Odisha State Board BSE Odisha Class 9 English Grammar Book Solutions Chapter 9 Adjectives Textbook Exercise Activity Questions and Answers.
BSE Odisha Class 9 English Grammar Solutions Chapter 9 Adjectives
Read the following sentences:
(i) Rama is a brave boy.
(ii) Kolkata is a big city.
(iii) That dog belongs to Mini.
(iv) He didn’t give me much milk to drink.
(v) Suresh’s shirt is blue.
(vi) The police arrested four thieves.
In these sentences the underlined words are adjectives
(ରେଖାଙ୍କିତ ଶବ୍ଦଗୁଡ଼ିକ ବିଶେଷଣ ଶବ୍ଦ ଅଟେ ।)
Why are they called adjectives ? (ରେଖାଙ୍କିତ ଶବ୍ଦଗୁଡ଼ିକ ବିଶେଷଣ ଶବ୍ଦ ଅଟେ ।)
Is sentence (i) ‘brave’ shows what kind ofboy Rama is. (ରାମ କେଉଁ ପ୍ରକାର ପିଲା)
In sentence (ii) ‘big’ describes the city of Kolkata. (କଲିକତା ସହରକୁ ବର୍ଣ୍ଣନା କରୁଛି)
Is sentence (iii) ‘that’ points out which dog is meant. (କେଉଁ କୁକୁରକୁ ଦର୍ଶାଯାଉଛି)
In sentence (iv) ‘much’ indicates what quantity ofmilk. (କେତେ ପରିମାଣର କ୍ଷୀର)
In sentence (v) ‘blue’ describes what colour Suresh’s shirt is. (ସୁରେଶର ସାର୍ଟ କେଉଁ ରଙ୍ଗର ?)
In sentence (vi) ‘four’ indicates how many thieves the police arrested. (ପୋଲିସ କେତେଜଣ ଚୋରକୁ ଗିରଫ କରିଥିଲା ? )
So an Adjective is a word used to addsomething to the meaning of a noun with which it is used. (ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ ଏଭଳି ଏକ ଶବ୍ଦ ଯାହାକୁ ଗୋଟିଏ ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ପଦର ଅର୍ଥକୁ ବିଶେଷିତ କରିବା ପାଇଁ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୋଇଥାଏ ।)
Or, ଯେଉଁ ପଦ ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ପଦର ଗୁଣ, ଅବସ୍ଥା, ରଙ୍ଗ, ଆକାର, ଆକୃତି, ପରିମାଣ, ସଂଖ୍ୟା ଆଦିକୁ ବିଶେଷିତ ବା ବର୍ଷନା କରେ, ତାହାକୁ ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ କୁହାଯାଏ ।)
Kinds of Adjectives (ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦର ପ୍ରକାର)
There are altogether eight different kinds of adjectives. (ଆଠ ପ୍ରକାରର ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ ରହିଛି) proper adjective, descriptive or qualitative adjective, quantitative adjective, numeral adjective, demonstrative adjective, distributive adjective, interrogative adjective, possessive adjective
1. Proper adjective (ସଂଜ୍ଞାବାଚକ ବିଶେଷଣ) :
This type of adjective is formed from proper nouns and begins with a capital letter.
(ଏପ୍ରକାର ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ ସଂଜ୍ଞା ବା ନାମବାଚକ ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ପଦରୁ ତିଆରି ଓ ବଡ଼ ଅକ୍ଷରରୁ ଆରମ୍ଭ ହୋଇଥାଏ ।)
- People all over the world prefer Indian tea. British Empire, French wine.
2. Descriptive adjective or Adjective of quality (ଗୁଣ ବା ବର୍ଣ୍ଣନାବାଚକ ବିଶେଷଣ):
This type of adjective shows the kind or quality of a person, animal, thing, or place.
(ଏପ୍ରକାର ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ ଏକ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି, ପ୍ରାଣୀ, ବସ୍ତୁ ଓ ସ୍ଥାନର ପ୍ରକାର ବା ଗୁଣକୁ ସୂଚିତ କରେ ।)
Elephant is a docile animal. (ଶାନ୍ତ, ସୁଶୀଳ ଓ ପୋଷା ଯୋ
- The wind is hot in summer.
- Beware of ( ସତର୍କ ରୁହ) the mad dog.
- Good deeds (କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ) bring us good results.
3. Quantitative adjective (ପରିମାଣବାଚକ ବିଶେଷଣ) :
This type of adjective shows how much of a thing is meant.
(ଏପ୍ରକାର ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ ଗୋଟିଏ ବସ୍ତୁ ବା ପଦାର୍ଥର ପରିମାଣକୁ ପ୍ରକାଶ କରିଥାଏ ।)
- He lost all he had.
- I have no money.
- Didn’t the beggar eat any bread?
- We showed much kindness (ଦୟା) to the beggar.
4. Numeral adjective or Adjective of Number (ସଂଖ୍ୟାବାଚକ ବିଶେଷଣ) :
(i) Cardinals (ମୌଳିକ ସଂଖ୍ୟା) :
Definite numerals show exact number. (ସଠିକ୍ ସଂଖ୍ୟାକୁ ଦର୍ଶାଏ ।) (how many ?) (କେତେ ସଂଖ୍ୟାରେ)
ten people, twenty apples, fifteen books etc.
(ii) Ordinals (showing orders) (କ୍ରମିକ ବା ପୂରଣବାଚକ) :
his first three novels.
the second train, the 100th century (ଶହେତମ ଶତକ).
(iii) Indefinite numeral adjective (ଅନିର୍ଦ୍ଦିଷ୍ଟ ସଂଖ୍ୟାବାଚକ ବିଶେଷଣ):
This type ofadjective doesn’t show any definite number and is used with countable nouns.
(ଏପ୍ରକାର ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ ନିର୍ଦ୍ଦିଷ୍ଟ ସଂଖ୍ୟାକୁ ବୁଝାଏ ନାହିଁ ଓ ଗଣନୀୟ ସଂଖ୍ୟା ସହିତ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ ।)
- All the chairs are new. (chair- plural count noun)
- Many girls were selected for the play (ନାଟକ). (girls- plural count noun)
- Some soldiers have been sent to the borders. ( ସୀମାନ୍ତ)
5. Demonstrative adjective(ପ୍ରଦର୍ଶକ ବିଶେଷଣ)
A demonstrative adjective points out which person or thing or animal is meant.
(ଏପ୍ରକାର ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ ନିର୍ଦ୍ଦିଷ୍ଟ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି ବା ବସ୍ତୁ ବା ପ୍ରାଣୀକୁ ପ୍ରଦର୍ଶିତ କରିଥାଏ ।)
- Who is that girl?
- Do you know this doctor?
- Those books are mine.
- Please give me some of these flowers.
- Such gems (ମଣି) are rare. (ବିରଳ)
6. Distributive adjective (ବଣ୍ଟନକାରୀ ବିଶେଷଣ)
This type of adjective shows that the persons or things denoted by them are taken singly or in separate lots.
(ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ ଦ୍ଵାରା ସୂଚିତ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି ବା ବସ୍ତୁ ଏକ ଭାବରେ ବା ଅଲଗା ଏହାର ପ୍ରଦର୍ଶିତ ହୁଏ ।)
- Every man should love his country.
- Either pen (ଦୁଇଟି ଭିତରୁ ଯେଉଁ ଗୋଟିଏ ହେଲେ ଚଳିବ) will do.
- Neither story was true.
- The old man takes this medicine every three hours. (ପ୍ରତି ତିନି ଘଣ୍ଟାରେ ଥରେ)
7. Interrogative adjective (ପ୍ରଶ୍ନସୂଚକ ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ)
This type of adjective is used to with a noun to ask questions.
(ପ୍ରଶ୍ନ ପଚାରିବା ଅର୍ଥରେ ଗୋଟିଏ ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ପଦ ସହିତ ପ୍ରଶ୍ନସୂଚକ ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ ।)
- Which book do you want?
- Whose uncle has got a job in this branch?
8. Possessive adjective ( ସମ୍ବନ୍ଧବାଚକ ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ)
This type ofadjective shows or denotes possession.
( ସମ୍ବନ୍ଧ ଅର୍ଥରେ / ସମ୍ବନ୍ଧକୁ ସୂଚିତ କରିବା ପାଇଁ ଏ ପ୍ରକାର ବିଶେଷଣରେ ପଦ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ ।)
- Give me your book.
- This is their building.
- Our field has been prepared.
- Manish’s uncle is a bank employee.
Position of adjectives
On the basis of the occurrence of the adjectives in a clause or in a noun phrase, adjectives have three structural functions or positions.
(ଗୋଟିଏ ଖଣ୍ଡବାକ୍ୟ ବା ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ବାକ୍ୟାଶରେ ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦଗୁଡ଼ିକର ବ୍ୟବହାରକୁ ଭିଭିକରି ସେଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ମୁଖ୍ୟତଃ ବାକ୍ୟର ୩ଟି ସ୍ଥାନରେ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ ।)
1. Attributive use :
When the adjective is used close to and before the noun which it qualifies, it is said to be used attributively. (ଯେତେବେଳେ ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ ଏକ ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ପଦକୁ ଲାଗିକରି ବା ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ପଦର ପୂର୍ବରୁ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୋଇଥାଏ, ସେତେବେଳେ ସେହି ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦର attributive use ହୁଏ ।)
- A good pupil learns his lessons regularly, (pupil – noun)
- He appears (ଜଣା ପଡୁଛି) to be a hungry man. (man – noun)
- You have a big house, (house – noun)
- The green field is bathed in the morning sun. (field – noun)
2. Predicative use ( ବିଧେୟବାଚକ ବ୍ୟବହାର) :
When an adjective is placed after the verb and forms part of the predicate and functions as a form of complement to the verb, the adjective is said to used predicatively.
(ଯେତେବେଳେ ଗୋଟିଏ ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ କ୍ରିୟାପଦ ପରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୋଇ predicate ବା ବିଧେୟର ଏକ ଅଂଶବିଶେଷ ହୋଇଥାଏ ଓ complement ବା ପୂରକର ଏକ ରୂପ ରୂପେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ, adjectiveର ସେପରି ବ୍ୟବହାରକୁ ବିଧେୟବାଚକ ବ୍ୟବହାର କୁହାଯାଏ ।)
We use predicative adjectives after some verbs like ‘Be’ verb is, am, are, was, were, seem/appear, become, look, taste, smell etc. ( ଏହି ସମସ୍ତ କ୍ରିୟାପଦ ପରେ adjectiveର predicative use ହୁଏ ବା predicative adjective ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ ।)
|The man became tired. (କ୍ଳାନ୍ତ)
|They found the man tired.
(object – man)
|The problem seems easy. (ସହଜ)
(subject – problem)
|The teacher considers the problem easy.
(object – problem)
|Manas is brave (ସାହସୀ)
|We consider Manas brave.
A predicative adjective as a subject complement refers back to the subject and predicative adjective as an object complement refers back to the object (ଏକ କର୍ଗାପୁରକ ରୂପେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ବିଧେୟ ବିଶେଷଣ କର୍ଗାକୁ ବିଶେଷିତ କରୁଥିଲାବେଳେ ଏକ ବିଧେୟ ବିଶେଷଣ କର୍ମକୁ ବିଶେଷିତ କରିଥାଏ ।)
Only Predicative adjectives
(ନିମ୍ନଲିଖତ ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦଗୁଡ଼ିକ କେବଳ predicate ସ୍ଥାନରେ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଇପାରିବ ।)
|afraid||alone||content (ଖୁସି)||unware (ଅଜ୍ଞ)|
|afloat (ଭାସମାନ)||alive (ଜୀବିତ)||glad (ଆନନ୍ଦିତ)||unsure|
|akin (ସଂପର୍କ)||asleep (ନିଦ୍ରିତ)||ill||well|
|alike (ଏକାପରି)||aware (ସଚେତନ)||ready||unwell|
|afoot (ଚାଲିକରି)||awake (ଜାଗ୍ରତ)||sorry||able|
|ashamed (ଲଜିତ)||sure||unable (ଅସମର୍ଥ)|
(i) Mohit isn’t awake yet. (ଏ ପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ ଉଠିନାହିଁ)
(ii) Aren’t you ready yet?
(iii) I am quite sure.
(iv) Father was unware of my result.
(v) The girl is afraid of snake.
(vi) Pity and love are closely akin. (ସଂପର୍କିତ)
(vii) Is the fish alive?
(viii) The old man is alone in this house.
3. Post-Positive / Post-Positioned
Some adjectives are used alone after nouns. So they are called post-positive Or, postpositioned.
(କେତେକ ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ କେବଳ ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ପଦ ପରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହେଉଥିବାରୁ ସେଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ post-positive ବା post-positioned adjective କୁହାଯାଏ । post ର ଅର୍ଥ ‘after’ ‘ପରେ’ ।)
1. (a) The concerned parents rushed to the hospital. (ଦୁଃଖତ) (attributive) (parents- noun)
(b) The doctors concerned asked them not to worry. (ସେବା କରୁଥିବା) (post-positive) (doctors noun)
2. (a) Father is a responsible officer. (attributive) (officer -noun)
(b) The person responsible will be punished. (ନିନ୍ଦାଯୋଗ୍ୟ) (post-positive) (person-noun)
3. (a) How is the present (ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନ) situation? (attributive) (situation- noun) (ପରିସ୍ଥିତି)
(b) The members present (attending) at the meeting gave their opinions. (ଉପସ୍ଥିତ) (postpositive) (members – noun)
Nouns as Adjectives (ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦରୂପେ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କରୁଥିବା କେତେକ ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ପଦ ।)
|As nouns||As adjectives / classifiers|
|Let’s go to the cinema.||The Diamond is an old cinema hall.|
|Switch off the television.||Do you enjoy television programs?|
|Shreemanta is reading science.||He is reading in a science college.|
|The library is closed today.||How many library books have been issued against you?|
|lam fond of apples.||We have an apple tree.|
|At what time does the marriage take place?||He will join the marriage procession.|
Order of Adjectives
Look at the following sentences.
(i) Mr. Mishra lives in a decent new house. (ସୁନ୍ଦର)
(ii) The child has put on (ପିନ୍ଧିଛି) a nice clean shirt.
(iii) Bhagyashree is a beautiful intelligent girl.
The underlined adjectives tell us what somebody thinks of something or someone. So these adjectives are called OPINION adjectives. (ଜଣେ କୌଣସି ଜିନିଷ ବା ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି ବିଷୟରେ କ’ଣ ଭାବୁଛି ବା ମତ ଦେଉଛି, ସେ ବିଷୟରେ ଉଦାହରଣ ପ୍ରଦତ୍ତ ବିଶେଷଣଗୁଡ଼ିକ ସୂଚନା ଦେଉଥିବାରୁ ସେଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ opinion adjective କୁହାଯାଏ ।) (Opinion ର ଅର୍ଥ ‘ମତ’ ବା ‘ମତଦେବା’)
- An adjective with a more general meaning is general (opinion) adjective.
- An adjective with a more specific meaning is specific (opinion) adjective.
Let’s explain with the help of a diagram
A general (opinion) adjective comes before a specific (opinion) adjective. (ଗୋଟିଏ specific ବିଶେଷଣ ପୂର୍ବରୁ ଏକ ସାଧାରଣ ମତାନୁସୂଚକ ବିଶେଷଣ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ।)
Fact Adjectives (ତଥ୍ୟାତ୍ମକ / ତଥ୍ୟସୂଚକ ବିଶେଷଣ)
Read the following sentences.
(i) Father bought a nice small car.
(ii) This is a fine large Kashmir carpet.
(iii) We saw a graceful tall fair girl.
In the sentence (i), the adjective ‘small’ describe the size of the car.
In the sentence (ii), the adjective large describes the size and ‘Kashmir’ describes ‘origin’.
In the sentence (iii), the adjective ‘tali’ describes the size and ‘fair’ describes ‘colour’.
So the adjectives which give factual information about size, colour, origin etc of the noun(s) are called ‘fact adjectives’. (ଯେଉଁ ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ପଦର ଆକାର, ରଂଗ, ଉତ୍ସ ବା ଉତ୍ପତ୍ତି ଆଦି ବିଷୟରେ ସୂଚନା ଦିଏ, ତାହାକୁ fact adjective ବା ତଥ୍ୟାନୁସୂଚକ ବିଶେଷଣ କୁହାଯାଏ ।)
Order of Fact adjectives (ତଥ୍ୟାତ୍ମକ / ତଥ୍ୟସୂଚକ ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦର କ୍ରମ)
|size||age/time||shape||colour||origin||material (wherefrom)||Purpose (for what)|
|small||recent||triangular||brown||urban ( ସହରୀ)||silk|
Remember: An opinion adjective precedes a fact adjective. (ଗୋଟିଏ fact adjective ପୂର୍ବରୁ opinion adjective ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ ।)
(i) a nice big building,
(ii) a beautiful tall Indian girl
(iii)an ugly round ball.
(iv) a nice small dead dog.
opinion fact fact
The order of the fact adjectives is :
Using Comma (,) or ‘and’ between adjectives (Comma (କମା) ଓ ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦଗୁଡ଼ିକ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ‘and’ ର ବ୍ୟବହାର)
We usually don’t use a comma (,) or ‘and’ between adjectives. ( ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ ସାଧାରଣତଃ ବିଶେଷଣ ‘and’ ପଦଗୁଡ଼ିକ ମଧ୍ୟରେ (,କମା) ଓ ‘and’ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରୁନାହୁଁ)
|Don’t write / incorrect||Write / correct|
|old, wooden and dining table||old wooden dining table|
|beautiful, new and Indian car||beautiful new Indian car|
|fine, large and Kashmir carpet||fine large Kashmir carpet|
However we use ‘and’ before the last adjectives iftwo or more adjective denote colour. (କିନ୍ତୁ ରଂଗକୁ ସୂଚିତ କରୁଥିବା ଦୁଇ ବା ତହିଁରୁ ଅଧୁକ ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ ଥିଲେ, ଶେଷ ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ ପୂର୍ବରୁ ‘and’ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ ।)
- a black and white photograph
- a pink and parrot green building
- a red and green jersey
When we use two or more adjectives after a link verb, we use (,) and besides ‘and’ before the last adjective. (Link verb ବା ସଂଯୁକ୍ତ କ୍ରିୟା (is / am / are / was / were / become / know / feel / taste) ଆଦି ପରେ ଦୁଇ ବା ତହିଁରୁ ଅଧୂକ adjective ଥିଲେ (,) (କମା) ସହିତ ଶେଷ ବିଶେଷଣ ପୂର୍ବରୁ ‘and’ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ ।)
The day was hot and tiring. (କ୍ଳାନ୍ତିକର)
The day was hot, humid and tiring.
The girl was tall, whitish and Japanese.
|Superlative degree (- est)|
|Shorter adjective: fine, wise, strong, thin, weak||finer, wiser, stronger, thinner, weaker||finest, wisest, strongest, thinnest, weakest|
|Longer adjective: beautiful,
more beautiful, more splendid (ଚିତ୍ତାକର୍ଷକ), more learned, more difficult
most beautiful, most splendid, most learned, most difficult
|Irregular adjective: good, bad, little, many, old||better, worse, less, more, older / elder||best, worst, least, most, oldest/ eldest|
The superlative degree is used while comparing one with the rest and is used with ‘the’. (ଏକକୁ ଅନ୍ୟ ସମସ୍ତ ସହିତ ତୁଳନା କରିବା ଅର୍ଥରେ the + superlative degree ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ।)
- He is the oldest member of the club.
- Our school is the biggest of all the schools in the district.
- This is the best picture I have ever seen.
Adjectives without a comparative form
(Comparative form ବା degree ନଥିବା ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ)
Adjectives that can’t be compared (ତୁଳନା ସେହି ନଥିବା ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ)
Adjectives which express shape or material or time or highest or lowest degree ofsome quality can’t be compared.
(ଆକୃତି, ଉତ୍ସ, ସମୟ ବା କୌଣସି ଗୁଣର ଆଧକ୍ୟ ବା ନିମ୍ନତା ଥିବା ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦର ତୁଳନା କରାଯାଏ ନାହିଁ ।)
square (ବର୍ଗାକାର), round, perfect, complete, supreme, infinite (ଅସୀମ), circular (ବର୍ତ୍ତୁଳାକାର), eternal (ଚିରନ୍ତନ), chief, unique ((ଅଦ୍ବିତୀୟ), ideal ( ଆଦର୍ଶ), universal ( ସାର୍ବଜନୀନ), dead, empty, day, annual, golden, entire, full etc.
Use of degree adjectives (Degree adjectiveର ବ୍ୟବହାର)
A. Comparing equals
(i) as + adjective + as
(ii) so + adjective + as
(Comparing two persons or animals or things having equal characteristics)
(ସମାନତା ବହନ କରୁଥିବା ଦୁଇ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି, ପ୍ରାଣୀ ବା ଜିନିଷ ଭିତରେ ତୁଳନା ଅର୍ଥରେ)
(i) Bibhu is fat. Sudhir is equally fat.
→ Bibhu is as fat as Sudhir.
(ii) Sachin is great. Sehwag is great, too.
→ Sachin is as great as Sehwag.
(iii) Tiger is dangerous. Lion is also dangerous.
→ Tiger is as dangerous as lion.
B. For negative comparison (ନାସ୍ତିବାଚକ ତୂଳନା ଅର୍ଥରେ) :
not so / as + adjective + as
(i) Mohan’s bag is big. Lalit’s bag isn’t big like Mohan’s.
→ Lalit’s bag isn’t as / so big as Mohan’s.
(ii) Raja is tall. Subodh isn’t tall like Raja.
→ Subodh isn’t as / so tall as Raja.
(iii) Sarita is beautiful. Niharika isn’t beautiful like Sarita.
→ Niharika isn’t as / so beautiful as Sarita. (ସରିତା ଭଳି ନିହାରିକା ଏତେ ସୁନ୍ଦରୀ ନୁହେଁ ।)
→ With the comparative form of the adjective, we use ‘than’ and the comparison is made between any two. (ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦର comparative form ରେ than (ଠାରୁ । ‘ଅପେକ୍ଷା’) ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ କୌଣସି ମଧ୍ୟରେ ଦୁଇଟି (ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି, ପ୍ରାଣୀ, ବସ୍ତୁ, ସ୍ଥାନ) ତୁଳନା କରାଯାଏ ।)
- Hari is better than Rama.
- Dolly is more intelligent than Silee.
- The Mahanadi is longer than the Brahmani
→ When ‘than’ or‘as’ is followed by the pronoun ofthird person, we usually repeat the verb.
(ବାକ୍ୟରେ ‘than’ (ଠାରୁ) ବା ‘as’ (ପରି) ପରେ ତୃତୀୟ ପୁରୁଷ (ଏକବଚନ ବା ବହୁବଚନ)ର ସର୍ବନାମ ପଦ ଥିଲେ, ସାଧାରଣତଃ କ୍ରିୟାପଦକୁ ପୁନଃ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ ।)
- He has more money than she has. (she – pronoun / third person)
- We aren’t taller than they are. (they – pronoun / third person)
( ସେମାନଙ୍କଠାରୁ ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଡେଙ୍ଗା ନୁହଁ ।)
→ In informal English the pronoun is often put into the accusative or objective case.
( ଅଣଆନୁଷ୍ଠାନିକ (ବ୍ୟକ୍ତିଗତ । ସଂପର୍କୀୟ) ଇଂରାଜୀରେ ସର୍ବନାମକୁ ସାଧାରଣତଃ କର୍ମକାରକ ରୂପରେ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ ।)
- He has got more marks than me. (not ‘I’)
- They are richer than us. (not ‘we’)
→ When selection is made between two things or persons, the comparative is preceded by
‘the’ and followed by ‘of’ (the + comparative degree + of the two)
- This orange is the better of the two.
- Gopal is the more intelligent of the two boys.
→ When the objects of the same class are compared by means of a comparative, any other,
all other or no other is used to show their separation or exclusion. (ଏକା ଶ୍ରେଣୀରୁ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି, ବସ୍ତୁ, ପ୍ରାଣୀ ଆଦି ମଧ୍ୟରେ ତୁଳନା କରିବା ଅର୍ଥରେ, any other, all other, ବା no other ଆଦିକୁ ବାକ୍ୟରେ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ପାର୍ଥକ୍ୟକୁ ସୂଚିତ କରାଯାଏ ।)
- Ramesh is better than any other / all other boys in the class.
- But No other beast is as bold as the tiger, (bold – adjective / positive degree)
Seven Latin comparatives like superior, inferior, senior, junior, prior (ପୂର୍ବରୁ), anterior ଓ posterior (ପର) are followed by ‘to” instead of ‘than’, (ଉପରୋକ୍ତ ସାତୋଟି ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ ପରେ ‘than’ ବଦଳରେ ‘to’ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ ।)
- This cloth is inferior ( ନିକୃଷ୍ଟତର) to that, (not ‘than’)
- Father is superior to him in service (ଉଚ୍ଚତର ପଦବୀରେ),
- This happened prior to my departure (ପ୍ରସ୍ଥାନ ପୂର୍ବରୁ) from home, (not ‘than’)
- This house is anterior to that house (ସମ୍ମୁଖକୁ ଅଧିକ ଭାଗ). (not ‘than’)
- Rahim is junior to Abdul by three years, (not ‘than’)
- This event is posterior (later ପରେ ଘଟିବା) to that event (ଘଟଣା). (not ‘than’)
(i) something / somebody in the process of change (ବାରମ୍ବାର ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତନ ଘଟୁଥିବା କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ)
- I am getting fatter and fatter. (ମୁଁ ଦିନକୁ ଦିନ ମୋଟା ହୋଇ ପଡ଼ୁଛି ।)
- As the sun set, the evening became darker and darker.
(ii) With the two changes happening proportionately. (ଆନୁପାତିକ ଭାବରେ ଘଟୁଥିବା ଦୁଇଟି ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତନ)
Remember: Here we use mostly adverbs. (ଏଠାରେ ମୁଖ୍ୟତଃ କ୍ରିୟା ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ ।)
- The older I get, the wiser I become.
- I become wiser as I become older. (ମୁଁ ଯେତେ ବୁଢ଼ା ହୁଏ, ସେତେ ଜ୍ଞାନୀ ହୁଏ ।)
- The higher you go, the cooler you feel.
- Here the definite article ‘the’ is used before each comparative degree.
( ଏଠାରେ ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ comparative degree ପୂର୍ବରୁ ‘the’ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ ।)
Textual Activities With Answers
Activity – 1
Read the sentences below. The adjectives in these sentences are used either before a noun or after a verb. Use the adjectives in their alternative positions and write them. One has been done for you. (ଉଦାହରଣରେ ଦିଆଯାଇଥିବା ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦଗୁଡ଼ିକର ଅବସ୍ଥିତି ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତନ କରି ଲେଖ ।)
1. This is a useful book.
This book is (useful)
2. She is a clever girl.
The girl is (clever)
3. He looks to be an honest man.
The man is (lioness)
4. It is a wonderful machine.
The machine is (wonderful)
5. This cake has a sweet smell.
This / it is a (sweet) smelling cake.
6. This food has become stale.
This has become (stale) food.
7. The night was very dark.
It was a very (dark) night.
8. The day is indeed hot.
This is indeed a(hot) day.
9. This bed feels soft.
This / It is a (soft) bed.
10. Her voice sounds sweet.
She has a (sweet) voice.
Note: The brackets words are the adjectives.
Activity – 2
Now use nouns in column A as adjectives putting them before appropriate nouns in B and write them. One has been done for you. (ଦିଆଯାଇଥିବା ଉଦାହରଣ ଯେପରି ‘A’ ର ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ‘B’ ର ସଠିକ୍ ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ସହିତ ଯୋଡ଼ି ଲେଖ ।)
|A. Adjective||B. Noun|
-ing’ adjective and -‘ed’ adjective
|-‘ing’ adjective||-‘ed’ adjective|
|(i) We use- ‘ing’ adjective to
describe the effect that something
has on someone’s feeling.
(କାହାର ଅନୁଭୂତି ଉପରେ କୌଣସି ଜିନିଷର ପ୍ରଭାବ ପଡ଼ିବା ଅର୍ଥରେ –‘ing” adjective ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ)
|(i) We use- ‘ed’ adjective with a person
affected with the effect of something.
(କୌଣସି ଜିନିଷ / କାର୍ଯ୍ୟର ପ୍ରଭାବଦ୍ବାରା ପ୍ରଭାବିତ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି ଅର୍ଥରେ –‘ed’ adjective ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ)
1. I found the sums (ଅଙ୍କସବୁ) crying.
worrying. (ବିବ୍ରତ ଜନିତ)
2. Your rude behaviour is
1. I was worried at / over the sums.
2. I am annoyed at your rude behaviour
|(ii) We use some- ‘ing’ adjective to
describe something that continues
over a period of time.
1. Sudha looks after ( ଯନ୍ତ୍ର ନିଏ) her
ageing (ବୃଦ୍ଧା) grandmother.
2. He spent the remaining days of
his life in grief (ଦୁଃଖରେ).
3. a loving mother, a living thing,
rising price etc.
Activity – 3
Rewrite the sentences below choosing the correct alternative.
(ସଠିକ୍ ବିକଳ୍ପ ବାଛି ଶୂନ୍ୟସ୍ଥାନ ପୂରଣ କରି ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ପୁନଶ୍ଚ ଲେଖ।)
1. Grandma told us some amusing/amused stories.
Grandma told us some amusing stories. (ଆନନ୍ଦଦାୟକ)
2. His long speech was very bored /boring.
His long speech was very boring. (ବିରକ୍ତିକର)
3. His behaviour was disgusting/disgusted.
His behaviour was disgusting. (ଘୃଣ୍ୟ)
4. Why do you look so depressing/depressed?
Why do you look so depressed ? ( ଏତେ ହତୋତ୍ସାହିତ ଦେଖାଯାଉଛ)
5. Ths smile on your face is relaxed / relaxing to me.
Ths smile on your face is relaxing to me. (ଆରାମଦାୟକ)
6. Lata’s progress at school is quite encouraging / encouraged to me.
Lata’s progress (ଉନ୍ନତି) at school is quite (ପୂରାପୂରି) encouraging to me. ( ଉତ୍ସାହଜନକ)
Activity – 4
Here is a passage describing the relief work done by people in a flood-hit area. Complete the passage using the appropriate form of the words given in brackets. (ଗୋଟିଏ ବନ୍ୟାଗ୍ରସ୍ତ ଅଞ୍ଚଳରେ ଲୋକମାନଙ୍କ ଦ୍ବାରା କରାଯାଉଥିବା ସାହାଯ୍ୟ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟାବଳୀ ବିଷୟରେ ଦିଆଯାଇଥିବା ଅନୁଚ୍ଛେଦରେ ଥିବା ଶବ୍ଦଗୁଡ଼ିକର (ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦର) ସଠିକ୍ ରୂପ ଲେଖ ।)
It rained heavily for some days. The river water started swelling. The water level reached an ___________ (alarm) height and started overflowing into the nearby villages. The __________ (panic) people began moving to higher places from their ___________ (damage) houses. The sound of the ___________ (rush) water was very __________ (frighten). The sight of the village after the flood receded was quite ____________ (shock). There were _______________ (break) houses, _____________ (uproot) trees and dead animals everywhere. We rushed to the villages with relief materials soon after. The villagers were actually ___________ (shock) at the sudden loss oftheir houses and property. We consoled the _____________ (weep) women and children. We met the ____________ (distress) villagers and distributed the relief materials among them. We asked them not to be ___________ (worry). We told them that the government would surely do something for them during their ___________ (trouble) times. Our work might have been small, but it was so ____________ (satisfy).
It rained heavily for some days. The river water started swelling (ଫୁଲି(ବଢ଼ି) ବାକୁ ଆରମ୍ଭକଲା). The water level (ସ୍ତର) reached an alarming (ଭୟଙ୍କର) height and started overflowing into the nearby villages. The panicked (ଭୀତତ୍ରସ୍ତ) people began moving to higher places from their damaged (କ୍ଷତିଗ୍ରସ୍ତ) houses. The sound of the rushing (କ୍ଷୀପ୍ରଗତିରେ ପ୍ରବାହିତ) water was very frightening (ଭୟଙ୍କର). The sight (ଦୃଶ୍ୟ) of the village after the flood receded (କମିଗଲା ପରେ) was quite (ପୂରାପୂରି) shocking (ଦୁଃଖ ଓ ଯନ୍ତ୍ରଣାଦାୟକ). There were broken (ଭଗ୍ନ) houses, uprooted (ଉପୁଡ଼ି ପଡ଼ିଥିବା) trees and dead animals everywhere. We rushed (ଧାଇଁଗଲୁ) to the villages with relief materials soon after. The villagers were actually shocked (ଦୁଃଖାଭିଭୂତ) at the sudden loss of their houses and property. We consoled the weeping (କ୍ରନ୍ଦନରତା) women and children. We met the distressed (ଯନ୍ତ୍ରଣା ବା ଦୁଃଖାସକ୍ତ) villagers and distributed the relief materials (ସାହାଯ୍ୟ ଦ୍ରବ୍ୟ) among them. We asked them not to be worried (ବିବ୍ରତ). We told them that the government would surely do something for them during their troubled (ଅସୁବିଧା) times. Our work might have been small, but it was so satisfying (ସନ୍ତୋଷଜନକ).
On Opinion and Fact adjectives
1. You have a nice little home.
2. It is an old Indian wooden chair.
(age, origin, material)
3. Konark is a wonderful medieval stone structure.
(opinion, age material)
4. This is a nice aluminium walking stick.
(opinion, material, purpose)
5. It is a huge black African elephant.
(size, colour, origin)
6. I was talking about this beautiful old wooden dining table.
(opinion, age, material, purpose)
7. I have some ancient Indian copper coins.
(age, origin, material)
8. Look at the old wooden royal bed.
(time, material, purpose)
9. Dams are huge modern concrete structures across rivers.
(size, age material)
10. Bring the new round green table cloth.
(age, shape, colour, purpose)
Activity – 5
Read the following letter. The writer has madesome mistakes in using the adjectives. Correct them wherever necessary. You may have toputcommas (,) /andin someplaces also. (ନିମ୍ନରେ ପ୍ରଦତ୍ତ ଗୋଟିଏ ଚିଠିରେ ଥିବା ଭୁଲଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ଠିକ୍ କରି ଲେଖ।)
5th November, 2011
I reached Hirakud yesterday. I am now living in a little nice hotel and the rooms are quite clean spacious decorated. I can see the concrete huge river dam and the deep blue waters from my window. The size ofthe dam and the water body is really amazed. I can see people with their fishing wooden boats catching fish. You will be surprising to see that even small childrengo out into the waters to catch fish. How fearless ! Since it is already winter you can see birds ofred white blue or mixed colours swimming playfully in the waters. They come here in winter and go back to their original places at its end. Tomorrow I will visit the dam and go out into the waters in a big motor boat. What a fun it will be ! I feel thrilling at the idea. I will tell you more when I go back home and see you.
I reached Hirakud yesterday. I am now living in a nice little hotel and the rooms are quite clean, spacious (ପ୍ରଶସ୍ତ) and decorated (ସୁସଜ୍ଜିତ). I can see the huge (ବିଶାଳ) concrete river dam and the deep blue waters from my window. The size of the dam and the water body is really amazing (ଆଶ୍ଚର୍ଯ୍ୟଜନକ). I can see people with their wooden fishing (ମାଛଧରା) boats catching fish. You will be surprised (ଆଶ୍ଚର୍ଯ୍ୟାନ୍ବିତ) to see that even small children go out into the waters to catch fish. How fearless! Since it is already winter you can see birds of red, white and blue or mixed colours swimming playfully in the waters. They come here in winter and go back to their original places at its end. Tomorrow I will visit the dam and go out into the waters in a big motor boat What a fun it will be! I feel thrilled (ରୋମାଞ୍ଚ) at the idea. I will tell you more when I go back home and see you.
Activity – 6
Complete the passage using adjectives in their appropriate degrees. (Adjective ଗୁଡ଼କର ସଠିକ degree ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି passage ସଂପୂର୍ଣ କର ।)
There are many schools in Bhubaneswar. You get a ________ (wide) choice of schools there than in many other cities. The Capital Secondary School is the ___________ (famous) one because it has the ____________ (high) pass rate. Besides, it is the _______________ (old) school in the city and has produced many great scholars. But the Ekamra Secondary School is ____________ (big) and _____________ (modem). It has a hostel with- (large) rooms than most hostels have and it is ____________ (comfortable) to live in. However, the school is (expensive) and only rich people prefer this school. Vidya Bharati School is considered to be the _____________ (popular) of all schools. It gives- (good) results than most other schools although it is less- (expensive). Its disadvantage is that it Ijas a- (small) campus and is located in a ______________ (noisy) place. The school building looks _____________ (old) than it actually is as it is not properly maintained. Children of _____________ (poor) families prefer this school as the fees are the __________ (low) in the city.
There are many schools in Bhubaneswar. You get a wider (ଅଧ୍ଵକତର) choice of schools there than in many other cities. The Capital Secondary School is the most famous one because it has the highest (ସର୍ବାଧ୍ଵକ) pass rate. Besides, it is the oldest (ପ୍ରାଚୀନତମ) school in the city and has produced many great scholars (ଜ୍ଞାନୀମାନେ), But the Ekamra Secondary School is the biggest and most modern. It has a hostel with larger rooms than most hostels have and it is most comfortable (ଅଧ୍ବକ ଆରାମଦାୟକ) to live in. However, the school is the most expensive (ଅତ୍ୟନ୍ତ ବ୍ୟୟସାପେକ୍ଷ) and only rich people prefer (ପସନ୍ଦ କରନ୍ତି) this school. Vidya Bharati School is considered to be the most popular of all schools. It gives better results than most other schools although it is less expensive. Its disadvantage ( ଅସୁବିଧା) is that it has a small campus and is located in a noisy place. The school building looks older than it actually is as it is not properly maintained. Children of poor families prefer this school as the fees are the lowest in the city.
Activity – 7
Complete the sentences using the adjectives given in brackets to show that something is changing. One has been done for you as an example. (ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତନଶୀଳ ପରିସ୍ଥିତି କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ ଦିଆଯାଇଥିବା ଉଦାହରଣ ଭଳି ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ ବ୍ୟବହାର କର ।)
(dirty, tall, bright, short, crowded, beautiful)
1. Your shirt is becoming dirtier and dirtier.
2. The baby ______________.
The baby is getting taller and taller.
3. The day is _____________.
The day is becoming brighter and brighter.
4. In winter, days _____________.
In winter, days become shorter and shorter.
5. The place is getting _____________.
The place is getting more and more crowded.
6. The garden looks _____________ in spring.
The garden looks (ଦେଖାଯାଏ) more and more beautiful in spring.
Activity – 8
Complete the following sentences adding a second part to it using the adjectives and verbs given in brackets. One has been done for you. (Adjective ୨ୟ ଭାଗକୁ କ୍ରିୟା ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦର comparative degree ଓ କ୍ରିୟାପଦ ଦ୍ବାରା ପୂରଣ କର ।)
1. The older you are, the weaker you become. (weak, become)
2. The higher the sun goes ____________ (hot, be)
the hotter the day becomes.
3. The deeper you dig ___________. (warm, feel)
the warmer ( ଉଷ୍ଣତର) you feel.
4. The faster you walk ___________. (early, reach)
the earlier you reach.
5. The more you study ___________. (more, learn)
the more you learn.
6. The better you dress ___________. (smart, look)
the smarter you look.
Here the degree words are in the adverbs, not in the adjective. (ଏଠାରେ adverb ବା କ୍ରିୟା ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦର degree word କୁ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଇଛି ।)
Golden rules on Degree adjectives
(i) Don’t use ‘very’ before any comparative degree. (Comparative degree ପୂର୍ବରୁ ‘very’ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରନାହିଁ ।)
However ‘much’ can be used, (‘much’ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ହେବ ।)
(ii) Don’t use two comparatives or two superlatives in a sentence.
|He is very older than me.||He is older than me.|
|I am very disappointed than you.||I am much disappointed than you.|
|He is more stronger than me.||He is stronger than me.|
|Gopal is the most cleverest boy.||Gopal is the cleverest boy.|
Adjectives Additional Questions With Answers
Identify the adjectives and say whether it is attributive or predicative or post-positioned.
1. Football is an outdoor game.
2. The baby is asleep.
asleep – predicative
3. He is a responsible person.
4. I think that something terrible is going to happen.
5. How is the present situation?
6. The marriage procession is going on.
7. The sky looks blue.
8. He appears to be a hungry boy.
9. Everything necessary will be done.
10. He is the only son of his father.
11. I am afraid that I can’t attend the party.
12. He is unable to write correctly.
13. The girl is very intelligent.
14. This book is very useful.
15. He has got a wonderful talent.
16. There was nobody important at the meeting.
17. This is the main building.
18. A barking dog seldom bites.
19. The doctor concerned asked the mother not to be upset.
20. I can ready to face the challenge.
21. The food has become stale.
22. It is a very dark night.
23. The day is indeed hot.
24. She is glad to get the news.
25. These are colourful dresses.
Fill in the blanks with an appropriate adjective or classifier.
1. ____________ building.
2. ____________ copy.
3. ____________ wife.
5. ____________ oil
6. ____________ programme.
7. ____________ water.
8. ____________ ceremony.
9. ____________ sun.
10. ____________ frame.
11. ____________ studio.
12. ____________ marriage.
13. ____________ bus.
14. ____________ boat
15. ____________ college.
16. ____________ chair.
17. ____________ tree.
18. _____________ hall.
19. _____________ book.
20. _____________ stereo
Choose the correct alternatives.
1. The match was quite ___________. (exciting/ excited)
2. The sound of the rushing water was very _____________. (frightening/frightened)
3. It was a _____________ (shocking/ shocked) news.
4. The thing that bores you is _______________. (boring/ bored)
5. Everyone was ______________. (surprising / surprised)
6. His long speech was very _____________. (boring/ bored)
7. I felt ____________ (disappointing/disappointed) to hear the news.
8. My father looks _______________(tiring / tired) when he returns home.
9. Are you ____________(satisfying / satisfied) with this?
10. The lessons were easy, so the pupils were ____________. (interesting/ interested)
11. My grandmother told me an ______________ (amusing/ amused) story.
12. His behaviour was ______________. (disgusting/disgusted)
13. Why do you look so ____________. (depressing/ depressed)
14. The smile on your face is ___________ (relaxing/relaxed) to me.
15. Her progress at school is quite _______________ (encouraging/ encouraged) to me.
3 Put the adjectives in the right order.
1. A ______________ (young, Indian, tall) soldier.
tall young Indian
2. A ______________ (white, old, large, wooden) horse.
large old white wooden
3. A ______________ (red, plastic, beautiful, Japanese).
beautiful red Japanese plastic
4. A ______________ (lovely, long, quite) black.
lovely quite long
5. An______________ (Indian, ancient copper) coin
ancient Indian copper
6. A ______________ (large, Kashmir, fine) carpet.
fine large Kashmir
7. A ______________ (heavy, steel, black) trunk.
heavy black steel
8. A ______________ (round, teak, small) table.
small round teak
9. A ______________ (white, large, wooden, old) house.
large old white wooden
10. A ______________ (warm, nice) day.
11. A ______________ (stone, ugly, large) statue.
ugly large stone
12. A ______________ (English, old, Raleigh) bicycle.
old English Raleigh
13. A ______________ (little, nice) home.
14. An ______________ (Indian, old, wooden) chair.
old Indian wooden
15. A ______________ (stone, medieval, wonderful) structure.
wonderful medieval stone
16. A ______________ (aluminium, nice, walking) stick.
nice aluminium walking
17. A ______________ (black, African, huge) elephant.
huge black African
18. A ______________ (wooden, old, beautiful, dining) table.
beautiful old wooden dining
19. An ______________ (old, royal, wooden) bed.
old wooden royal
20. A ______________ (concrete, modem, huge) structure.
huge modem concrete
Fill in the gap using the appropriate degree of adjectives given in the brackets.
1. Mount Everest is the ______________ (tall) mountain peak in the world.
2. Ashutosh is the ____________ (funny) boy in our class.
3. Ankit is ______________ (good) than this brother.
4. Pulak is not so ______________ (tall) as Pabak.
5. She is getting fatter and ______________ (fat).
6. The higher you go, the ______________ (cool) you feel.
7. The ______________ (old) I get, the wiser I become.
8. The day is becoming shorter and ______________ (short).
9. Zilla school is considered to be the ______________ (popular) of all schools.
10. The building looks ______________ (old) than it actually is.
11. Munu is ______________ (tall) than Sonu.
12. Steel is ______________ (cheap) than copper.
13. I think it is the ______________ (easy) task.
14. This is the ______________ (good) thing I can do.
15. My health is ______________ (bad) than earlier.
16. The ______________ (tall) of the two men carried a gun.
17. The sun shines ______________ (bright) than any other planet.
18. Who is the ______________ (old) in your family ?
19. Cuttack is the ______________ (old) town in Odisha.
20. I haven’t heard the ______________ (late) news.