Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Alternative English Solutions Grammar The Passive Exercise Questions and Answers.
CHSE Odisha Class 11 Alternative English Grammar The Passive
Before, going to discuss passive, we should know about General English Sentence Structure. It is given by Subject + Verb + Object + Others.
All the ‘English sentences, generally, remain in this structure! Example: Tendulkar plays cricket every day. Here,
Subject – Tendulkar
Verb – plays
Object – cricket
Others – every day.
According to this structure, a sentence can remain in two forms, such as
(1) Active form, and
(2) Passive form.
When the subject does the work in a sentence i.e. Subject becomes active, it is called Active Forth. When the subject is not active i.e. the subject remains passive, it is called in Passive Form.
1. Tendulkar plays cricket every day. (It is in Active Form)
2. Cricket is played by Tendulkar every day. (It is in Passive Form).
In the 1st sentence, the subject Tendulkar is active because he is doing the work. Whereas in the second sentence, the subject Tendulkar is passive, because, he is actually not the subject, it is the object of the 1st form cricket becomes the subject in the second sentence. Hence, the object of the Active sentence becomes subject of the Passive one However, we should now say that only a Transitive Verb has a passive form, but an Intransitive Verb can’t be changed into Passive.
Transitive Verb :
A verb is transitive if the action does riot stop with the agent, but passes from the agent to something else. The word transitive means passing over.
Tendulkar plays cricket. Here, ‘Tendulkar plays’ does not make any sense until some object such as cricket has been expressed. The verb plays is therefore transitive.
Intransitive Verb :
A Verb is intransitive when the action stops with the agent and does not pass from the agent, to anything else.
Example: Birds fly.
Therefore, it is clear that only that sentence of Active form can be converted/ transformed into Passive form which has a subject, a verb and an object. In other words, only transitive verbs can be Changed into passive form.
Rules for conversion of Sentences: (From Active to Passive Form)
1. Replace the subject with the object (of the Active Form)
2. Use the relevant Auxiliary Verb (helping verb) + Past Participle form of the verb after the object.
3. Put ‘by’ after the third form of the verb.
4. Put the subject of the active after ‘By’. Change the subject of the Active as follows, if it is a Pronoun.
|Active Form||Passive Form|
N:B: A sentence remaining in Perfect passive form either it may be in present tense or past tense whatever it may be.
Present Indefinite/Simple Present Tense:
If the active remains in simple present tense then we use is, am, or are as A.V. (Auxiliary Verb) and V.P.P. (Verb in Past Participle) to change into passive.
1. Tendulkar plays cricket every day.
P- Cricket Is played by Tendulkar every day.
2. He eats a mango.
P- The mango is eaten by him.
3. You help me.
P- I am helped by you.
4. They buy their books.
P- Their books are bought by them.
5. The rich hate the poor.
P- The poor are hated by the rich.
6. Does he write the letter?
P- Is the letter written by him?
7. Do they play cricket?
P- Is cricket played by them?
8. Do they attend the classes?
P- Are the classes attended by them?
9. Does she beat you?
P- Are you beaten by her?
10. Who abuses you?
P- By whom are you abused?
Structural Formula For This Form:
object+A.V (is, am or are) + V.P.P. + Others (for general form)
A.V. (is, am or are)+ object + V.P.P. + others (for question form)
Present Progressive/Continuous Form:
2) Use is, am or are’ (according to object)
3) Use being.
1. He is carrying his bag.
P- His bag is being carried by him.
2. She is writing the letter today.
P- The letters are being written by her today.
3. Are they singing songs?
P- Are the song being sung by them?
4. He is cheating us.
P- We are being cheated by him
5. Who is disturbing you?
P- By whom are you being disturbed?
(object + A.V. (is, are or am) + being + V.P.P. + Others.
In case of question sentence, the object + A.V. becomes, A.V + obj.
Present Perfect Tense:
2) Use A.V. ‘has’ or ‘have’ according to object.
3) Use been.
1. I have solved the sums.
P- The sums have been solved by me.
2. We have bought a car.
P- A car has been bought by us.
3. Have you won the race?
P- Has the race, been won by you?
4. Has he bought the books?
P- Have the books been bought by him?
5. Who has torn your shirt?
P- By whom has your shirt been tom?
Structural Formula for this form:
object+A.V. (has or, have) + been + V.P.P. + Others (for general form)
A.V. (has or have)+ object+ been+ V.P.P. + Others (for question form)
Past Indefinite/Simple Past Tense:
Changing Process :
2) A.V. (was or were) according to object
1. He wrote a letter.
P- A letter was written by him.
2. She bought the books.
P- The books were bought by her.
3. Did you play hockey?
P- Was- hockey played by you?
4. Did she pluck the flowers?
P- Were, the flowers plucked by her?
5. Who broke the window pane?
P- By whom was the window pane broken?
Object + A.V. (was or were)- V.P.P. Others (for general form)
A.V (was or were)- object-8- V.P.P. Others (for question form).
Past Progressive /Continuous Tense:
2) Use A.V. (was or were) according to object.
3) Use being.
1. He was driving his car.
p. His car was being driven by him.
2 They were biting their nails.
P- The letters are being written by her today.
3. Was she cleaning room?
P- Was the room being cleaned by her.
4. Was he growing the plants?
P- Were the plants being grown by him?
5. Who was scolding her?
P- By whom was she being scolded?
Object + A V.(was, were) +V.P.P+ others (for general form).
A.V. (was or Were) + object+ being + V.P.P. + Others (for question form)
Past Perfect Tense:
2) Use had,
3) Use been,
1. He had run a race.
P- A race had been run by him.
2. They had thrown the ball.
P- The ball had been thrown by them.
3. Had he ironed his clothes?
P- Had his clothes been ironed by him?
4. Had Veena bought a saree?
P- Had a saree been bought by Veena?
5. Who had used my scooter?
P- By whom had my scooter been used?
Object + A.V.(had) + been + V.P.P. + Others, (for general sentence)
A.V (had) + Object + been +V:P.P. + Others (for question sentence)
In future time, with shall or will or going to we use be in the passive.
1. He will help you.
P- You will be helped by him.
2. They will support us.
P- We shall be supported by them,
3. Will she teach us?
P- Shall we be taught by her?
4. Shall we do this?
P- Will this be done by us?
5, Who will worship him?
P- By whom will, he be worshipped?
6. I am going to attend the meeting.
P- The meeting is going to be attended by me.
In case of an active form with Modal Auxiliary, such as sentence with will, shall, would, should, can, could, may, might, ought to etc., we use be impassive form.
2) Modal Auxiliary (can, could, may, should etc.)
3) Use ‘be’
1. He can do this.
P- This can be done by him.
2. They should help me.
P- I should be helped by them.
3. Hari ought to attend the meeting.
P- The meeting ought to be attended by Hari.
4. Can she run five km?
P- Can five km be run by her?
5. Who can do this?
P- By whom can this be done?
Object + Modal Auxiliaiy (can, could, may etc:) + be + V.P.P.+ Others (general form).
Modal Auxiliary + object + be + V.P.P. + Others (Question Form).
Question-Word Sentences, Un-Question Sentences:
1) Write the un-question word (what, whom, why etc.)
2) A.V. according to the sentence.
1. What is She sewing?
P- What is being sewn by her?
2. When do we start our journey?
P- When is our journey started by us?
3. Who can do this?
1P- Who can this be done by?
2P- By whom can this be done?
4. Why have he given this?
P- Why has this been given by him?
5. How have you Solved this Slim?
P- How has this sum been solved by you?
6. What caused the crack?
P- What was the crack, caused by?
7. Whom did you call?
P- Who was called by you?
8. Which present did you buy
P- Which present was bought by you?
9. Who helped her?
1P- By whom was she helped?
2P- Who was she helped by?
wh-word + A.V. + Object + V.P.P. + Others.
In case of imperative sentence, we use let… be… in the passive form.
1) Use ‘let’,
2) Use Object,
3) Use ‘be’,
1. Do it.
P- Let it be done.
2. Close the door.
P- Let the door be closed.
3. Post the letters today.
P- Let the letters be posted today.
4. Pluck the flowers immediately.
P- Let the flowers be plucked immediately.
5. Go through the novel minutely.
P- Let the novel be gone thoroughly minutely.
6. Work out the sums now.
P- Let the sums be worked out now.
7. Do exercises every day.
P- Let exercises be done every day.
8. Attend the examination in time.
P- Let the exam, be attended in time.
9. .Respect your teachers.
P- Let .your teachers be respected.
10. Don’t laugh at the poor.
P- Let the poor be not laughed at.
Structural Formula: Let + Object + be + V.P.P. + Others
Passive Form of Infinitive:
When is to am to are to, has to, have to, had to, etc. are present in an active, we use ‘be’ in passive.
2) be 3- to according to the object,
3) Use be,
1. He has to do this.
P- This has to be done by him.
2. They have to buy these books.
P- These books have to be bought by them.
3. He is to attend the classes.
P- The classes are to be attended by him.
4. I am to do the sums.
P- The sums are to be done by me.
5. He was to pay the money.
P- The money was to be paid by him.
6. They were to organise the picnic.
P- The picnic was to be organised by them.
7. He had to complete the work.
P- The work had to be completed by him.
8. They are to buy a car.
P- A car is to be bought by them.
9. We have to meet our Principal..
P- Our Principal has to be met by us.
10. Kamal was to run five kms.
P- Five kms. was to be run by Kamal.
Object + (is to, am to, are to, etc.) + be + V.P.P. + Others.
Double Object Form:
When two objects are present in the active, we can use one of the objects to change into passive. One object is called animate object and the other one is called an inanimate object. But when we use the inanimate object as the subject of the passive form, we have to use preposition ‘to’ before the animate object in the sentence.
1. He gave me (animate object) a pen. (inanimate object).
P1- I was given a pen by him.
P2- A pen was given to me by him.
2. Our Principal distributed the prizes.
P1- We were distributed prizes by our Principal.
P2- The prizes were distributed to us by our Principal.
3. My uncle has presented me a car.
P1- I have been presented a car by my uncle.
P2- A car has been presented to me by my uncle.
4. They are offering me a good job.
P1- I am being offered a good job by them.
P2- A good job is being offered to me by them.
5. The Company supplies us perfect goods.
P1- We are supplied perfect goods by the Company.
P2- Perfect goods are supplied to us by the Company.
6. The postman delivers him a letter.
P1- He is delivered a letter by the postman.
P2- A letter is delivered to him by the postman.
1. Object + A.V. + V.P.P. + to + others (for inanimate object as subject)
2. Qbject+A.V. + V.P.P. + Others (for animate object as subject).
Special Rule in Passive Form:
1) By is not used in the passive form. Examples:
1. Your honesty pleases me.
P- I am pleased with your honesty.
2. My remark offended him.
P- He was offended at my remark.
3. Social service interests her.
P- She is interested in social service.
4. Her behaviour vexes met
P- I am vexed at her behaviour.
5. This glass contains milk.
P- Miik is contained in this glass.
6. They have declared the result.
P- The result has been declared.
7. The police arrested the thief.
P- The thief was arrested.
8. They are punishing the children.
P- The children are being published.
9. They have defeated the enemy.
P- The enemy has been defeated.
10. My performance amazed her.
P- She was amazed at my performance.
11. Hortey tastes sweet.
P- Honey is sweet to be tested.
12. All say that he is honest.
P- It is said that he is honest.
13. He says that- he has to do this.
P- He says that this has to be done.
14. He was compelled to do this.
A- Circumstances compelled hint to do this.
15. He was killed.
A- Someone killed him.