Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Invitation to English 4 Solutions Grammar Countable and Uncountable Nouns Textbook Activity Questions and Answers.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class English Grammar Countable and Uncountable Nouns
SECTION – 1
Study the following sentences :
- Red is a color.
- Pradeep is a man of ability.
- Nothing succeeds like success.
The underlined words, namely, red, ability, and success are Nouns.
Here, the definition of old grammar does not account for identifying a Noun in a sentence, i.e. name of a person or place or thing.
Let’s see for ourselves what a Noun in English is and whether there is any precise way of knowing (identifying) it in a sentence.
Look at the different natures and functions of a Noun.
- Birds fly.
- The tall dark red-haired Russian scientist will give a talk tomorrow morning.
The above-underlined words, such as, ‘Birds and scientist’ function as the ‘headword’ in the subject part of the sentences.
We can distinguish a ‘Noun ’ from other word classes if they satisfy the following criteria :
(1) These are open-class words to which new items are constantly added.
cosmonaut, astronaut, videotape, flyover, etc.
(2) Noun can function as the subject, object, complement, or adjunct in a sentence.
The man died yesterday, (subj.)
Grammarians are nasty creatures, (comp.)
I am writing this lesson now. (obj.)
The student looked up the word (obj.) in the dictionary. (adjunct)
(3) Most nouns form plurals by taking -s or ~es. e.g. -birds, books, watches, etc.
(4) Nouns can be preceded by determiners like a, an, the, one, my, two, some, a few, this, that, these, those or can go without any determiner.
(5) Many nouns can go with genitives such as -’s, -s’.
Example: A bird’s nest is destroyed.
There will be a writers’ camp soon.
(6) Nouns can be preceded by prepositions. e.g. – It is meant for birds only.
(7) Nouns can also be used directly before other nouns as modifiers, e.g. tea- stall, Art College, etc.
(8) Words quoted with plural marker -s are also sometimes used as nouns e.g., ifs and buts, ups and downs, etc.
The above properties provide a clear-cut basis for identifying words as nouns.
Countable nouns refer to ‘things’ (nouns) that can be counted (numbered) and they have got two forms, such as singular form and plural forms. For example, a pen [singular countable], and two pens [plural countable]. On the other hand, uncountable nouns do not take a plural form. These are normally used in the singular form. For example, hair, sugar, and water. [However, in exceptional cases, we, under the circumstances, use the plural form of uncountable nouns, like – water – waters, hair – hairs, etc.]
Now mark the following conversation/talking.
Mother: We have run out of rice, flour, butter, and a few other things.
Father: All right. I’ll make a shopping list. Let me get a piece of paper and a pen.
Now you need some sugar, tea, and milk, right? We also need ten kilos of rice and half a liter of cooking oil. Anything else?
Remember the criteria or markers we discussed earlier and try out yourself first to find out nouns in the above conversation/dialogue. Then check your answers with the answers given below.
rice, flour, butter, things, list, piece, paper, pens, sugar, tea, milk, kilos, oil, etc.
Having discussed the various properties/characteristics of nouns in general, let us now try to classify the nouns. The nouns like pen, piece, kilo, etc. can be counted. So they are called Countable Nouns and nouns like rice, paper, oil, water, etc. cannot usually be counted. So these nouns are called Uncountable Nouns. So there are two groups or categories of nouns, such as Countable Nouns and Uncountable Nouns.
Countable Nouns have the following characteristics.
(i) They have two number forms, such as pen-pens, book-books, etc. (singular – plural forms).
(ii) The singular countable nouns take modifiers like an, a, the, three, fourth, etc. (called determiners) before them.
(We cannot say: There is a book on the table.)
(iii) The plural form may or may not take modifiers like the few, and many before them. (Modifiers are optional here.)
(iv) Nouns like sheep and deer are count nouns, but they have the same form for singular and plural. We call them one-form count nouns.
Uncountable Nouns have the following characteristics.
Examine the characteristics of rice the noun :
– Rice is our chief food.
– The rice in his shop is fine.
– Much rice is grown in the plains of Orissa.
– Little rice is grown in hilly areas.
The noun rice (uncountable) has the following characteristics.
(i) It has one form. It does not take -s or -es form.
(ii) It can be used without modifiers.
(iii) It can be used with the modifiers like much, and little but not with a few, or many.
(iv) It cannot be used with numerals like one, two, third, fourth, etc.
Such nouns like ‘rice’ are called uncountables.
Activity – 1:
Say whether the nouns in the list below are countables or uncountables.
|1. car 2. Music 3. Cloud 4. information 5. bottle
6. chair 7. Advice 8. Loaf 9. video 10. pot
11. fruit 12. Hair 13. Girl 14. water 15. weather
16. taxi 17. Traffic 18. leather 19. furniture 20. apple
Activity — 2
Choose the correct alternatives in the sentences below.
1. There is/are usually a lot of traffic/traffics in the city during working hours.
2. The young man is looking for a work /job at the moment.
3. I want to make a list of candidates attending the meeting. Have you got a paper/ some paper?
4. I don’t want to have a bread/bread for my breakfast.
5. The girl with a blonde (golden or pale colored) hair/hairs lives next door.
6. Good accommodation/accommodations is/are not available in this city.
7. We need some meat/meats for the dinner tonight.
8. The old man could not carry the luggage/luggages.
1. There is usually a lot of traffic in the city during working hours.
2. The young man is looking for a job at the moment.
3. I want to make a list of candidates attending the meeting. Have you got a paper
4. I don’t want to have bread for my breakfast.
5. The girl with blonde hair lives next door.
6. Good accommodation is not available in this city.
7. We need some meat for the dinner tonight.
8. The old man could not carry the luggage.
Activity – 3
Use a, an, the, somewhere required, In the blank spaces below. If no word is required, leave the space blank.
1. _________health is more precious than _________ wealth. To keep healthy, we need _________ good food, _________ sleep, and _________ exercise.
2. _________ travel gives us _________ opportunity of seeing how_________ other people live. When we go on _________ journey, we should take _________ note-book with us to make _________ notes of the names of _________ people we meet.
1. Health is more precious than wealth. To keep healthy, we need some good food, sleep, and exercise.
2. Travel gives us an opportunity of seeing how other people live. When we go on a journey, we should take a notebook with us to make a note of the names of people we meet.
Activity – 4
There are three countable nouns in the list below. Can you find them?
match, cupboard, bottle
SECTION – 2
Read the dialogue below.
Wife: What did you buy in the market?
Husband: I bought a bottle of milk, a packet of washing powder, and a tube of toothpaste.
Wife: What about the bar of chocolate I asked you to buy?
Husband: Oh dear. I completely forgot.
Do mark now the uncountable nouns used as countable in the above dialogue between wife and husband. We made countable quantities with uncountable nouns such as milk, washing powder, and toothpaste using a bottle of milk, and a packet of washing powder. and a tube of toothpaste.
An uncountable noun does not take words like a, an or one, two before it and does not have a plural form; but we can use expressions like a piece of a drop of a bar of, etc. before it to make it countable. They are used to refer to ‘units’ of such uncountables.
For example — a ball of string, a bar of chocolate, a kilo of rice, etc.
Activity – 5
Match the items in Column ‘A’ with suitable items in Column-‘B’.
Activity – 6
Imagine that you ‘went with a friend, on a week-long camping trip. You took some supplies (food, matches, candles, etc.) with you, but you find that most of the things have been used up by the third day. Ask your friend to tell you what supplies are left with him/her, and then tell your friend what things are left with you.
The following is the list of supplies that you took on the trip. You will have to decide which of these supplies have been completely used up and which are still left, and the quantities that still remain.
Follow this pattern :
A: Is there any sugar left?
B: Yes, we still have about a kilogram of sugar.
A: What about soap?
B: I’m afraid there’s no soap left.
B: Yes, we have four cakes of soap left.
List of supplies taken on the camping trip.
A: Is there any rice left?
B: No, there isn’t any rice left.
A: What about bread?
B: No, we don’t have any loaf of bread.
A: What about soap?
B: Yes, we have a cake of soap left.
A: Is there any salt left?
B: Yes, we have some pinches of salt left.
B: I’m afraid there is no grain of salt left.
A: Is there any chewing-gum left?
B: No, there is no chewing-gum left.
A: Is there any condensed milk left?
B: No, there is no condensed milk left.
A: What about your torch?
B: Yes, we have a torch. It is still working well.
A: Is there any antiseptic ointment left?
B: I’m afraid there’s no antiseptic ointment left.
A: Is there any matches left?
B: Yes, there are five boxes of matches left.
A: What about toothpaste?
B: Yes, we have five tubes of toothpaste left.
A: Is there any chocolate left?
B: Yes, there is still a bar of chocolate left.
A: What about milk?
B: Yes, we have some pints of milk left.
A: Is there any tea left?
B: Yes, we have a packet/pound of tea left.
B: We have fifty grams of tea left.
A: What about sugar?
B: Yes, we have two kilograms of sugar left.
A: What about batteries?
B: Yes, we still have five (pieces of) batteries left.
A: Is there any bandage left?
B: Yes, we still have four (strips of) bandages left.
SECTION – 3
Nouns that can be countable as well as uncountable.
Look at the examples mindfully.
(a) Our science teacher wrote a paper on the effects of the cyclone, (a paper means here an article (essay): countable)
(b) Books are printed on paper. (uncountable)
(c) every day I read a paper, (newspaper: countable)
(d) The geography paper was difficult, (subject: countable)
(a) Yesterday I bought an iron. (countable: a thing for ironing dress/clothes)
(b) Iron is stronger than wood, (metal: uncountable)
(c) He is a man of iron, (physical strength: uncountable)
In the above examples paper and iron have different meanings in their use. They are used both as countable and uncountable.
|1.||There is a good deal of noise.||1.||Do not make a noise.|
|2.||Bread is our staple food.||2.||What breads have you got today? (types of)|
|3.||Do you have much difficulty with your English?||3.||We have had very few difficulties so far.|
|4.||The temple is made of stone.||4.||The boys are pelting stones at the frogs.|
|5.||There is some egg on your chin, (food)||5.||There are four eggs in, the basket.|
|6.||Eat a little more fish, (food)||6.||There are fish/fishes in the pond.|
|7.||I don’t like tea.||7.||We want three teas and two coffees.|
|8.||I don’t like your talk, (gossip)||8.||He gave a nice talk on science.|
|9.||The table is made of wood.||9.||The poet loves woods. Ismail forest!|
|10.||Beauty is to be admired.||10.||Lara Dutt is a beauty.|
|11.||He ate a whole chicken.||11.||I Would like to have some more chicken.|
|12.||Could I have a glass of water?||12.||Glass is brittle.|
|13.||Tea is grown in Assam.||13.||This shop sells teas from different parts of India.|
SECTION – 4
More on Quantifiers.
1. much, many, a lot of, (a) little, (a) few
Much and many are used in negatives and questions/interrogatives generally. Much is used before uncountable nouns and many with plural countable.
- A lot of and lots of cans be used with countable and uncountables in positive (remarks) sentences.
- A little and little can be used with uncountable nouns only.
- Few and a few can be used with plural countable.
Activity – 7
Use much, many, a lot of, lots of in the blank spaces, where required in the sentences below. (In some blank spaces more than one alternative is possible.)
(a) I can’t come with you. I’ve got _________ work to do.
(b) He’s not got _________money, so he can’t buy that house.
(c) He is very quiet person. He doesn’t speak _________.
(d) I’m hoping to get a ticket for the match. But there aren’t _________ seats left, I hear.
(e) That car is very old. It uses _________ petrol.
(f) I haven’t got _________ time for watching sport at the moment.
(g) ______ people go me to the public meeting addressed by the Chief Minister.
(h) We didn’t visit _________ places when we were on holiday.
(i) We heard the cheapest washing machine costs 10,000 rupees. That is _______, in my opinion.
(j) My father drinks _________ water, – ten liters a day.
(k) The players haven’t won _________ medals.
(l) I take photographs but not as _________ as I used to.
(a) much a lot of
(e) a lot of
(f) much/a lot of
(g) lots of
(i) lots of
(j) lots of
Activity – 8
Complete these mini dialogues with much, many, a lot of, and lots of
(a) A: Too ________ students fail in English every year.
B: Yes, and the schools aren’t doing ________ about it.
(b) A: We didn’t have ________ time to spare at the railway station.
B: No, we didn’t have ________ either.
(c) A: There were ________ people at the annual function, weren’t there?
B: Yes, we weren’t expecting so ________.
(d) A: We haven’t bad ________ rain this year, have we?
B: No, there haven’t been ________ rainy days.
(e) A: I don’t think my daughter knows ________ about people!
B: I don’t think ________ children know ________ about people!
(a) A: many B: much
(b) A: much B: much
(c) A: a lot of B: many
(d) A: much B: many
(e) A: much B: many, much
2. few, a few, little, a little.
We have discussed few, a few, little, and a little in Section 4.1. Do mark that a few, few are used with plural countables. They are not generally used with uncountables.
He is a man of few words, (negative meaning)
A few students passed in English last year, (positive meaning)
There is little water in the glass, (negative meaning)
I need a little help to move the box. (positive meaning)
Now, look at the following examples.
(a) He isn’t very fond of books. He has only a few books at home.
(b) This is a difficult book to read. I’ve had to look up quite a few words in the dictionary.
(c) If what you say is true, there is little we can do about it.
(d) I can’t give you an opinion now. I need a little time to -think.
In the above examples few’ means ‘not many’, ‘a few’ means ‘a small number’ and ‘little’ means ‘not much’, and ‘a little’ means ‘a small amount’.
Activity – 9
Choose the correct alternative in the sentences below.
(a) They could speak few/a few words of Assamese, but they weren’t very fluent.
(b) This is a boring little town; there’s little/a little to do here.
(c) A: Would you like some pepper in your soup?
B: Yes, please, little / a little.
(d) The mud was quite deep. They had little / a little hope of getting out.
(e) Would you like a little/little more tea? There’s still a little/little left in the pot.
(f) I don’t think Ranjan can become a scientist. He’s got little / a little intelligence.
(g) A: Have you ever been to Koraput?
B: Yes, we’ve been there few / a few times.
(h) Father will be away for / a few days next week.
(i) My brother has got a few /few friends in Delhi and he is very happy there.
(j) They won’t take much time to reach the station. There’s a little/little traffic on the road at this time of the day.
(a) a few
(c) a little
(d) a little
(e) a little, a little
(g) a few
(h) a few
(i) a few
(j) a little
Activity – 10
Use a little, a lot of, few, a few, fewer, many, and much where required, in the sentences below:
I moved to this neighborhood two years ago. There seemed to be _________people in this area who were without telephones, so I expected to get a new phone quickly. I applied for one as soon as I moved into the new house. “We aren’t supplying _________ new phones in your area”, an engineer told me.” _________ people want new phones at present and the company is employing _________ engineers than last year so as to save money. A new phone won’t cost _________ money, but it will take _________ time. We can’t do anything for you before December. You need _________ patience if you are waiting for a new phone and you should have _________ friends whose phones you can use when necessary.” Fortunately, I had both. December came and went, but there was no sign of a phone. I went to the office of the telephone company to protest. They told me I would have a phone by December. I protested. “Which year ?“ the clerk asked.
I moved to this neighborhood two years ago. There seemed to be a lot of people in this area who were without telephones, so I expected to get a new phone quickly. I applied for one as soon as I moved into the new house. “We aren’t supplying many new phones in your area”, an engineer told me. “A lot of people want new phones at present and the company is employing fewer engineers than last year so as to save money. A new phone won’t cost much money, but it will take a lot of time. We can’t do anything for you before December. You need a little patience if you are waiting for a new phone and you should have a few friends whose phones you can use when necessary.” Fortunately, I had both. December came and went, but there was no sign of a phone. I went to the office of the telephone company to protest. They told me I would have a phone by December. I protested. “Which year ?“ the clerk asked.
SECTION – 5
The articles: a/an and the
Study the following sentences.
(a) I met a beggar and an orphan. I didn’t like the beggar much, but the orphan was very nice.
(b) My brother wrote a novel and a play. I found the novel very interesting, but the play was boring.
A / An is used before singular countable nouns when the speaker or the writer does not know the person or thing. It means that when he/she wants to say about a thing or a person for the first time, he/she uses a/an. A/An is used for indefinite things or persons. So, a and an are known as indefinite articles.
When the speaker or writer speaks or writes about a person or thing (not for the first time) for the second, third time, and so on, he/she uses article the. It gives the definite or particular meaning of the noun. It is used for countable and uncountable nouns. So it is called the ‘definite article’.
Activity – 11
Use a/an or the, where required, in the blank spaces below.
(a) My uncle lives in _________ small house in _________ remote village. There is _________ beautiful garden behind _________ house. _________ garden has many rare plants.
(b) There are two bags on the table: _________ white one and _________ yellow one. _________ white one belongs to my friend but I don’t know who _________ owner of _________ yellow one is.
(c) My friend witnessed _________ accident this morning. _________ truck crashed into _________ lamp post. _________ driver of _________ truck wasn’t hurt but _________ truck was badly damaged.
(d) _________ taxi drove up to our house. _________ taxi stopped outside our house and _________ woman got out of the taxi. _________ man who was carrying _________ case in his hand also got out. With _________ case in his hand, _________ man looked like _________ salesman.
(a) My uncle lives in a small house in a remote village. There is a beautiful garden behind the house. The garden has many rare plants.
(b) There are two bags on the table: a white one and a yellow one. The white one belongs to my friend but I don’t know who the owner of the yellow one is.
(c) My friend witnessed an accident this morning. A truck crashed into a lamp post. The driver of the truck wasn’t hurt but the truck was badly damaged.
(d) A taxi drove up to our house. The taxi stopped outside our house and a woman got out of the taxi. A man who was carrying a case in his hand also got out. With the case in his hand, the man looked like a salesman.
Activity – 12
Complete the story below by using a, an, or the where required.
_________ man walked into _________ bank in America and handed _________ note to one of the cashiers, _________ young woman. _________ woman read _________ note, which told her to give _________ man some money. Afraid that he might have _________ gun, she followed _________ instruction. _________ man then walked out of _________ building, leaving _________ note behind. However, it was not _________ successful crime. _________ man had no time to spend _________ money because he was arrested _________ same day. He had made _________ stupid mistake. He had written _________ note on _________ back of _________ envelope. On _________ other side of _________ envelope was _________ man’s name and address. This information was enough for the police to arrest the man.
A man walked into a bank in America and handed a note to one of the cashiers, a young woman. The woman read the note, which told her to give the man some money. Afraid that he might have a gun, she followed the instruction. The man then walked out of the building, leaving the note behind. However, it was not a successful crime. The man had no time to spend the money because he was arrested the same day. He had made a stupid mistake. He had written a note on the back of the envelope. On the other side of the envelope was the man’s name and address. This information was enough for the police to arrest the man.
SECTION – 6
More on the indefinite article (a/an).
Look at the following sentences.
My friend is a doctor. He was born in America but now he lives in a small village in a tribal district of Orissa. He works in a hospital attached to a Catholic Church.
A/An is used before singular count nouns.
Example: doctor, village, hospital, etc. Here we refer to persons, people, and things. With the use of a/an article, we usually get an indefinite meaning.
Activity – 13
Complete the sentences below. (You will have to use a/an in the first blank space in each sentence.)
(a) A place where bread is made is called _________.
(b) A shelter for a horse is called _________.
(c) The home of a lion is called _________.
(d) A place where birds are kept is called _________.
(e) A person who mends water pipes is called _________.
(f) A person who tells the future by the stars is called _________.
(g) A person who treats diseases by performing operations is called _________.
(h) A book in which the events of the day are recorded is called _________.
(i) A play with a happy ending is called _________.
(j) A list of the items to be served at a meal is called _________.
(a) a bakery
(b) a stable
(c) a den
(d) a cage
(e) a plumber
(f) an astrologer
(g) a surgeon
(h) a diary
(i) a comedy
(j) a menu
Activity – 14
Can you expand the newspaper headlines below into sentences? You will have to use a/an as well as the other words which are missing. The first one has been done for you.
(a) Blast in Billiar town. ➨ There was a blast in a town in Bihar.
(b) Bomb scare delays train. ➨ Bomb scare delays an Express train.
(c) Snake found in a fruit basket at the hotel. ➨ A snake was found in a fruit basket at a hotel.
(d) Indian ship sinks off Abu Dhabi. ➨ An Indian ship sinks off Abu Dhabi.
(e) Ten injured in the clash. ➨ Ten people were injured in a clash.
(f) Bag snatched. ➨ A bag full of gold was snatched by a robber.
Activity – 15
Who were these people?
Kalidas was an Indian poet.
Newton was a great scientist.
3. Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin was an artist.
Nargis wasa him-star.
Tansen was a great musician.
SECTION – 7
The definite article: the
(a) My uncle bought the house next to the post office.
(b) We are not keen on meeting the people next door.
(c) He works in the garage opposite our house.
(d) The boy I met at the station last night is going to America on a scholarship.
In the above examples look at the words in italics. They tell us something about the noun that comes just before them. With the use of those situations/contexts, we will
be able to know that they identify the persons, things, or places. They speak about a definite/particular person, thing or place. So ‘the’ is usually used before them.
Activity – 16
Rewrite the sentences below, inserting the definite article the at the places.
(a) Cottage by the river has been deserted for many years.
The cottage by the river has been deserted for many years.
(b) I bought the book you referred to yesterday.
I bought the book you referred to yesterday.
(c) They wanted to meet old man living in the yellow house.
They wanted to meet the old man living in the yellow house.
(d) I like tea grown in gardens of Assam.
I like the tea grown in gardens of Assam.
(e) This is house that my father built.
This is the house that my father built.
SECTION – 8
The definite article used for ‘unique reference’.
Mark the use of ‘the’ in the following sentences.
(a) The moon goes round the earth and the earth goes round the sun.
(b) What is the longest bridge in the world?
(c) No one can predict the end of the universe.
The above nouns such as moon, earth, sun, world, and universe are the unique nouns. Their number is one. They don’t usually have plural form. So the definite article ‘the’ is used before them. The use of a/an is possible before them.
Look at the following example.
- The sky got dark.
- There is only one sky in the universe.
Activity – 17
Use the in the blanks, wherever necessary.
(a) _________Prime Minister met _________ President yesterday.
(b) _________ sky is blue.
(c) I am studying History at _________ university.
(d) It’s difficult to live near _________ North Pole.
(e) _________ manufacturing industry is using _________ computers more and more.
(f) Sailors used to spend weeks crossing _________ Atlantic Sea.
(g) _________ equator runs through Africa.
(h) _________ grass is green but _________ grass in my neighbor’s garden is greener.
(i) There are hundreds of small islands in _________ Pacific Ocean.
(a) The Prime Minister met the President yesterday.
(b) The sky is blue.
(c) I am studying at university.
(d) It’s difficult to live near the North Pole.
(e) The manufacturing industry is using computers more and more.
(f) Sailors used to spend weeks crossing the Atlantic Sea.
(g) The equator runs through Africa.
(h) Grass is green but the grass in my neighbor’s garden is greener.
(i) There are hundreds of small islands in the Pacific Ocean.
SECTION – 9
Look at the use of the in the passage below.
When we got home, everyone seemed to be busy. Brother was working in the garden. Father was reading the newspaper in the living room. Mother was making tea in the kitchen. Sister was playing with her friend on the terrace.
The use of the nouns garden, living room, kitchen, etc. is for a definite or particular thing or place. That is why the is used in the above situations.
Activity – 18
Use the where necessary.
(a) _______ teacher entered _______ classroom, went to _______ table, held _______ duster in his left hand and _______ book in his right hand. Then he cleaned _______ blackboard and started writing a passage from _______ book.
(b) Ravi went to the post office and talked to _______ man at _______ counter. He asked Ravi to meet _______ postmaster. _______ postmaster asked him to sign _______ register. Then he handed _______ parcel over to Ravi.
(a) The teacher entered the classroom, went to the table, held the duster in his left hand and the book in his right hand. Then he cleaned the blackboard and started writing a passage from the book.
(b) Ravi went to the post office and talked to the man at the counter. He asked Ravi to meet the postmaster. The postmaster asked him to sign the register. Then he handed the parcel over to Ravi.
Activity – 19
Supply ‘the’ where necessary.
(a) A: Who’s at ______ door?
B: It is ______ postman.
(b) Will you please go to ______ market and get some butter for ______ cake I am baking?
(c) They prefer to spend their holidays in ______ country, among ______ mountains, or by ______ sea.
(d) This is ______ front room. ______ ceiling and ______ walls need repair but ______ floor is in good condition.
(e) A: Where is your sister?
B: She is in ______ kitchen at ______ moment.
(a) A: Who’s at the door?
B: It is the postman.
(b) Will you please go to (the) market and get some butter for the cake I am baking?
(c) They prefer to spend their holidays in the country, among the mountains or by the Sea.
(d) This is the front room. The ceiling and the walls need repair but the floor is in good condition.
(e) A: Where is your sister?
B: She is in the kitchen at the moment.
SECTION – 10
Place names with and without ‘the’.
We normally use ‘the’ with the following.
(a) Seas and oceans: The Pacific Sea, the Mediterranean.
(b) Rivers : The Mahanadi, the Baitarani, the Kathajori etc.
(c) Canals: The Suez Canal, the Panama Canal, etc.
(d) Deserts The Sahara, the Thar.
(e) Island groups: The West Indies, the Canaries.
(f) Hotels, Cinemas: The Grand Hotel, The Metro Cinema.
(g) Museums, Clubs: The Salarjung Museum (Hyderabad), the Saturday Club, etc.
(h) Restaurants, Pubs: The Sultan Cafe, the Swan (Pub)
Names of ships, trains, newspapers, etc. very often have ‘the’.
- the Queen Elizabeth (ship)
- the Falakanama Express
- the Times of India
- the harmonium (any musical instrument)
We do not normally use the following place names.
(a) Continents: Europe, Asia, Africa
(b) Countries, States, Departments: India, China, Orissa
These are the single names of the Countries or States. So they do not go with the definite article ‘the’.
(c) Cities, towns, and villages: Delhi, Bhubaneswar, Astarang.
(d) Individual Islands: Long Island
(e) Lakes : Lake Chilika, Lake Ansupa
(f) Individual mountains: Mount Everest
(g) Streets, Roads: College Street, Lewis Road
(h) Names of games: Football, Cricket, Volley Ball.
We use the with place names when they include a count noun
e.g. Union, Republic, State, Kingdom, Isle, etc.
We use ‘the’ before place names containing of phrases with of:
The University of Delhi, The State of Liberty
The Bank of India, The History of India, etc.
We use ‘the’ when we refer to the parts of the body.
→ She pulled me by the hair.
→ I shook her by the hand.
We use ‘the’ before ordinal or cardinal numbers.
→ Bakul is in the sixth class/class six.
→ Today is the fifteenth of August.
→ The book was published in the 1970s / in the seventies.
We use the + adjective to talk about a whole group of people, a class of people e.g. the poor, the young, the old, the weak, the injured etc.
Activity – 20
Fill in the blanks with ‘the’ where necessary.
(a) _______ Mount Everest is the highest peak in _______ Himalayas.
(b) _______ India celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of its independence in _______ year 1997.
(c) _______ United Nations is an international organization.
(d) _______ United States of America is a republic.
(e) We visited _______ Nehru Park when we were in Hyderabad.
(f) Is _______ Pacific Ocean larger than _______ Indian Ocean?
(g) We read _______ Statesman every day and _______ India Today every week.
(h) _______ University of Utkal is older than Berhampur University.
(i) _______ Grand Trunk Road is the oldest road in India.
(j) _______ Oberoi is _______ only 5-star hotel in _______ Bhubaneswar.
(k) _______ Thar is in _______ Rajasthan.
(l) _______ President visits _______ Pun tomorrow.
(a) Mount Everest is the highest peak in the Himalayas.
(b) India celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of its independence in the year 1997.
(c) The United Nations is an international organization.
(d) The United States of America is a republic.
(e) We visited the Nehru Park when we were in Hyderabad.
(f) Is the Pacific Ocean larger than Indian Ocean?
(g) We read the Statesman every day and the India Today every week.
(h) The University of Utkal is older than Berhampur University.
(i) The Grand Trunk Road is the oldest road in India.
(j) The Oberoi is the only 5-star hotel in Bhubaneswar.
(k) The Thar is in Rajasthan.
(l) The President visits Pun tomorrow.
SECTION – 11
Compare the sentences in each of the following pairs.
1. (a) My sister goes to school every morning.
(b) Mina’s father went to the school to meet the headmaster.
2. (a) He has passed the school final examination and will go to college in July.
(b) The new cinema is very near the college.
3. (a) The injured persons have been sent to the hospital.
(b) The hospital was badly damaged by the cyclone.
In the above examples i.e. 1. (a), 2. (a), and 3. (a) ‘the’ is not used before the singular countable nouns like school, college, or hospital. Here the purpose is particular/ primary.
But in sentences 1. (b), 2. (b), and 3. (b) the singular countable nouns school, college, and hospital, do go before them with ‘the’ because the purpose is not primary. Only a few nouns can be used in this way without ‘the’, such as school, college, university, hospital, church, market, and bed.
Do mark deviation: The singular countable noun ‘office’ usually goes with the.
Now mark the following nouns.
- He goes to work at 10.
- He will be at home this evening.
In the above examples work and home have some special meanings somewhat similar to the meanings of school, and college. That is why they are used without ‘the’. When nouns like a car, bus, train are used as means of travel (communication), they do not go with ‘the’. We do not normally use articles with the names of different meals i.e. breakfast, lunch, brunch, tea (afternoon meal), supper, dinner, etc.
Activity – 21
Put the into the blank, where necessary.
1. They always go to ______ church on Sunday.
2. When do you plan to go to ______ college?
3. My friend has been taken to ______ hospital.
4. The prisoner was sent to ______ jail.
5. My daughter will go to ______ school next year.
6. When do you usually have ______ lunch?
7. My father goes to ______ work at 9 a.m.
8. I’m taking these books back to ______ library.
9. The weather is too bad to go out. I’m staying at ______ home today.
10. Malati has just had a baby. We are going to ______ hospital to visit her.
11. The prisoner’s wife drove to ______ prison to meet her husband.
12. They like lying on the beach. They always spend their holidays at ______ seaside.
13. ______ bed is very expensive.
14. He went to Delhi by ______ train.
1. They always go to church on Sunday.
2. When do you plan to go to college?
3. My friend has been taken to hospital.
4. The prisoner was sent to jail.
5. My daughter will go to school .next year.
6. When do you usually have lunch?
7. My father goes to work at 9 a.m.
8. I’m taking these books back to the library.
9. The weather is too bad to go out. I’m staying at home today.
10. Malati has just had a baby. We are going to the hospital to visit her.
11. The prisoner’s wife drove to the prison to meet her husband.
12. They like lying on the beach. They always spend their holidays at the seaside.
13. The bed is very expensive.
14. He went to Delhi by train.
Activity – 22
Put in ‘the’ where necessary.
Today Alan Broome is a world-famous actor. Forty years ago he was an unhappy child. He didn’t do well at ______ school and he never went to ______ university. His greatest enjoyment was going to ______ movies. The family lived in an unattractive industrial town in England. Their home was next to ______ railway station. Alan’s father was a sailor, and he spent months at ______ sea. He was seldom at ______ home. When he did come home, he did not do much. Sometimes he would lie all day in ______ bed. His wife had to get up at 5 o’clock to go to ______ work. Mr. Broome lost his job in ______ navy and then went to ______ prison for stealing.
Today Alan Broome is a world-famous actor. Forty years ago he was an unhappy child. He didn’t do well at school and he never went to university. His greatest enjoyment was going to movies. The family lived in an unattractive industrial town in England. Their home was next to the railway station. Alan’s father was a sailor, and he spent months at sea. He was seldom at home. When he did come home, he did not do much. Sometimes he would lie all day in bed. His wife had to get up at 5 o’clock to go to work. Mr. Broome lost his job in the navy and then went to prison for stealing.
Activity – 23
Insert a / an and the where necessary, in the passage below.
Push metal rod through cork and then put two pins into cork. Take two more corks and push nails into them. Put pins on two glasses and move cork to right place so that it balances properly. Then you need candle and some matches. Make candle stand on saucer under one side of rod and light it. Heat that comes from candle will make metal expand. Extra length will make rod fall. Experiment shows that beat makes metals expand.
Push metal rod through a cork and then put two pins into the cork. Take two more corks and push nails into them. Put pins on two glasses and move the cork to right place so that it balances properly. Then you a need candle and some matches. Make a candle stand on a saucer under one side of the rod and light it. Heat that comes from the candle will make the metal expand. An extra length will make the rod fall. The experiment shows that the heat makes the metals expand.