Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 Invitation to English 3 Solutions Writing Note-making and Summarizing Textbook Activity Questions and Answers.
CHSE Odisha 12th Class English Writing Note-making and Summarizing
Summarization is an important skill in writing. While summarizing a given version, look to the pith and substance leaving out irrelevant and unneccessary details so as to form a relevant and condensed paragraph of the original topic. Summary writing has no fixed length. It may be half, one-third or a quarter of the given version. It depends on the kind of writing we are assigned to or the purpose for which we are writing the summary. The following points are to be taken note of while writing a summary :
(a) Go through the original passage as many times as is possible.
(b) Notice the main theme of the topic first.
(c) Note down the important points leaving out the unnecessary elaboration,
(d) First prepare a draft using your points.
(e) Avoid long phrases and substitute shorter ones or single word expressions.
(f) If you feel necessary, make some changes in the body of your summary.
(g) Avoid adjectival expressions if not absolutely essential.
(h) Read the draft to see if any important point is omitted.
(i) Finally, using the above guidelines, write a neat and orderly summary.
Activity – I
Mr M R Fatnaik, the Press Secretary to the Industries Minister, came across the following letter in the The Times of India. Mr Patnaik went through the letter and prepared notes as in (b). Later, using his notes,he prepared a summary (c) for the Minister. Examine the contents of the letter, the notes and the summary.
(a) The letter : Failure of Public Sector Industries
It is sad to note that the public sector industries in India are a failure.
There are several shortcomings which have contributed to the failure of these industries. Some of these shortcomings are as follows : First they run on government funds, under the control of autonomous corporations, which have their peculiar ways of functioning i.e. on non-business-like principles. In other words, it may be said tht they are not run on a commercial basis.
It is incorrect to believe that they are managed on non-commercial lines, as they have shown some profits. If run on commercial lines they can show still better results. Secondly they are generally run by bureaucrats who do not possess adequate business and managerial skills. The result is that there is too much red-tapism that mars the efficiency of these undertakings. These undertakings can show much better results, if their management is entrusted to professional managers.
Thirdly, in many cases it is found that these public sector undertakings are not working to their full capacity. Under-utilization of capacity can never be considered a sound commercial practice, whatever the reasons. Lastly, these undertakings, being autonomous bodies, pay high salaries and allowances to their staff. This breeds inefficiency. It suggests that corrective measures by the Government and the industries should immediately be taken to remove these shortcomings. These measures should be taken before things go out of control.
(b) Notes : Failure of Public Sector Industries
(i) run by autonomous corporations on non-commercial basis
(ii) run by bureaucrats without business expertise and managerial skill
(iii) most industries work below capacity
(iv) pay high salary and perks to the staff
2. Steps for improvement:
Government and industries to take immediate corrective measures
(c) Final Summary:
Our Public Sector Industries are a failure for the following reasons. They are controlled by autonomous bodies and are run on non-commercial basis. The autonomous bodies, in turn, are manned by bureaucrats having little business expertise or skill. Besides, many of these industries work below capacity and pay high salary and perks to the staff. The Government and the industries should take immediate steps to remove these shortcomings.
Language notes : Notice how longer expressions have been replaced by shorter in the final summary.
|Longer expressions||Changed to|
Activity – 2
The editor of a leading newspaper finds the following report too long to publish. He, therefore, asks the sub-editor to cut it short so that it can be published. Imagine that you are the sub-editor. Read the report and prepare a summary.
(a) The Report
Every now and then, an elephant gets run over on the 100-year-old railway track bisecting UP’s Rajaji National Park. Over 20 elephants have been killed and many more maimed in the past two decades. Unless something ugrent is done about it, the poor animals in the park are sure to perish soon. In order to save these elephants, the railway authorities may consider implementing the following proposals. This accident-prone area within the park should be declared a caution zone.
The speed of the trains in this area should be decreased. They should be allowed to run at 20 Kmph. Although this would involve an additional 20 minutes of running time, it is worth it considering the fact that the track runs through a national park. Another proposal is to sensitise the railway staff and give every train driver a high frequency whistle to alert the elephants and to keep them away from the track. Despite their huge fan-like ears, elephants can hear only high frequency sounds.
Another suggestion is to build trenches along the track to prevent elephants from walking onto the track. It is also suggested that ridges along the track be levelled out in order to facilitate free movement for the animals. In the historic city of Heidelberg in Germany, signs warn motorists to stop their cars to allow frogs to cross the road. No motorists dare break this rule, and drivers apparently are known to stop and actually assist the forgs in crossing the busy road. Rajaji Park is the last bastion where elephants still survive in north west India. Surely, it is not too much to ask that we allow these majestic animals to live With dignity and without fear.
(b) Examine the following notes. (You should read the report again before examining the notes.)
1. Problem of elephnats :
(i) The Rajaji National Park railway track, a killer track.
(ii) Elephants frequently get killed and maimed.
2. Proposals to save the animals :
(i) the area to be declared a caution zone where maximum speed to be 20 kmph.
(ii) drivers to be given high frequency whistles to alert elephants.
(iii) trenches to be built and ridges to be levelled out along the track.
(iv) in Heidelberg in Germany cars stop for frogs to cross to the road.
3. Appeal :
Let these animals live with dignity and without fear.
The following in the summary of the report in (a). But there are blanks for you to fill in. Fill in the blanks by re-reading the report and the notes. Remember each dash ( ) stands for a single word only.
The ________ old ________ railway track has turned into a ________ track, where elephants get ________ and ________ very ________. To save these ________ from ________ this park area should be declared ________, ________ , ________ where trains should ________ maximum at a ________, ________ 20 kmph. ________ should be given a ________, ________,________ to keep elephants away ________, ________, ________. The other measures should include ________, ________, ________and ________, ________, ________ along the track. This is not much as ________, ________ in Germany cars stop for ________ to ________, ________, ________. We should let these ________,________,________,________.
The 100 year old Rajaji National Park railway track has turned into a killer track, where elephants get killed and maimed very frequently. To save these elephants from death, this park area should be declared a caution zone, where trains should run maximum at a speed of 20 kmph. Drivers should be given a high frequency whistles to keep elephants away from the tracks. The other measures should include trenches along tracks and leveling of ridges along the tracks. This is not much as in Heidelberg in Germany -cars stop for frogs to cross the road. We should let these animals live with dignity.
Activity – 3
Here is a report about jailbreaks in Odisha. Read it carefully, paying particular attention to the various recommendations made by the jail staff and the police.
a. The Report
Lax Security leads to Odisha, Jail breaks
There is little security in Odisha jails as has been shown by the spurt in jailbreaks in the recent years. Altogether 72 prisoners, undertrials and convicts have escaped from various jails in seven major jailbreaks during the last five years. A senior jail staff blames the Government of Odisha for neglecting the jails. Officers have recommended the introduction of closed circuit televisions in the prisons along with very high frequency communication systems as a part of modernisation of the prisons.
They have also asked for the old-fashioned 410 musket rifles to be replaced with 303 rifles with catridges to deal with prison riots. Police say that a nexus between jail staff and prisoners cannot be ruled out. The recent incident at Kodala jail clearly indicates that the jail staff, indeed, help prisoners to escape, say the police. If the jail staff are more alert, such incidents can be averted.
The following are the main points of the report. Notice that there are blanks in the notes for you to fill in. Complete the notes by filling in the blanks.
Lax Security Leads to Odisha jailbreaks
Topic : Little jail security in Odisha as shown by jailbreaks
Recommendations to improve jail security :
a. by ____________.
i. Government to improve jail conditions.
ii. __________ and __________ to be introduced.
b. by ________________.
i. No nexus between jail staff and ___________.
Recommendations to improve Jail Security
(a) by modernisation
(i) Government to improve jail condition
(ii) Closed-circuit televisions and high-frequency communication systems are to be introduced.
(iii) 410 musket rifles must be replaced by 303 rifles with cartridges.
(b) by prevention
(i) No nexus between jail staff and prisoners be allowed
(ii) Jail staff must be more alert to avert escape of prisoners.
Basing on the above notes, write a brief summary of the report to be faxed to the Home Ministry in New Delhi.
Jailbreaks in Odisha are a result of lax security. Jail officials blame the government for neglecting jails, which need modernisation by the introduction of closed circuit televisions, high frequency communications system and replacement of the musket rifles by 303 rifles with cartridges. They also add that by preventing any nexus between jail officials and prisoners and by remaining ever alert, such incidents can be averted.
Activity – 4
Here is another report. It is about genetically modified food. Read it carefully while paying attention to the following questions.
How is food genetically modified ? What are the advantages and disadvantages of genetically modified food?
a. The report
Watch out for genetically modified food
What is genetical engineering and why are consumer groups up in arms against such genetically modified foods or gene foods ? Well, to put in a nushell, it is a process of extracting genes bearing a specific, hereditary trait from one organism and artificially inserting them into a completely different organism. There are several possible benefits from such genetic engineering.
You could have foods whose nutritional values are enhanced. Scientists, for example, are reported to be working on iron- and vitamin-fortified rice. Similarly, you could develop crops that are resistant to pests and give higher yields, or those that survive extreme weather conditions. You could even provide edible vaccines through such engineering.
But, on the other hand, when you start tinkering with nature, you could also be exposing yourself to unknown and unforeseen health and environment risks, which may not be immediately apparent, but in the long run turn out to be not just hazardous, but uncontrollable. Currently, the known health risks from genetically modified foods are the possibility of food allergies and increased resistance to antibiotics. However, in the absence of long term safety testing, no one can know for certain what their harmful effects may be.
Besides, growing genetically modified crops on a large scale can have certain serious implications for bio-diversity, wild-life, balance of nature-and environment. Because of these questions consumer groups around the globe are now forcing governments to introduce mandatory labelling of genetically modified foods. Consumers have a right to information, safety and choice. And labelling gives them the choice to buy or reject genetically modified foods. Puspa Girimaji
Complete the notes given bleow.
Watch out for Genetically modified Foods
1. What is genetical engineering ?
2. What are the advantages of genetically modified foods ?
3. What are their disadvantages ?
i. : _____________________________
ii. : _____________________________
4. What do the consumer groups around the world demand ?
c. The Summary
Ans. You are a junior scientist in the RRL, Bhubaneswar. You are interested in genetically modified foods and want to preserve the contents of this report for your future use. For this purpose, write a brief summary of the report.
What is genetical engineering ?
Genetical engineering is the method by which the genes of one organism having a particular trait is artificially inserted into another organism.
What are the advantages of genetically modified foods ?
(i) Nuritional value of food can be increased.
(ii) Crops resistant to pests or high yielding crops or those surviving extreme weather conditions can be developed.
(iii) Edible vaccines can be developed.
What are their disadvantages ?
(i) allergic to food
(ii) resistant to antibiotics
(iii) have serious implications for bio-diversity, wild-life balance of nature and environment.
What do consumer groups around the world demand ?
(i) labelling of genetically modified foods
(ii) right to information and choice
(c) The Summary :
You are a junior scientist in the RRL, Bhubaneswar. You are interested in genetically modified foods and want to preserve the contents of this report for your future use. For this purpose, write a brief summary of the report. Gene foods- Genetically modified food-stuffs are produced by genetical engineering. This is a process by which genes of one organism, possessing a particular hereditary trait is extracted and then inserted artificially into a different organism.
This makes it possible to increase the nutritional value of food, develop high-yielding pest resistant crops as well as crops suited to extreme weather conditions. Yet the process could adversely affect the environment and create health hazards like food allergies and resistance to antibiotics. Consumer groups are therefore lobbying to make it mandatory for gene foods to be labelled, thereby protecting the consumers right of information and choice.
Activity – 5
Read the following news report and write a summary of it in about 60 words. Your summary should include information about the following:
The manner in which (i) patients are duped (ii) the doctors and others are benefited. It has been reported that in Cuttack, Sambalpur and Rourkela doctors are duping illiterate village patients by prescribing cheap and false medicines. This is facilitated by the nexus between doctors, medicines shops and drug inspectors. Doctors ask patients to buy medicine from specific shop(s) near hospitals and clinic which drug inspectors seldom check. Thus, each earns profit besides this.
You may make notes on the important points in the box beside the report. Begin your summary thus :
“It has been reported that ………………………………………………………. ”
Doctors duping patients
From our correspondent
Jan. 13, Though medicine has advanced by leaps and bounds, the poor villagers are not educated to distinguish between genuine and fake medicines, letting doctors, both Government and private, force them to buy fake medicines and earn huge amounts in the bargain. Cases of doctors duping the patients in this manner has come to light in Cuttack, Sambalpur and Rourkela.
The doctors in collusion with certain medical shop owners prescribe cheap quality medicines to the patients and insist that they buy them from specified shops. Medical shops are run in clinic and hospital compounds, forcing patients to buy medicines there. The doctors even get additional return like letter pads, in the form of gifts, from these shops. Drug Inspectors are allegedly involved as they are rarely seen checking these shops.
Doctors duping patients:
Ans. It has been reported that illiterate, uneducated villagers are being duped by doctors in Cuttack, Sambalpur and Rourkela. This is facilitated by a nexus between doctors, medicine shops and drug inspectors. Doctors prescribe cheap or fake medicines and ask the illiterate patient to buy it from specific shops near their hospitals and clinics which drug inspectors seldom check. Thus each one profits from this. Besides, doctors also get gifts from the shops.
Activity – 6
Read the following passage on ‘Indian Bamboo’ and write notes on it. Then write a summary of the whole passage in not more than 5 paragraphs.
Grown extensively in the north-east and in the Western Ghats, bamboo covers nearly ten million hectares of India’s forest area. More than one hundred species, ranging from the gigantic 30-to-40 metre tall Dendrocalamus giganteus to the one-metre high Arundinaria densifolia with an eight millimetre girth, are found in the country. We produce about 3.2 million tonnes of bamboo annually. Though more than half the bamboo produced in India is turned into paper, the plant has other uses too-for weapons, tools and as food and construction material.
The Monpas of Assam build suspension bridges with bamboo and in Bihar Bamboo is replacing steel in tube well pipes because it is cheaper, rust-free and more durable. Viklang Kendra, a rehabilitation centre for the handicapped in Allahabad, makes artificial limbs from bamboo which are lighter and cheaper than conventional prostheses. Pickled or stewed bamboo shoots are regarded as delicacies in some parts of the country. The fleshy fruits of the ‘muli’ bamboo of Assam are eaten raw or cooked.
During droughts, it seeds are eaten by people as a substitute for rice. Tabasheer’ or ‘banslochan’ a fine siliceous matter found in the stem of the bamboo is used in Ayurvedic drugs to treat cough and asthma. Associated with several myths, the bamboo is often wershipped to ward off evil spirits. In Bengal during ‘Mark Sankaranthi’ people pray to bamboo as ‘vastu the abode of God. Adivasis in some regions plant bamboo on the outskirts of their village to protect them from their enemies.
Even as new uses are being found for the bamboo-scientists are Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, are working on bamboo reinforced cement concrete and the extraction, of diesel fuel from the plant’s many-jointed stem. India’s bamboo reserves are slowly dwindling, unfortunately, efforts to cultivate bamboo on a large scale have so far not succeeded.
1. Growth :
(i) grown extensively in north-east and Western Ghats
(ii) covering ten million hectares of country’s forest area
(iii) more than one hundred species
2. Size and production :
(i) 30 to 40 metre tall
(ii) about 3.2 million tonnes annually
3. Uses :
(i) paper manufacturing
(ii) making weapons, tools
(iii) making construction materials and artificial limbs
4. Food :
(i) pickled or stewed shoots
(ii) fleshy fruits of the ‘muli’ bamboo (eaten raw or cooked)
5. Drug :
a selicious matter in bamboo stem used in Ayurvedic drugs to treat cough and asthma.
6. Myths :
(i) worshipped to drive away evils spirits
(ii) ‘vastu’, the abode of God
(iii) planting bamboo by Adivasis on the outskirts of villages for protection from enemies.
7. New uses :
extraction of diesel fuel
India produces 3.2 million tonnes of bamboo every year. Extensively grown in the north-east and the western ghats, bamboos cover ten million hectares of India’s forest and contain more than one hundred varieties. Mostly used to produces paper, bamboos are also used as weapons, tools, construction material as well as for building bridge, as tube well pipes and even as artifical limbs. Besides, bamboo shoots, fruits, seeds are consumed as food in different places and by different people.
In addition the siliceous matter found in its stem is used as medicine.Bamboo is also endowed with mythical and religious significance. New uses like using it in reinforcing concrete and extracting diesel from its stem are also being worked on by scientists. However, bambo resources are gradually depleting and simultaneously, efforts to cultivate it on a large scale has failed.