Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Approaches to English Book 1 Solutions Unit 3 Text C: New Superstitions for Old Textbook Activity Questions and Answers.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class Alternative English Solutions Unit 3 Text C: New Superstitions for Old
Read Text-C (Part-one) once again after getting the meaning (i) Omen (paragraph- 3), (ii) freighted (paragraph 6) and (iii) heathen (paragraph 7) from a dictionary, if you don’t know their meanings. And then answer the following questions as briefly as possible.
In which paragraph does Mead say , that some long standing rituals are nothing but superstitions ? List five long-standing rituals which the writer mentions.
Paragraph-1 says that some long standing rituals are nothing but superstitions. The five, long standing rituals which the writer mentions are:
1. lucky and unlucky numbers.
2. future events which cah be read from omens,
3. protective charms.
4. what happens can be influenced by casting spells.
In what way are religion and superstition similar ? And how are they different ?
Actually, both religion and superstition are based on belief or faith or practices and ways of thinking that have been given up, because they are inconsistent with scientific knowledge. Moreover, superstition and religion have a slight difference. Superstition is used in a derogatory sense and religion has a high status.
Extra Activity – 12(A)
What is, according to the writer, superstition ?
The author explains the meaning of superstition straightforward. According to him, superstition refers to old folk faith of beliefs, practices or ways of thinking. There are lucky and unlucky numbers and days, that future events can be read from omens that there are protective charms or that what happens can be influenced by acting spells magic is another form of superstitions.
There is something which is most likely to happen that evokes the memory of some old fold belief, what is that ?
It is the folk belief- spilling salt, a knife falling on floor, nose tickling that evokes its memory.
What are the observances of childhood ?
Wishing on the first star, looking at the new moon over the right shoulder, avoiding the cracks in the side walk on the way to school, wishing on while horses on loads of way, on covered bridges on red cars are the observances of childhood.
Extra Activity – 12(B)
‘So’ and ‘Such’ and their uses.
(A) Study these Examples:
1. I didn’t enjoy the boolc. The story was so stupid,
2. I didn’t enjoy the book. It was much a stupid story.
we use ‘so’ + adjective/adverb
so stupid; so quick,
so nice, so quickly
we use ‘such’ + noun ,
such a story; such people
we also use such + adjective + noun
such a stupid story; such nice people.
X:B: We use ‘such a’, but not ‘a such’
(B) ‘So’ and ‘such’ make the meaning of adjective/adverb stronger.
1. It is a lovely day. It’s so warm (=really warm)
2. He is difficult to understand because he speaks so quickly.
3. We enjoyed our holiday. We had such a good time (- really a good time)
You can use ‘so…..that’……
1. The book was so good that I couldn’t put it down.
2. I was so tired that I fell asleep in. the arm chair.
3. It was such lovely weather that we spent the whole day on the beach.
(C) We also use ‘so’ and ‘such’ in the (meaning of ‘like this’:
Ex. 1. I was surprised to find out that the
1. house was built hundred years ago. I didn’t realise it was so old. (as old as it is)
2. I expected the weather to be much wanner. I did not expect it to be so cool.
3. I didn’t realize it was such an old house.
4. The house was so untidy. I’ve never seen such a mess.
(D) We say, ‘so long’ ‘but’ ‘such a long time’
1. I haven’t seen her so long.
2. I didn’t know it was such a long way.
We say: ‘so far’ but ‘such a long way’
Ex. I didn’t know it was so far.
We say: ‘so much’ ‘so many’ but such a let (of).
1. Why did you buy so much food ?
2. Why did you buy such a lot of food ?
Enough and too:
A. The position of ‘enough’: Enough goes after adjectives and adverbs:
1. He didn’t get the job because he wasn’t experienced enough.
2. You won’t pass , the examination as you don’t work hard enough.
The Opposite is too (too hard, too old etc.)
Ex. You never stop working. You work too hard. ‘Enough’ normally goes before nouns:
Ex. . He didn’t get the job, because he hadn’t . enough experience.
B. We say ‘enough/too for (somebody/something)
1. I haven’t got enough money for a holiday.
2. He hasn’t experienced enough for the job.
We also say ‘enough/too to’ to do something:
1. Enough money to buy something.
2. Too you to do something.
The food was so hot that we couldn’t eat it.
Quite and Rather
A. Quite = less than ‘very’ but more than ‘a little’.
1. I’m surprised you haven’t heard of her. She is quite famous.
2. It’s quite cold. You’.d better wear your coat.
‘Quite’ goes before a/an.
Ex: ‘quite a nice day; quite an old house.
B. Rather Is similar to quite. We usc ‘rather’ with negative words and negative íd cas.
1. It’s rather cold. You’d better wear your coat.
2. The examination was rather difficult.
‘Quite’ can be used in such sentences having positive ideas:
Ex. She’s quite intelligent.
When we use ‘rather’ with positive words (nice, it means ‘unusually’ or ‘surprisingLy’. ,
‘Rather’ can go before or after a/am. a rather interestiñg book, rather an interesting book.
C. ‘Quite’ also means ‘completely’:
Ex. 1. Are you sure? Yes, quite sure = (compktely sure) quite right, quite obvious, quite different etc. ‘No quite’ means not ‘completely’:
Ex: They haven’t quite finished their dinner yet. We also use ‘quite’ fr completely with)
Ex: I quite agree with you.
Answer the following questions
What is the thesis of Mead’s article? In which paragraph does it appear ?
The thesis of Mead’s article is that if we are to make good use of knowledge, we must not only rid our minds of old superseded beliefs and fragments of magical practice but also recognize new superstitions for what they are. This has been explained inparagraph-12.
What is Mead’s attitude towards her subject ? Does she feel that superstitions are silly or useful ? Explain.
Mead’s attitude towards her subject is to teach humanity the sense of rationality amidst the superstitions mentioned. Superstitions are both silly and useful. Actually, most of them are silly and some of them are useful when used as transitional object for children.
Which article was originally published in 1966 in a magazine aimed at young mothers. In what way does Mead tailor her subject to fit her readers ? How cduld she has increased the relevance of the article for this audience ?
Mothers and first teachers both form the tender minds of little children. They exert a great influence in the formative years of children. It is a mother who can instill superstition in the minds of children or can rid them of these unwarranted things keeping this in View, Mead tries to tailor her subject to fit (First Year) to her’readers. She could have made the audience of the text more explicit and particular.
Mead begins her article by directly addressing her reader and their superstitions; she uses this device later in the article too. What is the effect of fhis technique ?
Mead begins her article by directly addressing her readers and their superstitions. .Use of such techniques is to achieve direct response from the readers. This writing needs direct and immediate attention. Indirect approach may not provide a right attitude. Here, direct approach makes the essay more sustainable.
By what methods of development does Mead expand her definition of superstition ? What other methods might she have used ?
Mead expands her definition of superstition in a descriptive method. He prefers description to prescription. This method is the right way of treating the subject matter.
Discourse Maker: Link Words
Fill in the blanks with appropriate expressions from the list: (for instance, however, usually, but, fortunately, but, because, if, but then).
When young, we’re naturally a creative _____________ we let our minds run free _____________ as we’re taught to follow the rules our thinking narrows. For much of life this can be a biessing. It wouldn’t do to create a new way horn? from work of it meant driving down the wrong side of the road. _____________ in many areas of our lives creativity can be a matter of survival. Things are changing too fast to get along simply with old ideas. Half of what any technical engineer had learnt ten years ago became obsolete in only three years. And what about our homes lives ? With _____________. more and more women opting, for careers and independence, couples have to be more creative about their relationship to avoid conflicts. _____________ creativity is not all that mysterious. An important creative trait was well-defined by a Noble Prize winning physician _____________ he said, “Discovery consists of seeing what everyday has been and thinking what nobody has thought.” _____________ how we start “thinking what nobody has thought ?” _____________ it takes a week ort the head- like Sir. Isaac Newton supposedly had when an apple striking his skull awakened him to the laws of gravity _____________ we’re more likely to respond creativity which is to day, think of a new idea we _____________ have already been chipping awhy at the mental blocks that close our minds.
When young, we’re naturally creative if we let our minds run free but as we’re taught to follow the rules our thinking narrows. For much life, this can be a blessing. It wouldn’t do to create a new way home from work if it meant driving down the wrong side of the road. Fortunately, in many areas of our lives, creativity can be a matter of survival. Things are changing too fast to get along simply with old ideas. Half of what any technical engineer had learned ten years ago became obsolete in only three years. And what about our home lives ? With, however, more and more women opting, for careers and independence, couples have to be more creative about their relationship to avoid conflicts. But creativity is not all that mysterious. An important creative trait was well-defined by a Noble Prize-winning physician because he said, “Discovery consists of seeing what every day has been and thinking what nobody has thought.” But then, how we start ‘thinking what nobody has thought ?” usually it takes a week on the head- like Sir. Isaac Newton supposedly had when an apple striking his skull awakened him to the laws of gravity for instance, we’re more likely to respond to creativity which is today, think of a new idea because we have already been chipping away at the ‘mental blocks’ that close our minds.
While writing a dialogue you may keep in mind the following suggestions: .:
i) The primary focus of a dialogue should be on (a) giving information and (b) moving the conversation forwards.
ii) Avoid stilled (= stiff and unrealistic) dialogue so that it doesn’t sound pedantic, long-winded or too formal (use short words and contracted forms such as n’t, ’l l, ‘m, ‘d as far as practicable.
iii) Avoid repeated information and using the listener’s name is every line of the dialogue.
iv) Each of the characters in the dialogue should take turns and equally participate in the conversation.
v) There are three main parts of a dialogue: (a) greeting, (b) purposive conversation and (c) leave-taking.
vi) Some of the commonly used greeting are: Formal
X: How do you do?
Y: How do you do?
X: How are you (today)?
Y: Fine, thank you/very well, thank you.
X: Hello, Ramesh (also spelled Hallo or Hello)
Y: Hello, Sultana
Y : Hi!
vii) Some of the common expression is used while faking leave are: Good bye, Bye, Bye-bye, Good night, See you, So long.
Here is a dialogue for you to complete:
Sunita wishes to do a part time computer course. She’s making enquiries at a private computer institute. The replies she gives arc given. You have to guess her questions from the clues given against each blank space.
(Remember, she is making requests for information, so she must use polite forms such
as: May I __________ / I can you please __________!/
would you __________? would you mind __________?
Sunita : Good evening, Madam. l am Sunita, __________ I __________ (may what courses)
Receptionist : Gopd evening, dear. We offer Windows, Pascel, C++, Java, Oracle and a few other advance courses as well
Sunita: __________ (which, should)
Receptionist: You can start with Windows and.then move on to others.
Sunita: __________ (can, part time)
Receptionist: Yes you certainly can.
Sunita: __________ (join in morning sessions)
Receptionist: We have both morning and evening sessions you can join either of them.
Sunita: __________ (will, I)
Receptionist: Certainly you will not only be allowed, you will be asked to handle computers from the second week onwards.
Receptionist: Two thousand rupees for Windows. For the other Dourses it will be slightly higher.
Sunita: _________ (can, installments)
Receptionist: You can pay it in monthly installments.
Sunita: _________(when, start)
Receptionist: Next week, you can rightly join away.
Sunita: Good evening, Madam. I am Sunita, may I know what courses you offer?
Receptionist: Good evening, dear. We offer Windows, Pascel, C++, Java, Oracle and a few other advance courses as well.
Sunita: Which of these should I stat with?
Receptionist : You can start with Windows and then move on to others.
Sunita : Can 1 take up the course part time?
Receptionist : Yes, you certainly can.
Sunita : May join the morniftg session ?
Receptionist : We have both morning and evening sessions, you can join either of them.
Sunita : What is trie duration of the course.
Receptionist : It depends, Windows is a three-month course. The advanced courses are a few months longer.
Sunita : Will you please saý if I’ll be allowed to touch the computer?
Receptionist : Certainly you will not only be allowed, you will be asked to handle computers from the second week onwards.
Sunita: What fees do you çhar.gefor the courses?
Receptionist: Two thousand rupees for Windows. For the other courses it will be slightly higher.
Sunita: Can I pay the fees on installments ‘?‘
Receptionist: You can pay it in monthly installments.
Sunita: When do you start the course?
Receptionist: Next week, you can rightly join away.
Sunita: Thank you. Good night Madam, (leave-talking)
The Dialogue Writing
Write a dialogue on superstition between two friends, one of them very progressive and scientific in outlook and the other very conservative. You may find the expressions, useful while writing the dialogue.
I think that _________ I’m not sure that ____________
In my opinion ___________ May be __________
I would say that __________ Some paople would say that __________
As far as l’m concerned __________ Perhaps it s a, question of ___________
Ramesh : Hello, Paresh, how are you?.
Paresh : Fine, thank you, How are you?
Ramesh : Veiy well,-thank you. Did you go to New Delhi last month ?
Paresh : Oh, no Ramesh, I saw an evil omen just when I was leaving home for Delhi.
Ramesh : Evil omen 1 ‘What’s it ?
Paresh : A black cat. It crossed the way before me when I just started my journey. I’d to cancel my tour. My parents also suggested doing that.
Ramesh : Do you really believe that cats an evil omen?
Paresh : Ves; I do. I think that cats spoil a journey.
Ramesh : But, ¡n my opinion, cats are never a sign of evil.
Paresh : Why do you conceive of such a believe?
Ramesh : I’d say that they are normal natural beings. They are neither evil nor auspicious.
Paresh : But some people would say that cats are dangerous creatures. They spoil jourñcy.
Ramesh : As far as I’m concerned I don’t have a negative attitude to these simple creatures. May be old people had a superstitious notion about them. But time has changed, you knowpèople have cats for their pets, they also carty cats with them when they go on journey. Their journeys are not spoiled. Do you know a young màn was 3topped going to Delhi by his mother to appear at the viva voce test of the civil service examination following the appearance of a cat. He left home and topped the list of the LAS. candidates.
Paresh : Thank you, Hope to see ,again Good bye.
Extra Activity – 16(A)]
All, every and whole
A. All, every body/every one.
We do not normally use all to mean every body/every one.
Every body enjoyed the party ( not all enjoyed……)
But note that we say all of us/you/them not every body of
All of us enjoyed the party.
B. All and every thing.
Ex: I’ll do all I can to help or I’ll do everything
C. ‘Every/everybody/every one/every thing” are singular words which take singular verbs.
1. Every seat in the theatre was taken.
2. Every bddy has arrived.
But we often use ‘they/them/their after everybody/everyone.
Everybody said they enjoyed themselves.
D. ‘All’ and ‘whole’ ”
Whole = complete/entire
It’s use singular countable nouns.
1. Did you read the whole book ?
2. She lived her whole life in Scotland.
E. ‘Every / all / whole’ with time expansion:
We use ‘every’ to say how often something happens.
1. We went to the beach everyday.
2. There’s a bus every ten minutes.
Each’ and ‘Every’
A. Each and every are similar in meaning.
Each time (-every time) I see you, you look different. But sometimes, there is a difference between the two, we use each, when w.e think of things separately one by one.
Study each sentence carefully (= study sentences one by one) But ‘every’ is used with the things in a group.
Every sentence must have a verb (= all sentences). ‘Each’ not ‘every’ can be used for two things.
1. In a football match, each team has 11 players.
2. There is a bus every ten minutes.
B. ‘Each’ can be used in the middle and at the end of a sentence:
1. The students were each given a book.
2. These oranges cost one rupee each.
C. ‘Everyone’and ‘every one’ ‘Everyone’ is used only for people. Every one both people and things.
1. Every one enjoyed the party.
2. He’s invited to lots of parties and he goes to every one.
Both/Both of, neither/neither of, either/ either of.
A. We use ‘both/rather/either’! for two things. You canuse these words with a noan (both books, either books etc.)
1. Both restaûrant are vety good.
2. Neither restaurant is expensive.
3. We can go to either restaurant.
B. Both of …………………………./neither of …………………/either Of …………………
When you use these expressions you need the ………………../these ……………………/ those …………………… / any/your/his/them etc.
1. Both of these restaurants are very good.
2. Neither of the restaurant was expensive.
3. I haven’t been to either of the restaurants. We can use both of/neither off either of- us/you/them.
1. Can either of you špeak Spanish.
2. I asked to people the way to the station but neither of them
C. You can ue b to/neither/eIther alone.
I. Which of these shirts do you like? ‘Hike both.
2. Is your friend British or American? ‘Neither’
3. ‘Do you like tea or coffee’? ‘ Either will do.
Both Tom and Ann were late. 1%Telther……..no r…….
Neither Liza nor Robin came to the party.
I’m not sure where he’s from
He’s either Spanish or Italian.
E. Compare ‘either/netherfboth’ (two things) and any/none! all’ (more than two).
1. There are two good hotels in the town. You can stayåt either of them.
2. We tried two hotels. Neither of them had any rooms/Both of them were full.
3. There are many good hotels in the town. You can stay at any of them.
4. We tried a lot of hotels. None of them had any rooms/All of them were full.
New Superstitions for Old Summary in English
In this section you will read an article by Margaret Mead, perhaps the best known American social scientist of the mid-20th century, who’wrote on social and ethical issues. This article bears the title “New Superstitions for Old”. Can you predict from die above title what the main points of the article could be ? and what is your definition of‘Superstition?
Now read the text-C (Part-one) quickly to cheque of your guesses are close to what Mead says.
By Margaret Mead Summary
Once upon a time, there is a time when everything seems to run smoothly and even , tire riskiest venture conies out exactly right and one demands that it is one’s lucky day. And still as an after thought it is said “knock on wood”. Still boastful, you carry out the little protective ritual. If challenged you would probably say “Oh, that’s nothing just an old superstition.”
Most people now treat old folk beliefs as superstitions, for instance, lucky and unlucky days or numbers that future events can be read from omens, that there are protective charms or that what happens can be influenced by costing spells. Superstitions belonging to the category of beliefs Which have been deserted due to their inconsistency with scientific; knowledge. The salt spills, a knife falls on the floor, your nose tickles, the person who spilled the salt tosses a pinch in his left shoulder are the commonest form of superstitions.
There are many other superstitions for which people had developed a strong sense of attraction. Superstition is used with another meaning on the religious line. In civilised religions, where membership include believers who are educated and urban and others traditions and practices.
Analytical outlines of the Text.
- Once upon a time, every thing seems to run smoothly.
- Even the riskiest venture comes out exactly right.
- According to one’s demand, it is his lucky day.
- As an after thought, it is said, “knock on word.
- We carry out the little protective ritual boastfully.
- We probably say, “Oh, that’s nothing just an old superstition”.
- Most people now treat old folk beliefs as superstitions.
- There are lucky and unlucky days or numbers.
- The future events can be read from omens.
- There are protective charms.
- The happening can be influenced by . costing spells.
- In religion, truth can’t be demonstrated.
- It becomes a matter of faith in religion.
- Superstitions belong to the category of beliefs.
- It also belongs to the category of practices and ways of thinking.
- These have been discarded.
- Because, they are inconsistent with scientific knowledge.
- It is easy to say that other people are superstitious.
- Because they believe what we regard to be untrue.
- In fact, even in most sophisticated home, we find the memory of some old fold belief.
- There are many commonest forms of superstitions.
- The salt spills, a knife falls to the floor are some of them.
- Even tickles of nose, some one recites the old rhyme, gentleman calls etc. are others.
- The person who spills the salt tosses a pinch over his left shoulder as a common form of superstition.
- “As you rub your nose you think” is the commonest one.
- There are many other superstitions for which people had developed a strong sense of attraction. ,
- Superstition can also be used with
- Do they really have a religion or it is all just superstition.
- This happens as we always follow traditions and practices.
- The more sophisticated of them will dismiss off hand as ‘just superstition’.
- But that guides the steps of those who live by older days.
- Actually, these are very ancient beliefs.
- These hand on from one religion to another.
- These carried from country to country around the world.
Meaning of difficult Words:
smoothly – easily, conveniently, uninterruptedly.
after thought – thought following or coming after.
ward off – discard, liberate from, avoid, irrwnune, be free from.
omens – presage, sign or symbol of something unknown.
spell – enchantment, impact, influence cast on somebody.
demonstrate – manifest, to give proof, to exhibit, ShOW with examples or practice.
discard – refuse, reject, throw away set aside.
inconsistent – having no bearing or relevance with anything in the context.
sophisticated – real, polished, civilised,aristocratic.
evoke – call out, inspire, excite awaken in the mind.
Tickle – to amuse, to excite to touch lightly.
toss – to fling, be flung up, moves and passes over the shoulder.
defensible – formidable. protectable, resistible.
Section – C
You will presently proceed to read the second part of Text-C. But before going to the second part, can you predict which of the following sentences would begin the first paragraph of this part of Text-C ? (Reiad the last sentence of Text-C (part-one) and decide.
a) Over time, more and more of lip has become subject to the control of knowledge.
b) Superstitions have some of the qualities , of those traditional objects.
c) Those old half-beliefs and new half-‘ beliefs reflect the keenness of our wish to have something come true or prevent something bad from happening.
d) Very commonly, people associate superstition with the past with very old ways of thinking that have been supplemented by modem knowledge.
e) Child psychologists recognise the value of the toy a child holds in his hand at bed time.
Your answer: a/b/c/d/e
Discuss with a friend of yours what made you think that your choice among these five sentences would be sight. Now read part- two of the text to check if your prediction regarding the first sentence of Part-Two was right and to answer the following two focusing questions:
a) What are ‘traditional’ objects ? How does Mead relate them to superstitions ?
b) Why , have many superstitions disappeared ?
Superstition is commonly associated with the past and with very old ways of thinking that have been supplanted by modern knowledge. New superstitions are also coming in and making its hold, mothers warn their children of not to run into the sun. Elderly people explain that “it was the virus that, got him down”. The cosmetic industry every year offers new magic cure for baldness, lotions that will give, every women radiant skin, hair colouring that will restore to the middle aged the charm and romance of youth results that are promised of the simple directions are rightly followed.
Private superstitions like leaving house by the back door or one must wear a green dress while taking an examination. These old and new half-beliefs reflect the keenness of our wish to have something come true or to prevent something bad from happening. The old superstitions are more honoured than the new ones because the former the old faiths match our present hopes and fears.’Child psychologists recognize the value of the toy a child hold in his hand at bed time. Psychologists call such toys “transitional objects” which help the child move back and forth between the executions of everyday life and the world of wish and dream.
Superstitions have some of the qualities of those transitional objects. They help people pass between the areas of life where what happens has to be accepted without proof and the areas where sequences of events are explicable in terms of cause and effect based on knowledge. But modern approaches in science and technology have made the superstitions disappear. If we are to make good use of this knowledge, we must not only rid our minds of old,.superseded beliefs and fragments of magical practice, but also recognise new superstitions for what they are.
Analytical outlines of the Text:
- Superstition is commonly associated with the past.
- It is also associated with the very old ways of thinking.
- These have been supplemented by modern knowledge.
- New superstitions are also coming in and making its hold gradually.
- One of a such superstition is that mothers warn their children not to run into the sun.
- Elderly people explain that it was the virus that got him down.
- The cosmetic industry every year offers new magic course for baldness and lotions.
- It will give every woman a radiant skin and hair colouring.
- It will restore to the middle aged the charm and romance of youth.
- It rightly followed to private superstitions like leaving house by the back door.
- Another such superstition is one must wear a green dress while taking an examination.
- These old and new half-beliefs reflect the keenness of our wish to have something come true.
- These also prevent something bad from happening.
- The old superstitions are more honoured than the new ones.
- Because, the old faiths match our present hopes and fears. ,
- Child psychologists recognize the value of the toy a child hold in his hand at bed time.
- Psychologists call such toys ‘transitional objects’.
- This helps the child move back and forth between the exactions of everyday life and the world of wish and dream.
- Superstitions have some of the qualities of these transitional objects.
- They help people pass between the areas of life.
- The happening object one accepted without proof.
- The sequences of events are explicable in terms of cause and effect based on knowledge.
- But modern approaches in science and technology have made the superstitions disappear.
- We can make good use of this knowledge.
- We can an idea old superseded beliefs and fragments of magical practices from our minds.
- This knowledge also helps to recognise : new superstitions.
Meaning of difficult words:
supplanted – replaced, planted, installed, flourished.
continually – continuously, progressing
cosmetics – purporting to improve beauty, cream, powder and other things used on skin to make it radiant.
keenness – intensity, acuteness, eagerness, deep and ardent interest.
psychologists – experts in the working of mind.
furry – furious, violent, dangerous, hannful.
cozy – pleasant, comfortable,
interesting, relishing exactions – demand and compel, payment of.
explicable – expressible, explainable, bacteria and .viruses – living organism that cause diseases in human body
symptoms – Sign, characteristics of something.
malign – definable, slanderous, harmful malevolent, dangerous, corrosive,
antibiotics – medicine used against bacteria and viruses to cure oneself from a disease.
superseded beliefs – beliefs overpowered and neglected.
fragments – parts, piecqs broken off, segments.
generated – created, formed, made originated, produced.
grasped – comprehend, understand caught thoroughly, (meaning)