# CHSE Odisha Class 11 Alternative English Solutions Unit 1 Text D: A Time to Think

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Approaches to English Book 1 Solutions Unit 1 Text D: A Time to Think Textbook Activity Questions and Answers.

## CHSE Odisha 11th Class Alternative English Solutions Unit 1 Text D: A Time to Think

Activity-14

Comprehension:
Decide whether the following statements are True (T) False (F) or you can’t be sure from the above text (N)
a) One can think for improvement even after solution to a problem at hand has been found.
b) Robert 0 Anderson (Chairman of Atlantic Richfield) said that he set aside 10-15 minutes twice a day for thinking.
c) Slow thinking is always a waste of time.
d) You get one idea today, a better idea tomorrow and the best idea… never. This was a favourite saying of Sir Robert Watson Watt.
e) Thinking time is helpful more for problem-solving than for improvement thinking or for thinking around and about a situation.

a) One can think for improvement even after solution to a problem at hand has been found. (T)
b) Robert 0 Anderson (Chairman of Atlantic Richfield) said that he set aside 10-15 minutes twice a day for thinking. (F)
c) Slow thinking is always a waste of time. (F)
d) You get one idea today, a better idea tomorrow and the best idea never. This was a favourite saying of Sir Robert Watson Watt. (T)
e) Thinking time is helpful more for problem-solving than for improvement thinking or for thinking around and about a situation. (N)

Activity-15

Understanding Diagrams In A Text:
Look at the three diagrams given in para 5 representing three kinds of thinking and briefly explain whether and if so, how the different elements in each diagram clarify description of the corresponding type of thinking given below the diagram.

Diagram-1:
Thinking to achieve a purpose:
Classically this is problem-solving whether of the open or the closed variety. There is an endpoint. The thinker is trying to reach some destination.

Diagram-2:
Thinking for improvement:
A solution has already been reached. An answer is available. Things are going well. The thinken simply wants to do better.

Diagram-3:
This in using free-wheeling, preparing the field, setting the context, exploring the situation, just as an intending purchaser might prowl around a house is to buy so the thinker prowls around the situation. There is no definite point of focus.

Activity-l6

Study the use of these expression in the text and then use them in suitable form in appropriate blanks in the following passage:
(i) to take place (para-1)
(ii) to call for (para-2)
(iii) to be regard as (para-4)
(iv) to be inclined to (para-6)
(v) in fact (para-8)

On the day of the coronation __________the prince _________ the best sovereign to occupy, the throne of Kanchi. During the first year of
his reign, however, it became obvious that he ___________ sit over problems that ___________ immediate action ____________ even before the first anniversary of his coronation the new king had proved that he was not equal to the task of governing his kingdom.
The day the coronation took place the prince was regarded the best sovereign to occupy, the throne of Kanchi. During the first year of his reign, however, it became obvious that he was inclined to sit over problems that called or immediate action in fact, even before the first anniversary of his coronation the new king had proved that he was not equal to the task of governing his kingdom.

Activity-17
Understanding Text Organisation:

Extract the central idea of Text-D and Write a brief essay of about 300 words on how the other ideas in the text are related to the main idea.
Thinking Time and the Solution of Problems: There is an ambivalent attitude towards thinking. Thinking a good thing. There are three kinds of thinking.

(1) Thinking to achieve a purpose: This is a problem solving whether of the dosed variety in which the thinker tries to each a destination.

(2) Thinking improvement: It is a solution already been reached to which an answer is available. The thinker simply wants to do better.

(3) Thinking around and about: It is musing, free wheeling, preparing the field, setting the context, exploring the situation. Just as an intending purchaser might prowl around a house he is to buy so the thinker prowls around the situation. There is no definite point 0f focus.

Thinking is not necessary after getting an appropriate solution. A solved problem is a part 0f whole string of problems. The thinker must be anxious to move on to the next problem. If we suspect that there may be a better solution then how can have full confidence in the one that has been found. How can confidence be inspired to carry out solutions. All the reasons for not thinking beyond the fet solution„ practica| and
realistic. It does not require an effort of will for it is no longer natural behaviour. A habit of some specific thinking time is required for that effort of will. After finding Out such a thinking time, then the agenda for mat thinking time follows.

However, the major use of thinking time comprises thinking around or about a situation or subject. A trivial type of problem-solving is regarded as an on going part of normal work. Time spent in musing is regarded as an investment. It can create an important new insight or specific idea. The maintenance of the thinking habit and exercise of thinking may give a valuable yield on future occasions. Sometimes, slow thinking is considered as the waste of time. Hence, wd should think quickly. But slow thinking is often much more. valuable than quick one. Other things are also involved in slow thinking. These can be unwillingness to make a decision, thinking as an excuse for an in action etc. Thinking has two levels of skill. Such as skill that resides in the tool itself and the skill that is concerned with how and where we use it.

Extra Activity-17(A)

Countable Nouns with A/An and Some A/An and The:
A. Countable Names can be singular or plural.
a dog
dogs
this part
these parts
a child
children
an umbrella
some umbrellas
the evening
the evenings

B. Before singular countable Nouns one can use a/an
Ex.
1. Goodbye! Have a nice evening.
2. Do you need an umbrella?

You can’t use singular countable Nouns alone.
Example:
1. She never wears a shirt.
2. Be careful of the dog.
3. What a beautiful day!
4. I have got a headache.

C. We use a/an to say what kind, of thing or person something/ somebody is.
Example:
1. A dog is an animal.
2. I’m an optimist
3. Tina’s father is a doctor.
4. Are you a good driver?

D. You can use ‘some’ with plural countable Nouns. We use it in two ways:
1. Some = a number of a few of/a pair of:
Example:
1. I have seen some good films recently.
2. Some friends of mine are going to organize a picnic.

2. Some = Some but not all
Example:
1. Some children learn very quickly (but not all)
2. Some police officers carry guns, (but not all)

Study the following:
1. I had a sandwich and an apple for breakfast.
2. The sandwich wasn’t very good but the apple was nice.
3. A man and a woman were sitting opposite me. The man was American but 1 think the woman was British.
4. When we were on holiday, we stayed at a hotel. Sometimes we had our evening meal at the hotel and sometimes we went to a restaurant.
We use ‘the’” when we are thinking of a particular thing. Compare a/an and the.
1. Tom sat down on a chair (one of many chairs)
2. Tom sat down on the chair nearest to the door, (a particular chair)
3. Ann is looking for a job (not a particular job)
4. Ann got the job she applied for (a particular job)

B. We use ‘the’ when it is clear in the situation which thing or person we mean. For example- in a room we talk about the light/ the door/ the ceiling/ the door/ the carpet.
1. Can you turn off the light, please, (the light in this room)
2. I took a taxi to the station, (the station in the town)
3. I’d like to speak to the manager, please, (the manager in this shop)
4. I must go to the Bank to get some money and then I am going to the Post Office to get some stamps.

C. We say ‘once a week/three times a day/Rs.8/- a kilo’ etc.
1 . How often do you go to cinema? (About once a month)
2. How much are these potatoes? (Rs.8/- a kilo)
3. She works eight hours a day. ( six days a week)

Section D
In this section you will have the chance to read an excerpt from Letters to Thinkers, a book written by Edward de Bono. Edward de Bono, who now owns and lives on a private island in Venice, is a leading authority in the field of creative thinking and is the originator of the term lateral thinking. He has written more than forty books in the field of creativity and thinking including the international bestsellers such as Lateral Thinking, Six Thinking Hats and Serious Creativity.

Lateral thinking is the core idea in all his writings. In de Bono’s view, the sequence of experiences in our life sets up certain familiar patterns of perception, certain typical ways of looking at things. And it is very difficult, if not impossible, to get out of these familiar patterns of thinking and to think in new ways and be creative.

De Bono says that we can get out of our familiar thought patterns by moving sideways across the acquired patterns (hence lateral thinking) and by imposing a new pattern of perception on the relevant bits of information. Lateral thinking thus refers to moving sideways across the familiar patterns instead of moving along them as in normal thinking, and thus facilitating generation of new patterns of perception and new thoughts. The diagram represents lateral thinking vis-a-vis normal thinking. With this background information at our disposal, we can start reading de Bono’s ‘A Time to Think’. But let’s quickly finish a small pre-reading Activity before going to the text.

Match each word in column A with its meaning in column B. You can look up a dictionary, if you find the Activity difficult to complete.

 A B 1. agenda (para 8) 2. ambivalent (para 3) 3. feature (para 1) 4. prevarication (para 4) (i) a piece of writing in a newspaper or magazine (ii) not sure whether you want or like something (iii) a plan to do something (iv) an effort to hide the truth by not answering the questions directly

### A Time to Think Summary in English

Paragraph-1:
The USA based magazine Forbes was issued on 20th December 1982. It carried feature about the author and his thinking. He knew the topic properly well. Several businessmen were asked about their attitude to thinking. George Ball, the Chief Executive Officer, Prudential- Beche Securities said that he thought 10-15 minutes twice a day. Philip Knight, the Chairman, Nike Inc. did it one hour a day, three or four days a week. Robert O Anderson, the Chairman Atlantic Richfield did not set aside any regular time and found that travelling alone in a private air craft provided a great deal of thinking time. It was said that no specific time was devoted to thinking since a lot of thinking was taking place at every instant.

Paragraphs 2-4:
Actually, there was a natural difference between thinking of an intentional perseverance of will and maintenance of a habit. There is an ambivalent attitude towards thinking. Thinking is a good tiling A teacher thinking. Thinking is a good tiling A teacher to think like a student. There was time when we had less regard for a man who thought than for a man who appeared to know, all the answers.

Paragraph-5:
Three kinds of thinking have been identified in very general terms:
i) Thinking to achieve a purpose: Classically, this is problem-solving. It may be either open or closed type. There is an endpoint. The thinker is trying to reach some destination.

ii) Thinking for improvement: Here, a solution has always been reached. An answer is available. Thinking are going well. The thinker simply wants to do better.

iii) Thinking around and about: This is missing, free wheeling, preparing the field, setting the context, exploring the situation. Just as an intending purchaser might prowled around a house he is to buy, so the thinker prowls around the situation. There is no definite point of focus.

Paragraph-6:
Thinking is not necessary after getting a proper solution. A problem just solved may be only of a whole string of problems. The thinker is anxious to move on to the next problem. If we suspect that there may be a better solution, then how can one have full confidence in the one that has been found. How can confidence is inspired to carry out solution.

Paragraphs 7-8:
All the reasons for not thinking beyond to first solution and practical and realistic. Thinking beyond the first solution does not require an effort of will. It is no longer natural behaviour. The simplest way to make the effort of will is to establish a habit of specific thinking time. After the achievement of this thinking time, the agenda of other thinking time will follow.

Paragraph-9:
Thinking around or about a situation or subject happens to be the major use of thinking time. It is thinking time because problem-solving of the ordinary type would be regarded as an ongoing part of normal work. Time spent in amusing as regarded as an investment. An important new insight or specific idea may emerge from it. The maintenance of thinking habit and exercise of thinking may give a valuable yield on future occasions.

Paragraph-10:
Slow thinking seems to be a waste of time. So we should always think quickly. But slow thinking is often much more valuable than quick one. Other things are also involved in slow thinking. Sometimes further thinking may cloud the nice certainty of our first reactions. Thinking is k tool that involves two levels of skill. Skill .that resides in the tool itself and the skill that is concerned with how and where we use it.

Analytical outlines of the topic:

• The USA based magazine Forbes was issued on 20th December 1982.
• It carried a feature about thinking.
• George Bell was the Chief Executive Officer of Prudential- Bache Securities.
• He was thinking 10-15 minutes twice a day.
• Philip Knight was the Chairman of Nike Inc.
• He was thinking one hour a day, three or four days a week.
• Robert 0 Anderson was the Chairman of Atlantic Richfield.
• He was getting much thinking time at the time of travelling alone in a private aircraft.
• Actually, there was a difference between will of thinking and maintenance of a habit.
• There is an ambivalent attitude towards thinking.
• Thinking is a good thing.
• A teacher should think like a student.
• In past, thinking was not so important.
• Three kinds of thinking have been identified.
• They are (1) Thinking to achieve a , purpose, (2) Thinking for improvement and (3) Thinking around and about.
• Thinking to achieve a purpose is required for problem-solving.
• It may be either open or closed.
• There is an endpoint.
• Thinking must reach to same destination.
• Thinking for improvement provides solution.
• Here, an answer is available.
• Thinking goes well.
• The thinker wants to do better.
• Thinking around and about includes missing, free wheeling, preparing the field, setting the context, exploring the situation.
• A thinker prowls around the situation.
• There is no definite point of focus.
• Thinking is not necessary after getting a proper solution.
• A problem just solved may be only of a whole string of problems.
• The thinker is anxious to move into a better solution.
• All the reasons for not thinking beyond to first solution are practical and realistic.
• It does not require an effort of will.
• The simplest way to make the effort of will is to establish a habit of specific thinking time.
• This thinking times will follow agenda of other thinking time.
• Thinking around or about a situation or subject happens to be the major use of thinking time.
• Problem-solving of the ordinary type would be regarded as an ongoing part of normal work.
• Time spent in amusing is regarded as an investment.
• It can provide a new insight or specific idea.
• The maintenance of thinking habit and exercise of thinking may give a valuable yield on future occasions.
• Slow thinking seems to be a waste of time.
• So we should always think quickly.
• Slow thinking is sometimes much more valuable than quick one.
• Other thinks are also involved in slow thinking.
• Thinking involves two levels of skill.

Meanings of difficult words:
Forbes -It is a USA-based newspaper
lateral- belonging to the side,
set aside – sacrificed, devoted to, spared,
allocated – placed, assigned, given.
Instant – at the moment, the very moment or time,
distinction – separation, unidentical, difference,
occur – to come into mind, to be, to be found, to happen, take place.
surroundings – things around us, the environment.
required – needed, desired, wanted.
deliberate – to consider, to think, adj international, willful, purposeful.
effort – endeavour, perseverance, toil, labour.
initial – primary, first, beginning.
Curious – eager, anxious, interested
ambivalent – having either or both of the two contrary or similar values, meanings etc.
implies – to signify, to mean, to express indirectly, connotes.
lack of – absence of, short of, wanting.
decisiveness – settlement, judgement, the act pf taking decision.
pausing – halting stopping standstill.
obvious – perceptible, evident clear, terse, succinct.
accuse of – change with an offence, ill doing.
regard – to consider, to esteem, to respect.
prevarication – making untrue or partly untrue statement, try to evade, telling the truth.
growl – go about cautiously looking for a chance.
adequate – sufficient, a lot of, enough, complete”
a string – a chain of, a series of.
suspect – to doubt have no faith or confidence in.
genuinely – naturally, really, purely, sincerely, authentically.
cliches – idea OT expression that has been too much used and now outdated, stereotyped phrase.