Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 Political Science Solutions Unit 2 Democratic Process in India-I Short Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 12th Class Political Science Unit 2 Democratic Process in India-I Short Answer Questions
Short Questions and Answers
Which states have been given special provisions in our constitution?
Jammu and Kashmir and North Eastern States like Nagaland, Manipur and Assam.
Point out one feature in the practice of federalism in India that is similar to and one feature that is different from that of Belgium.
In India, just like in Belgium, the central government has to share its powers with the regional governments. However, unlike India, Belgium has a community government in addition to the central and the state government.
What is the main difference between a federal form of government and a unitary one? Explain with an example.
In a federal form of government, the central government shares its powers with the various constituent units of the country. For example, in India, power is divided between the government at the Centre and the various State governments. In a unitary form of government, all the power is exercised by only one government. For example, in Sri Lanka, the national government has all the powers.
What are the characteristics of federalism?
The characteristics of federalism are:
- It is an institutional mechanism to accommodate two sets of polities – one at the regional level and other at the national level.
- The people have two sets of identities and loyalties, each level of polity has distinct powers and responsibilities and has a separate system.
- The details of the dual system of government are spelt out in the written constitution, which is considered to be supreme and is also the source of power of both sets of government.
- To prevent conflicts between centre and state, there is an independent judiciary to settle disputes.
What other factors besides politics keep the federations united?
Besides politics, other factors which keep the federations united are culture, ideology and history. Culture of trust, cooperation, mutual respect and restraint has also helped in the smooth functioning of federations.
What is Federation?
In a federation, there is division of powers between one central government f and several state governments. Each government exercises power in its own area as demarcated by the constitution.
What is Unitary Government?
Unitary Government is one in which all authority and power is in the hands of a single central government. Local governments get their powers from the central government.
Name two essential features of a federation.
The name of two essential features of a federation are:
(1) Division of powers between the centre and states.
(2) Written, rigid and supreme constitution.
Write a major failure of unitary government.
In a unitary state there is a single central government. There is one legislature 1 and one executive for the whole state.
What is main difference between a unitary state and federal state?
In a federal state all powers stand divided between one central government and, several state governments. In a unitary state all powers are in the hands of one single central government.
List the four features of a federation.
The four features of a federation are:
(1) Division of powers between the center and states.
(2) Written, rigid and supreme constitution.
(3) Dual Administration.
(4) Special role of Judiciary as the arbiter of centre-state.
What are the three main conditions for the success of a federation?
The three main conditions for the success of a federation are:
(1) Desire for union among member states.
(2) Political maturity and educated citizenship.
(3) Similar political strictures and equality of all states of the federation.
How the Constitution of India described the State?
The Constitution declares India to be a Union of States. It describes India neither as a federation nor as a unitary state. Indian Constitution has both federal and unitary features.
How the division of powers between the centre and states has been made?
The Constitution contains three lists –
(1) Union List which specifies the powers of the Centre.
(2) State List which contains the powers of each state of India.
(3) Concurrent List specifies some powers given jointly to the centre and state.
What is the name and nature of rural local government in India?
Rural local government is known as Panchayati Raj. It has a three-tier structure Gram Panchayat, Panchayat Samiti and Zilla Parishad. It is grass roots level system of rural local self-government.
Which are the Institutions of Urban Local Government?
For very big cities, Municipal Corporations, for middle-level cities or towns Municipal Committees or Nagar Councils and Nagar Panchayats for semi-urban, semi-rural areas.
Which Constitutional amendments have been recently incorporated in respect of Local Government in India.
The following Constitutional amendments have been recently incorporated in respect of local government in India.
(1) 73rd Amendment Act in respect of Rural Local Government.
(2) 74th Amendment Act in respect of Urban Local Government.
Which are the salient objectives of the 73rd and 74th Amendments?
The salient objectives of the 73rd and 74th Amendments are:
(1) Continuity in the operation of local governments.
(2) More involvement of women in the working of local government.
(3) Empowerment of local government institutions.
What is Gram Sabha?
It is the real grass roots level institution of Panchayati Raj. It is the assembly of all adult citizens of the village. It elects the village Panchayat which is its executive body.
What is Municipal Corporation?
It is the biggest institution of Urban self-government. Each big city or metropolitan city has a Municipal Corporation. It performance both civic, development and welfare functions in its areas.
Define Panchayati Raj.
Panchayati Raj can be defined as rural local-self government system which is at work in every village in India. Each village has its Panchayat which works for providing civic amenities to the people. It also tries to secure the socioeconomic development of the village.
What are the main functions of a Municipal Council?
To provide civic amenities, to in sure public health and sanitation, maintain fire-fighting services, ensure water supply, to regulate construction of houses and other buildings in its area.
What are objectives of local government Institutions?
The objectives of local government institutions are:
(1) Socioeconomic development of the local area.
(2) Undertaking civic and welfare functions.
(3) Ensuring all civic amenities in the local area.
(4) Provide an efficient system of self-government in the local area.
What are the main aims of Panchayati Raj?
The main aims of the Panchayati Raj in India have been democratic decentralization, rural local-self government and machinery for rural development. Socioeconomic development of rural India can be described as the key aim of the Panchayati
What are the salient features of rural and urban local-self Government Institutions?
The salient features of rural and Urban local-self government Institutions are:
(1) These are grass roots level democratic institutions.
(2) These are elected by the local people for securing local needs with the help of local resources.
(3) These act as training schools of Indian Democracy.
What is the dual administration feature of the Indian Constitution?
Dual administration: India establishes a dual polity. Each citizen is a subject of two governments- the government of the state in which he resides and the government of India. He participates in elections for both these governments. He obeys both the central as well as state laws. He pays taxes to both the governments. Both governments act to provide him with services in their respective areas as stand demarcated by the Constitution.
What is the special role of Judiciary in the federal feature and the Indian Constitution?
Special role of Judiciary: The constitution of India provides for an independent judicial system with the Supreme Court at its head. The Supreme Court has the power to settle the disputes arising between the Union and States as well as among the States. It is the final interpreter of the Constitution. It judges the Constitutional validity of laws of both the Union and States and in case any law or any part of the law is found to be unconstitutional.
What are the facts reflect very strong centre Unitarian features of Indian Federalism?
A very strong Centre Unitarian features of Indian Federalism reflect the following facts reflect this feature.
(1) The Union List, over which the Union Government has the exclusive jurisdiction, Government has the exclusive jurisdiction is the largest List with 97 subjects.
(2) The Concurrent List contains 47 subjects. It is also virtually in the hands of the Union.
(3) The Constitution of India gives the residuary powers to the Union and not the States.
(4) The Constitutional history of India since 1950 shows that there has been a tendency to limit the state List by the incorporation of more and more subjects either in the Union List or in the Concurrent List.
Write about limitations on the Legislature Power of a State.
The limitations on the Legislative Power of a state is:
(1) The Governor of State has the right to reserve any bill passed by a State Legislature.
(2) Upon a request made by two or more State Legislatures.
(3) During the period of emergency, the Union Parliament gets the power to legislate on State Subjects.
(4) The Union Parliament has the power to make any law necessary for meeting. any obligation resulting from an international treaty.
What is common Election Commission Unitarian feature?
Common Election Commission: For organizing elections to the Union Parliament as well as to the State legislatures, the Constitution of India provides for a single Common Election Commission. The Election Commission of India has the sole responsibility for conducting all elections or by-elections for the Union Parliament and State Legislatures. The Parliament has the right to legislate on matters of election.
Unequal representation of the States in the Rajya Sabha.
The States do not enjoy equality of representation in the Union. They get seats in the Rajya Sabha in proportion to their populations and as fixed by Constitution. These do not enjoy equal Seats in the Rajya Sabha. The Indian system of giving representation to the States in the Upper House as such is not based on the true federal principle of equal representation of all the federating States.
What have been the main changes introduced by the 73rd Amendment Act in the Panchayati Raj?
The main changes introduced by the 73rd Amendment Act in the Panchayati Raj are:
(1) Reservation of seats for SCs and STs in a state.
(2) Reservation of the posts of chairpersons for the SCs and STs in a state.
(3) Reservation of not less than l/3rd of the elected seats in each Panchayat for women.
(4) Reservation of l/3rd posts of chairpersons for rural women and rotation of reservation of women among constituencies.
(5) Direct election of Panchayats and continuity in the working of Panchayati Raj institutions.
What is the composition of a Gram Panchayat?
The membership of the Gram Panchayat varies considerably from 5 to 31. In most of the seats, Gram Panchayat have 5 to 9 members but in U.P. from 16 to 31 members and in Odisha 11 to 25 members. The members of the Panchayat i.e. Panchas are directly 1 elected by all the voters by a secret ballot. In all the seats l/3rd of the seats are reserved for women.
What are the major functions of the Gram Sabha?
The major functions of the Gram Sabha are:
(1) To approve the plans, programmes and projects for socioeconomic development before these are taken up by the Grama Panchayat for implementation.
(2) To identify and select persons for getting benefits under poverty eradication and other such programmes.
(3) To consider and approve the budget of the Gram Panchayat.
(4) To consider proposed taxes, levies, rent, and fees.
What are the functions of the Sarpanch of a Gram Panchayat?
Sarpanch presides over the meetings of the Gram Panchayat. He conducts and
regulates its proceedings. He also maintains records of the meetings. Signs documents on behalf of the Gram Panchayat, prepares all statements and reports, maintains and regulates the property of the Gram Panchayat and carries out all correspondence with the government and administration.
Write some functions of Gram Panchayat.
Some functions of Gram Panchayat are:
(1) Maintenance of public places including its sanitation, the drainage systems.
(2) Maintenance of wells, water pumps, baolies, springs, ponds and tanks for the supply of water for drinking, washing and bathing.
(3) Maintenance of burial and cremation grounds.
(4) Registration of births and deaths.
What are the functions of the Panchayat Samitis?
The functions of the Panchayat Samitis are Planning, execution and supervision of development programmes in the Samiti area, execution of community development projects, management of primary education, management of such trusts and institutions as stand entrusted to it by the Odisha government, supervision of laws relating to vaccination and registration of births and deaths, borrowing of funds and granting of loans, supervision of Gram Panchayats of the Samiti area.
Who are the members of the Zilla Parishad?
Each Zilla Parishad in Odisha consists of both directly elected as well as ex-officio members. One member is directly elected on the basis of adult suffrage from each constituency within the areas of the Zilla Parishad. Ex-officio members include Chairman of all Panchayat Samitis and MLAs, MLCs and MPs who represent the Zilla Parishad area in the state legislature and the Union Parliament. Some seats are reserved for persons belonging to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.
What are the obligatory functions of a Gram Panchayat in Odisha?
The obligatory functions of a Gram Panchayat in Odisha are construction, repair and maintenance of streets, lighting, clearing of public street and places, removal of unauthorized constructions, laying and maintenance of drains and public urinals and latrines, water supply, scavenging and waste removal, checking epidemics, removal of harmful vegetation, checking of dangerous and offensive trade, registration of birth and death and marriages.
What are the main sources of income of the Zilla Parishad?
The main sources of the income of the Zilla Parishad are:
(1) Central or state government funds allotted to the Zilla Parishad.
(2) Share in the land reserve collected from the Zilla Parishad area.
(3) Grants from All India bodies and Institutions for development of cottage, village and small scale industries.
(4) State taxes or fees as may be prescribed.
(5) Income from trusts administered by the Zilla Parishad.
What are the qualification for getting elected to a Municipal Corporation or a Municipal Committee?
The qualification for getting elected to a Municipal Corporation or a Municipal Committee are:
(1) The person should be a citizen of India.
(2) His/her name should figure in the voters’ list of the city/word concerned.
(3) He/she must be at least 21 years or more of age.
(4) He/she should not hold any government office.
(5) He/she should not have been declared ineligible to contest elections for committing crime.
What are the Administrative functions of Municipal Corporation?
The administrative functions of Municipal Corporation are:
- It frames its own bylaws for proper municipal administration.
- It imposes fines on those who violate its rules.
- It recruits staff of the Municipal Corporation.
- It can purchase and sell land.
- It demolishes dilapidated and dangerous buildings and bridges.
- It registers birth and death.
- It makes arrangements for the cremation of the dead.
- It welcome foreign guests.
What is the system of reservation of seats in a Municipal body?
Reservation of seats:
(1) Scheduled Castes,
(2) Backward classes
(3) Women is a rule.
The ratio of seats reserved for scheduled castes is in proportion to the population of scheduled castes in the Municipal area. One seat is reserved for the Backward classes. No less than l/3rd of the seats are reserved for scheduled caste women.
In which area Nagar Panchayats are established?
Nagar Panchayats are created for transitional areas or for very-small urban areas. For this purpose several factors are taken into consideration, the density of the population therein, the revenue generated for local administration, the percentage of employment in non-agricultural activities, the economic importance of the area.
What are the main sources of income of a Municipal Council?
The main sources of income of a Municipal Council are:
- Taxes for house, property, water and service.
- Income from Municipal property, electricity supply and water supply.
- Government grants.
- Development loans from public financial institutions.
Federalism In West Indies:
As we all are aware the West Indies is not a country, then what is West Indies?
West Indies was a colony of British. In 1958, the Federation of West Indies came into being, it had a weak central government and the units(states) in it were independent, a weak central government is not able to maintain hold over the units, that is why it broke into several parts(states) in 1962. (In India, our central government is strong, that is why the units(states) were not able to go away or break from the country).
In 1973, by treaty of Chaguaramas independent islands joined together to form joint authorities in the form of common legislature, supreme court, common currency and to a ceration degree common market which is known as Caribbean community. Therefore, the units did not live separately also and neither together.
What is a treaty of Chaguaramas?
In 1973, the Caribbean community was formed, independent islands established joint authorities in the form of Common Legislature, Supreme Court, a Common Currency and to a certain degree Common Market which is known as Caribbean Community.
Federalism In Nigeria:
As discussed above, there are other factors that decide the unity of federations, that is culture, ideology and history, so if there is a distrust or failure of trust between Communities, then also a federal community will not be able to survive. An example is Nigeria.
Till 1914, there were two colonies of British: Northern Nigeria and Southern Nigeria. After the independence, Nigerian leaders decided to form a federal constitution at Ibadan constitutional conference. ( federal constitution means where the regions were given independence to control their own affairs but it also had a central government to look after the affairs of the entire country, for example, issues like foreign policy does not affect one region but the entire country as a whole).
So three major ethnic groups of Nigeria controlled their own regions- Yoruba controlled West, Ibo controlled East and Hausa – Fulani controlled North. And when these groups tried to spread their influence in other regions, it failed and it led to fears and conflicts, it failed because there was lack of trust and faith, so it led to military regime, in 1979, no state was allowed to have any civil police because if each region would have their own police, so they would have protected their own region and harassed the other region, and also the region having police facility would have become powerful and it would have led to secession from the country.
Military regime finally gave way to democracy in 1999, religious differences and conflicts over who will control revenues from oil resources continue to be present, therefore, Nigeria is an example where religious, ethnic and economic differences is leading to problems in a federation.
Give an example where a trust deficit is leading to problems in federalism.
Explain the federation problems in Nigeria.
Till 1914, there were two Colonies of British: Northern Nigeria and Southern Nigeria. After the independence, Nigerian leaders decided to form a federal constitution at Ibadan constitutional conference. So three major ethnic groups of Nigeria controlled their own regions- Yoruba controlled West, Ibo controlled East and Hausa – Faulani controlled North. And when these groups tried to spread their influence in other regions,it failed and it led to fears and conflicts, military regime was established.
In 1 979, no state was allowed to have any civil police, a military regime finally gave way to democracy in 1 999, religious differences and conflicts over who will control revenues from oil resources continued to be present. Therefore, Nigeria is an example where religious, ethnic and economic differences is leading to problems in a federation.
Federalism In The Indian Constitution:
If the countries have disintegrated like USSR, Pakistan; it does not mean that they did not have any federal system, these countries were also having federal system, but then why it lead to their disintegration? Because simply having federalism is not enough, it also depends on the type of federalism you have, whether you have federalism with a weak centre or there is federalism with a strong centre.
USSR had a federalism with a weak centre that is why the centre was not able to control its territories but India has federalism with a strong centre and it was able to have a strong control over its states.
India is a diverse land with many languages, religions and regions. And to give them identity and recognition, leaders ofour national movement thought that these units should govern themselves. But how much power should be given to the states to govern themselves? our constituent assembly decided to frame the government that would be based on principles of unity and cooperation between centre and states and separate power to states.
The most important principle of federal system adopted by Indian constitution is that relations between states and centre would be based on cooperation, therefore, our constitution recognised diversity but at the same time it emphasised unity. And surprisingly, our constitution does not even mention the word federation, article simply says that India that is Bharat shall be a Union of States, which means states will live in unity.
What is the nature of our federal system?
Our federal system is based on the principles of unity and cooperation between centre and states and separate powers to the states, therefore, our constitution recognizes diversity and emphasies unity.
What does Article 1 says?
(1) says that India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States.
(2) says that the states and territories there of shall be as specified in the first schedule.
Why did our national leaders thought of centralised federal system?
India is a diverse land with many languages, culture, religions and regions. it was necessary to give recognition to them, and also India is a large country, so it was important to divide powers between provinces and central government, that is why our national leaders thought of federal system, but they wanted- unity and cooperation between states. so they gave us a centralised federal system.
Division Of Powers:
As we have just read that our leaders of national movement divided the powers between centre and states, so there are two level of government: one which governs the entire country that is national government and the other which governs the states is called state government, both of these have been granted status by the constitution and their acreas of functions are clearly demarcated under union list, state list and concurrent list.
Under union list only, centre can legislate and work in these subjects, in state list. only state can legislate and work in these subjects and under concurrent both union and state can work. If there is any conflict in these lists, or if there is a conflict which subject to be done by whom, then judiciary intervenes and resolves the issues.
One important thing is that economic and financial powers are centralised and are in the hands of central government. that means though states have been given subjects to be worked under but they do not have financial resources to carry out their work. And if any matter is not mentioned in the lists, then it comes under residuary powers. and union legislature can alone legislate on these matters, state cannot legislate on these matters.
This means that there is a unitary federal structure.
What are the two levels of government in our political system?
Our political system has two levels of government:
(a) National level.
(b) State level.
What are residuary powers?
Subjects which do not come in any of the lists come under residuary powers. union legislature alone has the power to legislate on such matters.
For example, Cyber Laws
List some subjects come under union list.
Currency and coinage, foreign trade, defense, atomic energy
List some subjects which come under state list.
Police, prison, agriculture and state public services.
List some subjects which come under concurrent list.
List some subjects which come under residuary list.
Why did we adopt federalism with a strong central government?
As we have read in introduction that federal countries like USSR disintegrated, so the important question which comes is the nature of federalism, whether the federalism was with weak central government who could not control the desire of states to separate from their country or federalism was with strong central government which would keep a check and control on states.
India is a diverse country and there was a requirement of federalism which will accommodate the demands of all diversities, but at the same time, it requires a strong central government that will stop disintegration and bring about social and political change, with this idea in mind our constitution framers drafted the constitution, and also at the time of independence, India was not only divided into provinces by the British but there were more than 500 princely states which had to be integrated into existing states or new states had to be created.
Besides unity as a factor, India needed to tackle the socioeconomic problems of the country. lt required to eliminate poverty, illiteracy, and inequalities of wealth. So it required a strong central government in cooperation with states for development and unity.
Why did India adopt federalism with a strong central government?
The reasons for why India adopted federalism with a strong central government:
- India is a diverse country. So, there was a need for federalism that will accommodate the demands of all diversities. But at the same time, it requires a strong central government that will stop disintegration and brings about social and political change.
- At the time of independence, India was not only divided into provinces by the British but there were more than 500 princely states which had to be integrated into existing states, or new states had to be created.
- Besides unity as a factor, India needed to tackle the socioeconomic problems of the country. It is required to eliminate of poverty, illiteracy, and inequalities of wealth. So it required a strong central government in cooperation with states for development.