He/she/ Rajesh will go. (ସେ। ରାଜେଶ ଯିବ । ଯିବେ ।)
They/the police will go. (ସେମାନେ । ପୋଲିସମାନେ ଯିବେ ।)
Tense forms for Future Time
Though English has no future tense, there are many ways of talking about the future. (ଇଂରାଜୀରେ future tense ନଥିଲେ ମଧ୍ୟ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତର ବିଭିନ୍ନ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକୁ ସୂଚିତ କରିବାପାଇଁ କେତେକ ରୂପ ରହିଛି ।)
1. Be + going to + main verb (is / am / are going to + main verb)
A. We use this future time expression when we talk about the future fulfilment of a present cause or indication. Here the cause is seen or felt at the moment of speaking) (ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନର କାରଣ ବା ଭବିଷ୍ୟବାଣୀକୁ ଆଧାରକରି ଭବିଷ୍ୟତର ପୂରଣ ହେବାକୁ ଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ)
(i) Look out! (ସାବଧାନ) You‘re going to fall. (ପଡ଼ିଯିବ)
(ii) There are dark clouds in the sky.
(iii) It is going to rain. (ବର୍ଷା ହେବ)
(iv) The boss (ମାଳିକ) is angry with you.
(v) He is going to dismiss you. (ବାହାର କରିଦେବେ)
B. We also use ‘be going to‘ talk about what we / one intend/intends to do in the future.
(ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ ଜଣେ ଯାହା କରିବାକୁ ଇଚ୍ଛୁକ ସେ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ be going to + main verb ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ।)
(i) We are going to leave for Puri tomorrow morning. (ପୁରୀକୁ ଯାତ୍ରା କରିବୁ) (We have intended to do so)
(ii) I’m going to have a bath. (ଗାଧୋଇବି) (I intend)
(iii) Uncle is going to buy me a camera: (କିଣିବେ) (He intends)
2. Present Progressive Tense (am / is/are + main verb ‘ing’):
We sometimes use Present Progressive tense of the verb to talk about something that we have already arranged or planned to do in the future. (ଭବିଷ୍ୟତର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କରିବା ପାଇଁ ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ ପୂର୍ବରୁ ଯୋଜନା ବା ବ୍ୟବସ୍ଥା କରିଥିଲେ ସେ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ Present progressive tense ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ ।)
We can’t change this plan as it isn’t in our power to do so.
(i) We are leaving for Puri tomorrow morning. (ପୁରୀକୁ ଯାତ୍ରା କରିବୁ) (already planned and arranged)
(ii) “What are you doing Sunday next?”
I’m visiting my old friends. (ଦେଖା କରିବି) (planned)
3. Present Simple Tense:
We use the Present simple to talk about future events which are parts of a fixed time table or unchangeable programme. (ନିର୍ଦିଷ୍ଟ ବା ଅପରିବର୍ଶନୀୟ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକ୍ରମଜନିତ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତର ଘଟଣା ଯଥା – ସରକାରୀ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ, ବିଭାଘର, ବ୍ରତ, ଜନ୍ମଦିନ, ଖେଳ ବା କ୍ରୀଡ଼ା ଆଦିର ଆରମ୍ଭ ଓ ଶେଷ ଆଦି କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ)
Here the sentence begins with things or actions.
(ଏଭଳି ଭବିଷ୍ୟତର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ପାଇଁ ବାକ୍ୟ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ବା ବସ୍ତୁରୁ ଆରମ୍ଭ ହୋଇଥାଏ ।)
(i) Tomorrow is Friday.
(ii) Our Written Examination starts (ଆରମ୍ଭ ହେବ) next week.
(iii) The plane leaves (ଛାଡ଼ିବ) at 8 p.m. today.
(iv) Maitree’s birthday comes off (ଅନୁଷ୍ଠିତ ହେବ) at 4 p.m. tomorrow.
(v) The train arrives (ପହଞ୍ଚିବ) at Cuttack Railway station at 2 p.m. today.
4. Will + main Verb
A. We use ‘will + main verb’ to predict the future.
(ଭବିଷ୍ୟବାଣୀ କରିବା ଅର୍ଥରେ will + main verb)
(i) I will miss you.
(ii) Don’t climb up that tree. You’ll fall.
(iii) The tree will put forth new leaves. (ନୂତନ ପତ୍ର ଦେଖାଦେବ)
B. We also use ‘will + main verb’ when we decide to do something at the moment of speaking.
(କଥାହେବା ମୁହୂର୍ତ୍ତରେ କିଛି କରିବାକୁ ନିଷ୍ପତ୍ତି ନିଆଗଲେ)
(i) “There’s someone at the door.
(ii) “Is there ? Oh, I’ll see who it is.” (ଦେଖେ)
(iii) Wait a minute. I’ll come with you. (ଯିବି)
(iv) The phone is ringing. I’ll answer it. (ଉତ୍ତର ଦେଉଛି)
(v) Mohan: Show me your mobile?
Sohan: What will you do with it?
5. Be + about to (is / am / are about to)
Official arrangement (ସରକାରୀ ବ୍ୟବସ୍ଥା)
(i) The guard has blown the whistle.
(ii) The train is about to move (ଚାଲିବା ଉପରେ).
(iii) The game is about to start.
(iv) The two prime ministers are to meet for talks on a number of issues.
Textual Activities With Answers
Activity – 1
Study the following sentences and underline the verbs. Mention the tense and the time these verbs refer to. The first one has been done for you. (ନିମ୍ନଲିଖତ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ପଢ଼ ଓ କ୍ରିୟାପଦଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ରେଖାଙ୍କିତ କର / କ୍ରିୟାଗୁଡ଼ିକ ସୂଚିତ କରୁଥିବା tense ଓ time ର ନାମ ଲେଖ ।)
(ଦିଆଯାଇଥିବା ଉଦାହରଣ ଭଳି ।)
(i) Mira didn’t do her homework. (କଲାନାହିଁ)
(Time Past, Tense – Past)
(ii) We are going on a picnic tomorrow.
(iii) There will be a lot of fun.
(iv) Tomorrow is Sunday.
(v) Our class teacher has given us permission to go on a picnic.
(vi) She also coming with us.
(vii) We always obey our teachers.
(ii) We are going (ଯିବୁ) on a picnic tomorrow.
(iii) There will be (ହେବ) a lot of fun.
(Time – future, tense – present)
(iv) Tomorrow is Sunday. (ଅଟେ)
(Time – future, tense – present)
(v) Our class teacher has given us permission to go on a picnic.
(Time – present, tense – present)
(vi) She is also coming (ଆସିବ) with us.
(Time – future, tense – present)
(vii) We always obey(ପାଳନକରୁ) our teachers.
(Time – present, tense – present)
Conjugation Of Verbs :
The conjugation of verb meaning showing the principal forms of the main verbs. (କ୍ରିୟାର ମୁଖ୍ୟରୂପ ପ୍ରଦର୍ଶନକୁ Verb ମାନଙ୍କର Conjugation କୁହାଯାଏ ।)
These three forms are:
Activity – 2
Look up a dictionary and fill in the blanks in the following table of verbs. (କ୍ରିୟାପଦମାନଙ୍କର ନିମ୍ନସ୍ଥ ସାରଣୀରେ ପ୍ରଦତ୍ତ କ୍ରିୟାମାନଙ୍କର ଶୂନ୍ୟସ୍ଥାନ ପୂରଣ କର ।)
|1 (Present)||2 (Past)||3 (Past Participle)|
|1 (Present)||2 (Past)||3 (Past Participle)|
Use of these verb forms :
|Present form||Past form||Past Participle|
|I go there (ଯାଏ)
Children go to school. (ଯାଆନ୍ତି)
We go to work. (ଯାଉ)
You go to the music class. (ଯାଅ)
|I/we/you/he / Rakesh /
The children went there.
(ଗଲି / ଗଲୁ / ଗଲା / ଗଲେ)
|Have you ever gone there?
Who had gone there?
Activity – 3
Choose five other verbs and frame a similar blank – filling exercise for your friends. (ଅନ୍ୟ ପାଞ୍ଚୋଟି କ୍ରିୟାପଦ ବାଛି ଏଇଭଳି ଶୂନ୍ୟସ୍ଥାନ ପୂରଣ ଭଳି ଅନୁଶୀଳନୀ ତିଆରି କର ।)
lie (to tell lie) (ମିଛ କହିବା)
|hang (ଫାଶୀ ଦେବା)||hanged||hanged|
|feel (ଅନୁଭବ କରିବା)||felt||felt|
|lay (place, arrange,||laid||laid|
|put down flat) (ଥୋଇବା, ଚିହୋଇ ପଡ଼ିବା)|
|hang (to put up) (ଝୁଲିରହିବା)||hung||hung|
|fill (ଭର୍ତ୍ତିକରିବା / ପୂରଣ କରିବା)||filled||filled’|
Acitvity – 4
(A) Fill in the blanks with the correct form of verbs given in brackets.
He _________ (get) up early every day. He _______ (brush) his teeth and (have) his bath. He __________ (take) a quick breakfast. He ___________ not want to be punished at school. So he (set) out early to reach school in time. He __________ (sit) on the same bench in my classroom. He _________ (have) straight hair and a sharp nose. What
_________ (be) his name?
He gets up (ଡଠି ପଡେ) early every day. He brushes (ସଫା କରେ) his teeth and has his bath. He takes a quick breakfast (ଶୀଘ୍ର ସକାଳ ଭୋଜନ କରେ). He doesn’t want (ଚାହେଁ ନାହିଁ) to be punished at school. So he sets out (ବାହାରି ପଡ଼େ) early to reach school in time. He sits (ବସେ) on the same bench in my classroom. He has (ଅଛି) straight hair and a sharp nose. What is his name?
Note: The above verbs are used in the present simple tense as they denote recurrent actions.
(ରେଖାଙ୍କିତ କ୍ରିୟାପଦଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ବାରମ୍ବାର ଘଟୁଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକୁ ବୁଝାଉଥିବାରୁ ସେଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ present simple tenseରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୋଇଛି।)
Activity – 5
Make sentences in the Present Perfect using the words given. If required, you may use some more words to complete the sentence. The first one has been done for you as an example. (ପ୍ରଦତ୍ତ ଉଦାହରଣଭଳି ଦିଆଯାଇଥିବା ଶବ୍ଦଗୁଡ଼ିକ ସାହାଯ୍ୟରେ Present Perfect Tense ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ତିଆରି କର । ଆବଶ୍ୟକ ପଡ଼ିଲେ ବାକ୍ୟ ସମ୍ପୂର୍ଣ କରିବାପାଇଁ ଏକାଧୁକ ଶବ୍ଦ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରିପାର । ତୁମ ପାଇଁ ଉଦାହରଣଟିଏ କରାଯାଇଛି ।)
1. ever / you / been / to Kashmir?
Have you ever been to Kashmir?
2. Never / I / see / a ghost / in my life
I have never seen a ghost in my life (କେବେହେଲେ ଦେଖୁନାହିଁ)
3. My younger brother/not finish/his homework/yet.
My younger brother hasn’t finished his homework yet. (ଶେଷ କରିନାହିଁ)
4. It/ first time / I / take / a public examination.
It is the first time I have taken a public examination. (ପରୀକ୍ଷା ଦେଇଛି)
5. He / the best boy / I / come across
He is the best boy I have come across. (ଭେଟିଛି)
6. Who/ you / ever / visited / the Taj Mahal?
Who of you has ever visited the Taj Mahal? (ଦେଖୁଛ )
7. He/the only player/that/ got / a chance / to play / an international cricket match.
He is the only player that has got a chance to play an international cricket match.
Activity – 6
Use Since or For as required in the following dialogue.
(ନିମ୍ନଲିଖତ କଥୋପକଥନରେ Since ବା for ବ୍ୟବହାର କର ।)
(i) Since + point of time (last January / 10 p.m. / last night / Monday.) (ଅତୀତର ନିଦ୍ଦିଷ୍ଟ ସମୟଗୁ ଏପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ)
(ii) For+period of time (Two years / three months.) (ଅତୀତରୁ ଏପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ) (ସମୟର ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟ)
A. _________ when have you waited for the doctor?
Since when have you waited for the doctor? (କେବେଠାରୁ)
B. I have waited for the doctor ___________ 6 p.m.
I have waited for the doctor since 6 p.m. (ସଂଧ୍ୟା ୬ଟାରୁ)
A. Would you wait for him ___________ two hours more?
Would you wait for him for two hours more? (ଆଉ ଦୁଇ ଘଣ୍ଟା ଅଧ୍ବକ)
B. No, I have already waited long. I understand my friend has waited for me at home ___________ 9 a.m. I would like to see him at once.
No, I have already waited long. I understand my friend has waited
for me at home since 9 a.m. (ସକାଳ ୯ ଟାରୁ) I would like to see him at once.
Activity – 7
Complete the sentences using the words given in brackets : Use the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Progressive as required. The first one has been done for you. ଭିତରେ ଥିବା ଶବ୍ଦଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ନେଇ present perfect and present perfect progressive tense ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ପୂରଣ କର ।)
(i) Anita – You look very tired, Amit.
Anita- I have been working hard all day.
(ii) How long has it been raining?
It has been raining for three days. (ବର୍ଷା ହେଉଛି । ତିନିଦିନ ଧରି)
(iii) What have you been doing all morning?
I have been working out sums all morning (work out sums). (କଷୁଛି) (ସକାଳ ସାରା)
(iv) How long have you stayed here ?
I have stayed here for a week (for a week). (ଏକ ସପ୍ତାହ ଧରି ଏଠାରେ ରହିଛି)
(v) How long have you swum in the river?
I have been swimming in the river for two hours. (ଦୁଇ ଘଣ୍ଟାଧରି ପହଁରୁଛି)
(vi) Sabita is ill. She is still under treatment.
The doctor has been treating Sabita for a long (treat, Sabita).
(vii) We are at the station for the last two hours. Our parents haven’t come yet.
We have been waiting for our parents at the station for the last two hours (wait, at the station, for our parents, the last two hours). (ଦୁଇ ଘଣ୍ଟାଧରି ଅପେକ୍ଷା କରିଛୁ)
(viii) The lion attacked its keeper. He is dead now.
The lion has killed its keeper. (ମାଲିକକୁ ମାରିଦେଇଛି) (This means the keeper is dead now)
Activity – 8
Make sentences using the ‘Present Perfect Progressive’ form of the verbs given in brackets.
(ବନ୍ଧନୀ ଭିତରେ ଥିବା କ୍ରିୟାପଦଗୁଡ଼ିକର Present Perfect Progressive form ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ବାକ୍ୟ ତିଆରି କର ।)
1. Mrs. Das is very tired. (work hard)
He has been working hard all day.
2. Mr. Das looks pale (ମଳିନ). (not feel well / all day)
He hasn’t been feeling well all day.
3. Their son Ashok has got a headache. (watch TV / all evening)
He has been watching TV all evening.
4. Their daughter Bini has got no money left. (buy dresses)
She has been buying dresses for two hours.
5. They are sitting idle (ଅଳସୁଆ ଭାବରେ ବସିଛନ୍ତି) and can’t do anything. (rain / since the evening)
It has been raining since the evening.
We use present perfect progressive (has / have been + ing) to show that something has been going on from/since the past. ((ଅତୀତରୁ କୌଣସି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ଏପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ ଚାଲୁ ରହିଥିଲେ ଓ ଏବେ ସେହି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟର ଫଳାଫଳ ଜଣାପଡ଼ୁଥିଲେ, ସେଠାରେ verbର present perfect progressive tense କୁହାଯାଏ ।)
Activity – 9
One sentence in each of the following pairs is unacceptable. Strike it off. (ନିମ୍ନଲିଖତ ଯୋଡ଼ିକିଆ ବାକ୍ୟରେ ବ୍ୟାକରଣଗତ ଭୁଲ୍ ବାକ୍ୟକୁ କାଟିଦିଅ ।)
1. I can go home now.
I have finished my classwork.
I have been finishing my classwork. [✗]
2. You look tired. (କ୍ଳାନ୍ତ ଦେଖାଯାଉଛ )
Have you been working in the garden?
Have you worked in the garden? [✗]
3. Speak the truth.
Have you broken the window?
Have you been breaking the window? [✗]
4. Your eyes are red.
You have cried. [✗]
You have been crying.
5. Now you can live in that house.
We have repaired the roof.
We have been repairing the roof. [✗]
Present Perfect tense is used for the action just concluded with its effect still prevailing. Present Perfect Progressive tense is used with the action still going on. ( ନିକଟ ଅତୀତରେ ସମସ୍ତ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟର ଫଳାଫଳ ଏବେ ଥିଲେ Present Perfect ଓ ଅତୀତରୁ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ଏପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ ଚାଲି ରହିଥିଲେ Present Perfect Progressive Tense ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ ।)
|Present Perfect||Present Perfect|
|I have wiped out the blackboard. (It is clean now)
(ସଫା କରି ଦେଇଛି) ( କଳାପଟା ସଫାଅଛି)
|I have been wiping out the blackboard for three minutes.
(ମୁଁ ତିନିମିନିଟ୍ ଧରି କଳାପଟା ସଫା କରୁଛି) (ଏବେ ବି ସଫା କରୁଛି)
Activity – 10
Complete the following conversation, using either the Past Simple or the Present Perfect form of the verb given in brackets. (ନିମ୍ନଲିଖତ କଥାବାର୍ତ୍ତାକୁ Past Simple ବା Present Perfect ଦ୍ୱାରା ପୂରଣ କର ।)
Ashok: What are these people doing here? What (happen)?
Bini: There (be) an accident.
Ashok: An accident? What (happen) exactly?
Bini: A cat (run) across the road in front of a car. The driver (try) to apply the brake and (hit) the tree on the side of the road.
Ashok: When (it happen)?
Bini: About ten minutes ago.
Ashok : (anyone call) for an ambulance?
Bini: No, not yet. But the police (arrive). They will take care of that.
Ashok: This is the second accident we (have) here this week.
Bini: We should have a hump here.
Note Past Simple – action began and ended in the past. (ଅତୀତରେ ଆରମ୍ଭ ହୋଇ ଅତୀତରେ ସମାପ୍ତ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ)
Present Perfect action though just concluded has its corresponding effect at the present.
(କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ନିକଟରେ ଶେଷ ହୋଇଥିଲେ ମଧ୍ୟ ଏହାର ଫଳାଫଳ ଏବେ ବି ଥାଏ ।)
Ashok: What are these people doing here? What has happened (ଘଟିଛି)? (present perfect)
Bini: There was an accident. (ଘଟିଥିଲା) (past simple)
Ashok: An accident? What happened (ଘଟିଥିଲା) exactly? (past simple)
Bini: A cat ran (ଏପଟରୁ ସେପଟକୁ ଗତିକଲା) (past simple) across the road in front of a car.
The driver tried (ଚେଷ୍ଟା କଲା) (past simple) to apply the brake and hit (ଧକ୍କା ଦେଲା) (past simple) the tree on the side of the road.
Ashok: When did it happen (ଘଟିଲା?) (past simple)
Bini: About ten minutes ago.
Ashok: Has anyone called (ଡକାଇ ପଠାଇଛି) for an ambulance? (present perfect)
Bini: No, not yet. But the police have arrived (ପହଞ୍ଚିଯାଇଛନ୍ତି). (present perfect). They will take care of that.
Ashok: This is the second accident we have had (ଘଟିଯାଇଛି) here this week. (present perfect)
Bini: We should have a hump here.
Activity – 11
Fill in the blanks with the Past Simple or Present Perfect forms of the verbs given in brackets (Past Simple
Present Perfect ବା Present Perfect ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ଶୂନ୍ୟସ୍ଥାନ ପୂରଣ କର ।)
Bakul : _______ (you see) Jagu last night?
Pikul: No, but I _______ (just come) from his house. He’s in bed. He ________ (be) very ill for the last three days.
Bakul: I’m sorry to hear that. So that’s why he ________ (not come) to the party last night.
Pikul: The doctor _______ (see) him twice by now. He’s coming again tomorrow. Oh, by the way, Jagu _______ (send) your book.
Bakul : Did you see (ଦେଖା କରିଥିଲା) Jagu last night? (past simple)
Pikul: No, but I have just come (ଏଇକ୍ଷଣି ଆସିଛି) from his house. (present perfect) He’s in bed. He has been (ଅସୁସ୍ଥ ଅଛି) very ill for the last three days. (present perfect)
Bakul: I’m sorry to hear that. So that’s why he didn’t come (ଆସି ନ ଥିଲା) to the party last night. (past simple)
Pikul: The doctor has seen (ଦେଖାଦେଇଛି) him twice by now. He’s coming again tomorrow. Oh, by the way, Jagu has sent (ପଠାଇ ଦେଇଛନ୍ତି) your book.
Activity – 12
Fill in the blanks using the Past Simple or the Past Progressive forms of the verbs given in brackets. (Past Simple ବା Past Progressive tense ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ଶୂନ୍ୟସ୍ଥାନ ପୂରଣ କର ।)
Once when I ______ (read) in my room, I ________ (hear) a lot ot noise outside. I ________ (come) out and _______ (see) that many people _______ (run) in a particular direction. They _______ (shout) at the top of their voice. They all _______ (have) buckets and water pots in their hands. I ______ (ask) them what the matter was. Somebody ______ (point) at a house at the end of our village. I _______ (see) that the house _______ (burn). People _______ (throw) water at the house in order to put out the fire. Very soon the fire ________ (come) under control.
Past Simple – action completed in the past. (ଅତୀତରେ ସମାପ୍ତ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ)
Past Progressive – action continuing for a period of time in the past. ଅତାତରେ ଦାର୍ଘ ସମୟଧରି ଚାଲିଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ)
Once when I was reading (ପଢୁଥୁଲି) in my room, I heard (ଶୁଣିଲି) a lot ot noise outside. I came out (ବାହାରି ଆସିଲି) and saw (ଦେଖୁଲି) that many people were running (ଦୌଡ଼ୁଥିଲେ) in a particular direction. They were shouting (ଚିତ୍କାର କରୁଥିଲେ) at the top of their voice. They all had (ଥିଲା) buckets (ବାଲ୍) and water pots in their hands. I asked (ପଚାରିଲି) them what the matter was. Somebody pointed (ଆଙ୍ଗୁଳି ନିର୍ଦ୍ଦେଶ କଲା): at a house at the end of our village. I saw (ଦେଖିଲି) that the house was burning (ଜଳୁଥିଲା). People were throwing (ଫିଙ୍ଗୁଥିଲେ) water at the house in order to put out (ନିଆଁ ଲିଭାଇବା ପାଇଁ). Very soon the fire came under control (ନିୟନ୍ତ୍ରଣକୁ ଆସିଲା).
Activity – 13
Rewrite the paragraph using the Past Progressive or the Past Simple forms of the verbs given in the brackets. (Bracket ଭିତରେ ଥିବା କ୍ରିୟାପଦଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ନେଇ Past Progressive /Past Simple ବ୍ୟବହାର କର ।)
I (walk) along the street one day when I (see) something strange. I (notice) a person of the same height as me and (have) the same hair style. He (wear) clothes of the same colour and (carry) a school bag just as mine. He (just / cross) the road ahead of me but he (not/avoid) me at all. I (be) sure of that. As he (go across) the road, I (follow) him.
I was walking (ଚାଲିଚାଲି ଯାଉଥୁଲି) along the street one day when I saw (ଦେଖଲି) something strange. I noticed (ଲକ୍ଷ୍ୟ କଲି) a person of the same height as me and had (ଥିଲା) the same hair style. He wore (ମିଳିଥିଲା) clothes of the same colour and carried (ଧରିଥିଲା) a school bag just as mine. He just crossed (ଅତିକ୍ରମ କଲା) the road ahead of me but he didn’t avoid (ମୋଠାରୁ ଦୃଷ୍ଟି ଆଡ଼େଇଲା ନାହିଁ) me at all. I was (ଥୁଲି) sure of that. As he was going across (ଅତିକ୍ରମ କରୁଥିଲା) the road, I followed (ପଛେ ପଛେ ଗଲି) him.
Activity – 14
Combine the following sentences into single ones using the Past Perfect or the Past Simple forms of the verbs. (Past Perfect ବା Past Simple ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ନିମ୍ନଲିଖତ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ଗୋଟିଏ ଲେଖାଏଁ ବାକ୍ୟରେ ପରିଣତ କର ।)
1. The alarm clock rang. I woke up = As soon as _________
As soon as the alarm clock rang, I woke up. (ଆଲାର୍ମ ଘଣ୍ଟା ବାଜିବା ମାତ୍ରେ ମୁଁ ଉଠି ପଡ଼ିଲି ।)
2. I cleaned my teeth. I took my bath = After I _________
After I had cleaned my teeth, I took my bath. (ଦାନ୍ତ ସଫା କରିବା ପରେ ମୁଁ
3. I looked at my watch. I realized I was late = When _________
When I looked at my watch, I realized I had been late.
(ମୁଁ ଯେତେବେଳେ ଘଣ୍ଟାକୁ ଚାହିଁଲି, ଜାଣିପାରିଲି ଯେ ମୋର ଡେରି ହୋଇଯାଇଥିଲା ।)
4. I arrived at the school. I remembered it was Sunday = When _________
When I arrived at the school, I remembered it was Sunday.
(ସ୍କୁଲରେ ପହଞ୍ଚିବା ପରେ ମୋର ମନେପଡ଼ିଗଲା ଯେ ଦିନଟି ରବିବାର ଥିଲା । )
5. Siya wrote the letter. She posted it = After Siya _________
After Siya had written the letter, she posted it. (ସୀୟା ଚିଠିଟି ଲେଖି ସାରିବା ପରେ ଡାକରେ ପଠାଇଲା।)
Note Past Simple – for the latter/second action in the past. (ଅତୀତର ୨ୟ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ପାଇଁ past simple)
Past Perfect – for the former/first action in the past. past perfect tense. (ଅତୀତର ପ୍ରଥମ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ପାଇଁ Past Perfect Tense).
Past simple for both actions (short two action happened at the same time in the past. ( ଅତୀତରେ ଦୁଇଟି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ଏକ ସମୟରେ ସମାପ୍ତ ହୋଇଥିଲେ Past Simple Tense)
Activity – 15
Work in pairs A and B. Without showing your sentences to your partner, A writes 5 sentences using the Past Perfect tense of verbs. He/She puts before the sentences an expression like as soon as /when/ by the time/after. In the mean time, B writes 5 sentences using the Past Simple tense of verbs. After writing the sentences, you show each other the sentences and try to combine them. Check your answer with the help of your teacher (All the sentences may not combine.) (‘A’ ଓ ‘B’ ନାମରେ ଦୁଇଜଣ ହୋଇଯାଅ । ନିଜର ସାଥୀ ‘B’ କୁ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ନ ଦେଖାଇ ‘A’ as soon as, when, by the time, after ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ପାଞ୍ଚୋଟି ବାକ୍ୟ Past Perfect tense ରେ ଲେଖୁବ । ସେହିପରି Verb ମାନଙ୍କର Past Simple tense ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ‘B’ ପାଞ୍ଚୋଟି ବାକ୍ୟ ଲେଖୁବ । ବାକ୍ୟସବୁ ଲେଖିବାପରେ ତୁମେ ପରସ୍ପରକୁ ସେଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଯୋଗକରିବାକୁ ଚେଷ୍ଟା କରିବ ଓ ଶିକ୍ଷକଙ୍କ ସାହାଯ୍ୟରେ ଉତ୍ତରଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ଠିକ୍ କରାଇନେବ । ସବୁ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ଯୋଗକରିବା ଦରକାର ନାହିଁ ।)
Five sentences were written by ‘A’.
(i) As soon as the doctor had reached, he began operation.
(ii) When I reached school, it began to rain.
(iii) After father had a cup of tea, he began to read through the paper.
(iv) By the time the film began, I had reached the hall.
(v) The thief had gone when the police arrived.
Five sentences written by ‘B’.
(i) The doctor reached. Then he began operation.
(ii) On reaching school, it began to rain.
(iii) Father began to read through the paper after having a cup of tea.
(iv) The film began on reaching the hall.
(v) The thief went. Then the police arrived.
Activity – 16
Complete the following dialogue using the Past Perfect or the Past Perfect Progressive forms of the verbs given in brackets.
Federer: My best moment in the match was when I realised that the game (finish) and I (become) the champion. I (win) at last. At that moment I (become) the best Tennis player of the world.
Reporter: And when you won, how long you (play) Tennis?
Federer: I started just before I finished school. That means, I (play) for about six years when I won Wimbledon.
Reporter: You (beat) some good players before you won that tournament.
Federer: Yes, ever since I started as a Tennis professional, I (win) games regularly, until my injury.
Federer: My best moment in the match was when I realised that the game had finished (ଶେଷହୋଇଯାଇଥିଲା) and I had become (ହୋଇଥୁଲି) the champion. I had won (ଜିତି ଯାଇଥୁଲି) at last. At that moment I had become (ହୋଇଯାଇଥୁଲି) the best Tennis player of the world.
Reporter: And when you won, how long had you been playing (ଖେଳୁଥୁଲି) Tennis?
Federer: I started just before I finished school. That means, I had been playing (ଖେଳୁଥୁଲି) for about six years when I won Wimbledon.
Reporter: You had beaten (ପରାସ୍ତ କରିଥୁଲ) some good players before you won that tournament. Federer: Yes, ever since I started as a Tennis professional, I had won (ଜିତିଥିଲି) games regularly, until my injury.
For a long period of action completed in the past, we use past perfect progressive tense. (ଅତୀତରେ ଘଟିଥିବା ଦୀର୍ଘ ସମୟର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ପାଇଁ progressive tense) Past simple tense is used with the result of that longer acion of the past. (ଅତୀତର ସେହି ଦୀର୍ଘ ଅବଧୂ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟର ଫଳାଫଳ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ past simple tense) past simple tense)
ବୁଢ଼ା ଲୋକଟି କାଲି ରାତିରେ ମରିଗଲା । ତା’ର ସ୍ତ୍ରୀ ତାକୁ ଦୀର୍ଘ ୬ ମାସ ଧରି ସେବାକରି ଆସୁଥିଲା । (The old man died/passed away last night. His wife had been nursing him for six months.)
Activity – 17
Two friends Sanu and Siya are leaving school together. Their parents have gone to their village. Some of the lines of their conversation are correct and some have a mistake. Put a tick against the correct sentence. If a sentence has an error in it, write the correct form. (ବନ୍ଧୁ ସାନୁ ଓ ସୀୟା ଏକତ୍ର ସ୍କୁଲ ଛାଡ଼ିବେ । ସେମାନଙ୍କର ବାପା ମା’ ସେମାନଙ୍କର ଗାଁକୁ ଯାଇଛନ୍ତି । ସେମାନଙ୍କର କଥୋପକଥନର କେତେକ ଧାଡ଼ି ଠିକ୍ ଅଛି ଓ କେତେକ ଭୁଲ୍ ଅଛି । ଠିକ୍ ବାକ୍ୟ ପାଖରେ । ଚିହ୍ନ ଦିଅ ଓ ଭୁଲ ଥିବା ବାକ୍ୟକୁ ଠିକ୍ କରି ଲେଖ ।)
Sanu: Where will you eat tonight?
Siya: At home. I’ve got a cookery book, so I’ll make a curry.
Sanu: Why not come to my place? I’m going to cook for us both something.
Siya: Won’t you go to meet your Grandpa?
Sanu: No, he’s left for the village. I’m not going to meet him for a month or so.
Siya: Ok. I’m going to come round at 8 and I’ll bring some ice cream.
Sanu: Fine. I’ll see you then.
Sanu, Where will you eat tonight (ଆଜି ରାତିରେ)? (✓)
Siya: At home. I’ve got a cookery book (ରୋଷେଇ ଶିକ୍ଷା ପୁସ୍ତିକା), so I’am going to make a curry.
Sanu: Why aren’t you coming to my place? I’ll cook for us both something.
Siya: Aren’t you going to meet your Grandpa?
Sanu: No, he’s (has) left for the village. I’m not going to meet him for a month or so. (✓)
Siya: Ok, I’ll come round at 8 and I’ll bring some ice cream.
Sanu: Fine, I’ll see you then.
Activity – 18
Use will/shall, be going to, or present progressive forms of the verbs given in brackets and complete the sentences. (be going to – is/am/ are going to + main verb)
Mina: Would you like to come to watch a movie this weekend?
Mitina: I’d like to, but I’m afraid (I / not / have) time
Mina: Why? (what / do) ?
Mitina: Well, (my / father / arrive) back from Delhi. He’s been there for six months and (we / have) a big party to celebrate.
Mina : (he/not/be) too tired for a party after his long train journey?
Mitina: Yes and no doubt (he/ have) no proper food during the journey. So, on Saturday he can take it easy. But on Sunday, (all the family/come) on a picnic. (I/ prepare) things all day on Saturday.
Mina: What a lot of work for you.
Mitina: I don’t mind. Other members of my family are helpful and we are well organized. In fact, (I/ see) someone about hiring a cook this afternoon. So, I must go now or (I/not/get) to their shop before (they / close).
Mina: I hope (everything / go) well for you.
Mitina: I’m sure (it / be) a great day provided (the weather / remain) fine.
Mina: Would you like to come to watch a movie (ଚଳଜିତ୍ର) this weekend?
Mitina: I’d like to, but I’m afraid (ମୋର ଆଶଙ୍କା) I won’t have time.
Mina: Why? What will you do?
Mitina: Well, my father is’ arriving (ଫେରିବେ / ପୂର୍ବରୁ ନିଷ୍ପଭି) back from Delhi. He’s been there for six months and and we are having/are going to have (ଆୟୋଜନ କରିବୁ) a big party to celebrate.
Mina: Won’t he be too tired (ହୋଇପଡ଼ିବେ ନାହିଁ କି ?) for a party after his long train journey?
Mitina: Yes and no doubt he is going to have no proper food during the journey. So, on Saturday he can take it easy. But on Sunday, all the family are coming (ଆସିବେ) (ପୂର୍ବ ନିଷ୍ପଭି ଓ ଯୋଜନା) on a picnic. I am going to prepare / am preparing (ଆୟୋଜନ କରିବି) । (ପୂର୍ବର ନିଷ୍ପଭି ଓ ବ୍ୟବସ୍ଥା) things all day on Saturday.
Mina: What a lot of work for you.
Mitina: I don’t mind. Other members of my family are helpful and we are well organized (ସୁସଂଗଠିତ). In fact, I will see someone about hiring a cook this afternoon. So, I must go now or I won’t get (ପହଞ୍ଚିପାରିବି ନାହିଁ) to their shop before they are going to be closed (ବନ୍ଦ ହୋଇଯିବ).
Mina: I hope everything will go (with verb ‘hope’) well for you.
Mitina: I’m sure it will be (ହେବ) (with the adjective ‘sure’) a great day provide (ଯଦି) the weather remains (present simple) fine.
Activity – 19
Rewrite the following sentences using the correct form of the verbs given in brackets. Read the following passage. It’s about Raju’s daily routine [ ନିମ୍ନଲିଖତ ଅନୁଚ୍ଛେଦ (ରାଜୁର ନିୟମିତ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟାବଳୀ ବିଷୟରେ) ପଢ଼ । କ୍ରିୟାପଦମାନଙ୍କର ସଠିକ୍ ରୂପ ବ୍ୟବହାର କର |]
Raju (get) up early everyday. He (brush) his teeth and (have) his bath. He (take) a quick breakfast. He usually (prefer) fruits for his breakfast. Soon after, he (sit) down to do his homework. He (not want) to be punished at school. So, he (set out) early to reach the school in time.
Raju gets up (ଡଠେ) early everyday. He brushes (ଦାନ୍ତ ଘଷେ) his teeth and has his bath (ସାନକରେ). He takes (ଖାଇନିଏ) a quick breakfast. He usually prefers (ପସନ୍ଦ କରେ) fruits for his breakfast. Soon after, he sits down (ବସି ପଡ଼େ) to do his homework. He doesn’t want (ଚାହିଁ ନାହିଁ) to be punished at school. So, he sets out (ବାହାରି ପଡ଼େ) early to reach the school in time.
Activity – 20
Suppose you are the monitor of your class and very well up in English. You ask your friends to look out through the windows and write three correct sentences each about the things they see. You then go round the class to see if all of them have written correctly. Correct the wrong sentences wherever you find them. (ମନେକର ତୁମେ ତୁମ ଶ୍ରେଣୀର monitor ଓ ଇଂରାଜୀରେ ଖୁବ୍ ଭଲ | ସାଙ୍ଗମାନଙ୍କୁ ଝରକାଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଦେଇ ବାହାରକୁ ଚାହିଁବାକୁ କୁହ ଓ ସେମାନେ ଦେଖୁଥିବା ଦୃଶ୍ୟକୁ ନେଇ ତିନୋଟି ଲେଖାଏଁ ବାକ୍ୟ ଲେଖୁବାକୁ କୁହ । ଶେଷରେ କ୍ଳାସ୍ରେ ଚୁଲି ସେମାନଙ୍କର ଉତ୍ତର ଦେଖ, ଭୁଲଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ଠିକ୍ କରି ଲେଖ।)
Anil: I am seeing a flight of birds.
Kabi: Two dogs are barking at each other.
Rahman: I am finding two village women carrying waterpots.
Preetam : I am noticing a farmer removing weeds (ବାଳୁଙ୍ଗା ବାଛୁଥୁବାର).
Corrected by myself :
Anil: I see a flight of birds.
Kabi: The sentence is correct.
Rahman: I find (ଦେଖୁଛି) two village women carrying waterpots.
Preetam: I notice (ଲକ୍ଷ୍ୟ କରୁଛି) a farmer removing weeds.
The verbs like have, own, belong, like, dislike, love, hate, prefer, admire (ପ୍ରଶଂସା କରିବା), see, hear, smell, taste, feel, hope, forget, remember, think, believe, appear/seem/look, understand, depend, cost etc. usually don’t take ‘ing’ with them. (ଏହି ସମସ୍ତ କ୍ରିୟାପଦ ସହିତ ସାଧାରଣତଃ ‘ing’ form ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ ନାହିଁ ।)
Activity – 21
Use either the present simple or the present progressive in the following sentences to complete the dialogue. (ନିମ୍ନଲିଖତ ବାକ୍ୟମାନଙ୍କରେ Present Simple/present progressive ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ନିମ୍ନଲିଖତ କଥୋପକଥନକୁ ସଂପୂର୍ଣ କର ।)
Seema: Hellow, Lopa, what (you / do) these days?
Lopa: Nothing special. I (learn) dancing in a dancing school. What about you?
Seema: Me? I am (work) at a training school. The school (offer) lessons on cooking.
Lopa : (you like) the job?
Seema: Yes, of course. I (prefer) this job because I (also learn) a lot about cooking while working here.
Lopa: What (they/teach) now?
Seema: Right now, they (give) lessons on Chinese food. You know, Chinese dishes (taste) so good!
Lopa: Can I join the classes someday?
Seema: Sure. They (want) more and more students to join their school. You are welcome.
Lopa: Thank you.
Seema: Hellow, Lopa, what are you doing (କ’ଣ କରୁଛୁ) these days?
Lopa: Nothing special. I am learning (ଶିଖୁଛି) dancing in a dancing school. What about you?
Seema: Me? I am working (କାମ କରୁଛୁ) at a training school. The school offers (ଦେଡଛି) lessons on cooking.
Lopa: Do you like (ଭଲ ଲାଗୁଛି) the job?
Seema: Yes, of course. I prefer (ଭଲ ଲାଗୁଛି) this job because I am also learning a lot about cooking while working here.
Lopa: What are they teaching (ପଢ଼ାଉଛନ୍ତି) now?
Seema : Right now, they are giving (ପ୍ରଦାନ କରୁଛନ୍ତି । ଶିକ୍ଷା ଦେଉଛନ୍ତି) lessons on Chinese food. You know, Chinese dishes tastes (ରୁଚିକର ଲାଗେ) so good!
Lopa: Can I join the classes someday?
Seema: Sure. They want (ଚାହୁଁଛନ୍ତି) more and more students to join their school. You are welcome.
Lopa: Thank you.
Time and Tense Additional Questions With Answers
(i) Fill in the gaps in the following table of verbs.
1. go ______ gone
2. do did _______
3. ______ cut cut
4. buy bought ______
5. send ______ sent
6. ______ took taken
7. see saw _____
8. ______ flew flown
9. sing ______ sung
10. sell ______ sold
11. beg begged ________
12. spread ________ spread
13. _______ set set
14. teach taught ______
15. ______ rose risen
16. bite ______ bitten
17. lie lay _____
18. marry married _______
19. _____ wept wept
20. think _______ thought
(ii) Mention the tense and time the verbs refer to.
1. We are going on a picnic tomorrow.
Present tense, future time
2. The Prime Minister visits China next month.
Present tense, future time
3. She didn’t do her work.
Past tense, past time
4. We are leaving for Puri tomorrow.
Present tense, future time
5. We always obey our teachers.
Present tense, present time
6. He put me in difficulty.
Past tense, past time
7. The sun set at 6 p.m.
Past tense, past time
8. Tomorrow is Sunday.
Present tense, future time
9. He wanted to do it.
Past tense, past time
10. He has given me permission to go there.
Present tense, past time.
(iii) Fill in the gaps using the correct form of the verbs given in the brackets.
1. God __________ omnipresent. (be)
2. Some people _______ in ghost. (believe)
3. My friend usually _________ with me. (come)
4. Our teacher never ___________ angry with us. (get)
5. Water _______ at 100°C. (boil)
6. Nikita ___________ from Rourkela. (come)
7. I for __________ my mistakes. (apologise)
8. Summer _________ after spring. (come)
9. Tigers __________ in forests. (live)
10. If it ___________ I shall not go to school. (rain)
11. He __________ his lunch now. (take)
12. They __________ for Mumbai recently. (leave)
13. His hands are dirty. He __________ in the garden. (work)
Has been working
14. He is the best boy that I __________ ever _________ across. (come)
Have ….. Come
15. I _______ my homework yet. (not finish)
Have not finished
16. We _________ in this city since 1997. (live)
17. I _________ in Cuttack since 1990. (be)
18. Sachchi Routray __________ volumes of poems in Odia. (write)
19. I ________ it clean already. (swept)
20. Summer has set in. It __________ hotter day by day. (get)
21. It seems the baby ___________for ever. (cry)
22. I _________ he is honest. (think)
23. The committee ________ of ten members. (consist)
24. He walks to school everyday, but today he ___________ by bicycle. (go)
25. My father _________ a car. (own)
(iv) Use the correct form of verbs given in the brackets.
1. The British _________ India for many years. (rule)
2. It _________ all days this week. (rain)
3. The thief _________ when the police arrived. (go)
4. They __________ for two hours when the car broke down. (drive)
had been driving
5. My brother was watching TV while __________ a book. (read)
6. I ________ a pen yesterday. (buy)
7. When I was reading, somebody __________ at the door. (knock)
8. I __________ a sound in the dark. (hear)
9. He explained what _________ (happen)
10. He told that he __________ his work. (finish)
11. I wish I ____________ four hands. (have)
12. Jagannath Das ___________the Odia Bhagabata. (write)
13. Prativa Roy __________ Shilapadma. (write)
14. __________ you _________ him last night? (see)
15. When I _________ the door I saw our teacher standing at the door. (open)
16. He called me when I __________ my breakfast. (take)
17. The phone is ringing. I __________ it. (answer)
18. Our examination __________ next week. (start)
19. Don’t call me at 11.30 p.m. I _____________then. (sleep)
will be sleeping
20. The road __________ by the end of this year. (repair)
will have repaired
21. My father __________ from America next week. (return)
22. Look. The bull ___________ you. (attack)
is going to attack
23. Wait a minute. I __________ with you. (come)
24. I ________ a project soon. (start)
am going to start
25. The President of India ____________ America next month. (visit)
26. Leave that, I _________ for you. (carry)
27. There are clouds in the sky. It _________ (rain)
is going to rain.