Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 Foundations of Education Solutions Unit 3 Current Issues in Education Long Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 12th Class Foundations of Education Unit 3 Current Issues in Education Long Answer Questions
Long Type Questions With Answers
What is Universalization of Primary education? Explain the stage of Universalization.
Article 45 of the Indian Constitution directs that the state shall endeavor to provide within the period of ten years from the commencement of constitution free and compulsory education for all until they complete the age of fourteen years. In 1950 January 26, when Indian constitution came into force, it was specified in it. But this target is not still fulfilled though 68 years have already been passed by.
After that so many commission and committees have been set up and have given their valuable recommendations and suggestions. Though some rules have been imposed by the Govt, of India, and this problem is included in the five year plans still the result is not satisfactory.
In a democratic country like India much more emphasis is given on education.
There is provision of free and compulsory education for all boys and girls, from age group. 6 to 14 irrespective of caste, creed, colour, sex and religion differences. Such universal education involves the following three stages as discussed below:
(1) Universal Provision:
Universality of provision means every child should avail the opportunity of primary education free and compulsory from 6 to 14 years. Every village should have a primary school or the primary school should be situated within easy walk of distance from the home of every children.
The children will be provided with mid time meal, free books and dress materials.
(2) Universality of Enrolment:
Universality of Enrolment means emphasis must be given for enrolment of children 5+ age in class -1 of the primary school and universal enrolment system or same age group admission system to be worked out through out the country. As a result the individual difference may be reduced to some extent.
(3) Universality of Retention:
The universality of retention means the consideration should be taken so that no child should leave the school before the completion of primary education. All necessary steps to be taken against the dropout, wastage of the children before the completion of primary course. It is needed that the parents should be financed for the study expenses of the children.
(4) Universality of Achievement:
Universality of achievement means no child should meet failure or detained before the completion of primary course. They will be awarded with grades. All to be given pass in every class, in primary level. So that they will be interested in study, otherwise there will be wastage and stagnation.
(5) Universal Participation:
Necessary steps are to be taken for universal participation. For this education workers, sikshya sahayaks are appointed to mobilise the parents to send their children to school Universal participation is desired for which mid-time meals, free dress materials and free books are supplied them to attract towards the school education.
Discuss the problems on the way of universalization.
In 1950 our constitution came into force and Article 45 of the constitution worked out in which free and compulsory education is to be provided to all children without caste, creed, religion and sex with age group 6 to 14 years. It should be completed by 1960 but 68 years have already been elapsed and there was no improvement. There are contain hurdles on the way of such universalization. They are as follows:
1. Social Problems:
India’s tradition, culture, belief politics and social system is quite different from other countries. In India different religions of people and different cultures of people are dwelling together.
They have blind beliefs, superstitions like early marriage, pardah system, hate to women education, Intouchables which stands on the way of universalisation. As a result primary education in our country is not advancing and wastage, stagnation arises. Such wastage and stagnation is increasing day by day.
2. Geographical Problem:
Geographical problem is a major cause in the way of universalisation. If we put light into the geographical map of India we see different regions differ from one another. It is not suitable for education. It is filled with forests, hills, mountains, deserts, canals, oceans and there is no roads, no communication. The village are distanced and scattered.
So it is difficult on the part of tiny, little children to go alone to nearby school crossing the river, canals and forests. The parents are also not willing to send their children to such a distance school. In rain and winter it becomes too difficult to attend the school regularly.
3. Economic Problem:
In India 70 % of the population are still below the poverty line and they are exploited, turtured, humiliated by richer classes. So the poor parents do not care for the study o f their children. When the child becomes 7 to 8 years the poor parents engage or utilise their children in collecting wages and forest products and some others engage their children in household activities.
The poor parents are unable to bear the study expenses. The State Govt, unable to bear the study expenses of the pupils. So the economic problem is a major problem which stands on the way of universalisation.
4. Political Causes:
From the pages of history of India, it is been that British has ruled over India for 200 years. They do not think of the education of Indians. They knew that if Indians will be educated, they would demand their independence. So they neglected the Indians in education. After indpendence India faced Zamindari system, border problem India-China, and Indo-Pak wars. Indian got no time to think of the education of children.
After independence, the political leaders take no interest in the education of their children. In rural areas the schools opened having no school building, no trained teachers, no required talency for the teachers. The schemes introduced is not properly supervised. So the Govt, neglecting education in different ways as a result there is no progress.
5. Administrative Problems:
Generally primary education is the responsibility of local bodies. The members of such local bodies are the representatives of public. So with the idea of losing vote, they are not collecting fee for education and remain lose in administration. They are not managing the educational institutions properly. As a result primary education is not progressing.
6. Language Problems:
India is a land of languages. In India there are 16 national languages and 1752 dialects or regional languages. Though Hindi is our national language still regional languages have more importance. The South Indians oppose Hindi language. The tribal people use Palli, lipi and symbol language as their communication. So it is difficult to publish text books on those languages. Secondly, there is lack of language teachers. So language problem has become a major problem on the way of universalisation.
7. Rapid Population Growth:
In the expansion of primary education rapid population growth stand as a great wall. All the plans and projects gets failure because of rapid population growth. It is not possible to construct and open schools in comparison to the growth ofpopulation. The Govt, is unable to manage such schools. As a result rapid growth of population, the Govt, is unable to provide free and compulsory education for all.
8. Narrow Curriculum:
A narrow curriculum also is an obstacle on the way of primary education. Child centred education is the modem education system but present curriculum brings no improvement of the child. Such education system is aimless because it can not help for future engagements, does not help for self-supporting. So it should be changed to vocational centred.
9. Lack of Trained Teachers:
Lack of trained qualified teachers, women teachers is the major problem in the improvement of primary education. Though the teachers are not trained they have no interest for teaching. So lack of ideal teachers the primary education can not advance. Secondly, the teachers are low-paid and no social prestige. Thirdly, single teacher scheme is still in India which obstructs education in many ways.
What do you mean by wastage and stagnation? Give the major causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial measures.
Wastage and stagnation are major problems on the way of universalisation, which was explained by Hartog Committee in 1929.
The term wastage is used to denote all kinds of wastes in the field of education. When the child leaves the school before the completion of primary course is wastage. So premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion of elementary education is wastage.
The term stagnation means the detention or retention of a child is a class for more than one year, on account of his .unsatisfactory progress, not promoted to the next higher class for some reason like educational weaknesses causes of wastage and stagnation. The chief causes of wastage and stagnation are as follows:
1. Social causes.
2. Economic causes.
3. Geographical causes.
4. Educational causes.
1. Social Causes:
India is a traditionally a conservative country and the conservatives are trying to keep up their age-old traditions intact, following the older customs, blind beliefs, and superstitions.
In spite of all efforts of the social reformers and some regulations the practice of child marriage, contempt towards girls education, evil system still prevail in some sections of Indian society. Even today the child marriage system is prevailing. As a result of these evil practices, the girls remain uneducated and the boys face the same situation after marriage.
The Indians do not consider the education of girls economically profitable. They put the responsibility of earning on boys and engage themselves in collecting wages and family. Vocations at an early age. The social evils like untouchables, prejudices to pardah system, hate for women education and early marriage system cause wastage and stagnation.
2. Economic Causes:
India is an economically backward country in which 70% of the total population are poor, below the poverty line. They cannot arrange two meals a day. They send their children to school in ill-fed and ill-clad. When they became 7/8 years they engage their children in family vocation, agriculture work, collecting forest products and collecting daily wages. Their education come to an end. In tribal areas they collect forest products and so the tribal school remain closed. Dropouts is high in tribal areas.
3. Geographical Causes:
In India, in the hilly areas the villages arc scattered and distanced from the villages. The Govt, has no funds to open schools in every village. Some areas are filled with forests, canals, rivers, oceans, hills and mountains and there has no communication facility. The hills or forests stand on the way of their education. So it is difficult to implement universal primary education in those areas. Maximum wastage, and stagnation are seen. Secondly, due to the climate the teachers are not willing to stay that areas and teach. So schools are closed lack of teachers also.
4. Educational Causes:
The shortcomings of our educational system is and then important reason of wastage and stagnation. These shortcomings are as follows:
- Heavy and uniteresting curriculum
- Defective method of teaching.
- Overcrowded classes.
- Inefficient, untrained, unskilled teachers.
- Lack of learning materials.
- Large number of single teacher schools.
- Unsuitable school plant. v
- Language problem and lack of language teachers.
- Appointment of inadequate women teachers.
- Neglect rathe supply ofmid time meals, dress materials and textbooks.
- Lack of proper supervision.
- A wrong system of examination and evaluation
- Lack of life-centred education.
- Elementary system is to be modified. The enrolment to be done in same age groups within two months from the date of the commencement of the session. A fix time to be fixed for admission.
- School hours to be fixed to the situation of the school in hilly and forest areas.
- Appointment of skilled teachers and supply of textbooks free of cost in the right time.
- There shall be the provision of first-aid and health services.
- Adequate equipment and teaching aids to be supplied to schools.
- Effective supervision and inspection may be provided.
- Abolishment of single teacher school system.
- Teachers are to be paid their real salary and social prestige to be given.
- National system of education to be implemented and one type of school to be introduced, then the wastage and stagnation can be reduced.
Explain the steps taken to solve the primary education problem in India.
To solve the problem arising in primary education and to reduce wastage and stagnation in universal primary education, the following steps are to be taken.
1. Suitable Planning and Projects:
Such planning is of two types scuh as – (i) Qualitative improvement and, (ii) Quantitative expansion.
For qualitative development in education qualitative teachers to be appointed aid necessary learning materials and aids to be supplied. First of all the aims and objectives of primary education to be selected.
2. Care from the Govt:
To solve the problem in primary education care should be taken in the Govt, level. Primary education is the responsibility of the public. So it is the duty of Govt, to give minimum education of masses. The Govt, should be careful for the qualitative and quantitative expansion of schools. Special care is to be taken in tribal areas.
3. Cooperation of the Public:
As primary education is the responsibility of the public so the expansion of schools should be done in a cooperative basis. The public should give the necessary learning materials and local public should be shared in the affairs ofthe school. A committee should be formed to proper supervision of school affiars then there would be an improvement.
4. To workout law:
Unitl primary education continue the optional duty of parents, there will be no development. In the legal duty of parents to give primary education to all children from age group 6 to 14 up to the level of elementary education. No children would go on wastage is the responsibility Govt, and public.
5. To improve the teachers condition:
To improve and expansion of primary education there is need to improve the condition of teachers. They should be given the adequate salary and social prestige. Special care is to be taken for their security. Likewise maximum women teachers are to be appointed in primary schools and care to be taken for their training.
To the expansion of primary education, there is need of finance. In comparison to the leading countries of the world, the finance for education is very low in India. A special budget is to be made for it. As education is the joint responsibility of both the Central and State Govt, so both should allocate education budget rightly.
There is need of administrative reformation in primary education. The duties given to Zilla Parishad, their right application is needed. The supervisors are to be appointed to supervise time to time, then primary education will prosper. The commission and committee are to be set up for the reformation and qualitative improvement of education.
8. Growth of Consciousness:
To eradicate the hazzards in primary education, there is need of consciousness among the people. The massmedia systems like television, radio, newspapers and radio, T.V. programmes, discussion and seminars to be organised. Education Commission should give wise suggestions for qualitative and quantitative improvement of primary education.
What do you mean by National Integration? What are its needs and essentials of it? Explain.
“Unity in Diversity” is National Integration. It is a feeling among the people to share common objectives. Purposes despite of cultural differences and bring a synthesis among different religions, castes, languages and communities as a common whole. National Integration is a cementing force that binds the citizens of a country in a single unity.
(1) Needs and Essentials of National Integration :
National integration is needed for the unity and progress, prosperity, security and sovereignty of a country. The major needs and essentials are as follows:
(a) For building a Strong Nation:
To strengthen our Nation from all sides National Integration is essentially needed. There is need of the change of national culture. It is said, man of the character always work for the unity and integrity of the Nations. Ideal citizens are the builders of a nation. Integration is a binding force which can build a strong, progressive nation.
(b)To build an undivided Nation:
The factors like casteism, linguism, and provincialism always divides a united nation into small parts. The regional feelings among the regional leaders goes against the undivided nation. For strong unit among all sectors. National Integration is needed.
(c) For Social and Religious Cohesion:
India is a secular state in which religions play a dominant role in our social life. It stands as a wall, an obstacle between different social groups suc a thing happened in 1992 two major community of people like Hindus and Muslims in India, regarding the conflict Hindu Mandir and Babri Masjid integration hampers.
So national integration is the only answer to such social and religion differences. There is need of social and religious cohesion to establish communal harmony.
(d) To maintain peace and harmony:
India is a diversified land. To restore peace and harmony among the people integration is essential For social and economic progress of the state the national integration is the need of the time.
If internal disturbance will arise, then the country will be weakened. Peace and prosperty will be hampered. In such a state national unity is needed.
(e) For developing National Culture:
National culture demands national language. So a sound language policy is essential. It stands as a wall between different social groups and integration hampers. We have to pay respect our national language.
Discuss the major obstacles on the way of National Integration.
After our independence India achieved political unity and it needs social and national integration. But on the way of national unity, major obstacles like caste system, communaiism lack of national system of education, linguism, economic differences, poverty, other social factors, lack of leadership, etc. stand as obstacles. Let us discuss the impendiments on the way of National Integration.
(1) Caste system:
In india about 3500 castes and sub-castes of people living together. Indian society is a caste-ridden society and people are divided into various castes and each caste consider superior to others. Such narrowness, narrow Caste loyalty create great hindrances on the way of national unity and emotional integration. The superior and inferior castes clash with each other and a social civil war broke out in India which hampers National Unity.
There are different communities in India and they observe different religious festivals and ceremonies, religious customs. They have royalty to their own community, own religion makes them more blind. Both Hindus and Muslims oppose strongly to each other in religion.
As a result communal riots are taking place in India. Such a clash occured in 1992, between two major communities like Hindus and Muslims, regarding the issue ofHindu Temple and Babri Masjid. It hamper national integration with great loss of life and property. There is need of harmony.
In view of the language the provinces are built in India. The provincial leaders for their political interests handle the people. They seldom think of the whole of the country. They want to separate their province from India and build an independent separate state. Such demand is seen in the provinces like Andhra as Tehigudesham, Odisha as Utkaldesham and Punjab as Khalistan, and Jammu-Kashmir is demanding to separate from India.
The regional and provincial leaders become powerful for the maxim. It paces a great threat to the feeling of national Integration.Recently, Pakistan is going to be divided for the cause.
India is a land of languages and dialects, even in each square kilometer, a language differs. Diversity of language is an obstacle on the way of national Integration. There is a conflict with regional languages. So a sound language policy is essential Language controversy is creating barriers in social groups and communities.
People of one region do not like the language of other region and never tolerate the improvement of others language. In India people are speaking in 1652 dialects are living together, which is a factor of diversity.
In tribal areas they speaking Palli, lipi and symbol languages. It obstructs in their education. There is no system of teaching in their languages. The merits of national Integration is only highlighted in sixteen national languages which is the obstacle to understand it.
The economic disparities is growing day by day in India. The rich becomes richer and the poor becomes poor. The gap between the ‘haves’ and ‘have nots’is increasing day by day.
The fruit of independence is enjoyed by the richer classes. So the poor sections revolt against the rich. Asa result lack of cooperation between the rich and the poor, a social civil war broke out. So economic differences is a great obstacle on the way of national Integration.
In a diversified land like India the caste differences, regional differences and economic differences gives rise to social differences. Each social groups clash with each other in observing the customs, festivals, and beliefs and worshipping their gods and goddess. So these things as a great obstacle on the way of national Integration.
India is a land of a multiparty system. The people are divided amongest themselves on account of political affiliation. So the political parties are fighting each other to run to power by any means which hamper national unity.
(8)Lack of Leadership:
India is a diversified land with a number of castes, religions and classes. To bring about a desired unity in diversity, leadership is essential There is lack of national leadership.
(9)Lack of Proper Education System:
In India national system of education not been implemented. In different provinces it differs. The right to education and universal system of education is not property implemented in India. The teachers are not well paid. In rural area only there is common school system shaving no library, no laboratory.
So the rural people are fighting against the town dwellers in respect of education. So integration hampers. So proper education policy is to be made for the country as a whole. Then the problem can be solved. There are the impediment that stand on the way of National Integration.
Discuss the role of education in promoting the National Integration.
Education plays a number of significant roles in promoting National Integration. They are as follows:
(1) Providing a National System of Education:
To develop the feeling of nationalism, a national system of education is to be implemented, which is education for all. Right to Education for all children2009 is to be implemented. Such uniform pattern of education and a uniform curriculum will help us developing the feeling of nationalism and national integration
(2) School Uniform:-
The scheme of school uniform for stuedents and teachers is to be worked out. Then the difference of low and high may be reduced. The poor children go to school with ill clad and the high-class children with royal robes. It creates a meanness, and lownessamong them. To reduce such disparities shcool uniform should be strictly worked out.
(3) Reorganisation of Curriculum:
The curriculum should be redesigned on national ideals. The subjects to be taught as National history and geography should be taught from the national point of view. For example, from the history of national movement to be taught. Civics and political science are to be taught developing ideal citizenship. A national level curricutumis to be designed to develop integration.
(4) Reorganisation of Text Books:
To develop the national spirit among the children the textbooks are to be revised on the subjects as (Indian History, Geography, Civics, Literature, Language in appreciating social, cultural, historical, linguistic and religion solidarity books on regional national heros and their contributions should be published.
(5) Observing National Days:
In observing national days like Republic Day, Independence Day, Gandhi Jayanti, Children’s day, Teacher’s Day, the child develops with national spirit. By learning of the biography of freedom fighters, Indian National Movement, the history of national flag and singing national anthem the children can be inculcate the spirit of national integrity.
Co-curricular activities can also develop emotional and national integration by fostering the attitudes of tolerances accommodation, cooperation, respect and responsibility towards others.
It develops diverse culture. Tours of students to the place of historical importance, attending excursion, NCC, NSS Redcross and other social service programs. The students will develop cooperation. The extra activities like road play, drama, and cooperative match they will develop integrity.
(7) Suitable Language Policy:
A suitable language policy is to be introduced and worked out. Hindi as National language and regional languages are to be given importance. It will develop nationalism and patriotism. Along with this the humanitic education such as “Fatherhood of God and brotherhood of man” should be taught which will strengthen the feeling of emotional and national integration.
(8) Teaching of Religious and Normal education:
Moral and religious teaching will develop a brotherhood. Teaching about secularism also evokes such spirits. So our schools should emphasis on the basic unity of all religions and such feeling of secularism will foster emotional and national integration among the students.
(9) Role of Teacher:
The teacher also play a dominant role in promoting national unity. No programme of national integration can succeed unless the teacher remain above casteism, communalism and narrowness. A teacher can inculcate national values enabling them to outgrow the narrow loyalities of caste, religion and languages.
Teacher with strong national feeling can strengthen the students an idea of national unity, integrity, the teacher should quip students with the knowledge of national movement put emphasis on moral and spiritual education. Education is a potent force to bring about emotional and national integration.
What is Value Education? Give its characteristics.
The term value has several connotations, has not a simple unitary meaning. Value signifies neither a thing nor an individual, but thought or point of view. Anything which is useful to a person becomes a value to him. Value has both usefulness and utility. Anything or everything which are good, useful, important signifies value. From the educational point of view it bears educational value.
To J.S. Bruebecker ‘To state on its aim of education is to state his educational value”. To Ralph Borsodi “Values are emotional judgment”. They are generated by feeling not cognition, they are emotional not intellectual judgment.
Nature / Characteristics of Value:
From a philosophical point of view, such responses are not mechanical responses, the responses are conditioned by man’s values. The nature of values are as follows:
(1) Aesthetic Value:
To John Keats, “A thing of beauty is joy forever”. Man reaches to everything he sees, he hears or senses. Fie makes an aesthetic judgement of beauty decides what is beauty and what is not ? His appreciation of beauty is known as ‘aesthetic values. By enjoying rising of sun, sea shore, place of monuments we derive pleasure is having aesthetic value.
(2) Social Values:
Individuals constitute society which has certain ideas, models and norms in general in respect to behaviour, love to humanity, universal brotherhood, sincerity, honesty, and integrity of character. The aim of education is to inculcate social values, activities like NCC, NSS, Boy Scouts, Girls Guide, helps the students to develop themselves physically and prepare them for safety and security. Social values have been emphasised at every stage of social development.
(3) Eternal Values:
Eternal values builds the man with beauty, joyous, beautiful and trust. The best aim of man is joyous. Idealists consider three jewells as truth, shire and beauty.
Such values are eternal spiritual, which cannot be changed. They are eternal, remains from immemorial period, continuing now and will remain in future. Such values are permanent, in changeable.
Ethical value deals with the problem of good and evil. Plato, states it is not the ethical knowledge or sciences but that brings happiness and knowledge of good and evil.
Moral values the clean behaviour of man. From moral experience moral values are drawn “To judge right and wrong, moral values are evoked. To Taylor, the child develops moral values in direct ways. By education the behaviour is modified, character is built.
To build the child with dutifulness, and evoke the social potentialities truth, honesty, justice, and nonviolence is moral values.To Herbert, honesty, tolerance, justice, self-control and freedom includes moral values. Gandhi emphasized on character building aim of education. Idealistic behaviour inculcates moral values.
(6) Telic Value:
Telic value is connected with convictions and prejudices, ends and means, and also the important purpose to which man tries them to realize in life.
The supporter of inter value claim that values depends on the personal ideas and experiences of an individual For them whatever useful is good and whatever good is useful. A thing which is useless, becomes valueless also.
(8) External Value:
Supporter of external value claim that the social environment. influence the quality or the value of an object. They do not accept value as internal and objective. According to them, all activities are correlate with the individual but with the social environment.
(9) Economic Value:
Economic values are also known as utilitarian value. Man has wants and the wanting which satisfy our need are economic wants. Prices can be quantitatively measured. The needs and desires of man are measured quantitatively in pounds and shillings. To this value system economic value is measured. Man produce both useful things like rice, wheat, sugar, dress etc. which has a value.
(10) Recreational Value:
Schools undertake certain activities like sports and other activities to achieve high recreational values. Aparticular school of thought consider recreation as character builder. Qualities like fair play, locally preservation, etc. development of recreational value.
(11) Spiritual Values:
To inculcate spiritual values among the children is the main objectives of education. Gandhi brought with the weapon of spiritualism, non-violence and peace without bloodshed. The realisation of the ‘Fatherhood of God and brotherhood of Man is sure to make man happy and prosperous.
The great saints, sages have emphasized on the spiritual values. If our education system inspire children the spiritual values contentment will be the result. People can lead a happy life. So attempts should be made to reach the fundament al truth like reverence, restraint, broad-mindedness, truth, tolerance, cooperation, sympathy and non-violence etc. to our children. As a result of which they fight against materialism.
For maintaining happy and good life health is the most important factor. So a philosopher like Vivekananda once remarked, “What India needs is not Bhagvad Gita but the football field. It is an undesirable fact that a sound mind can be built on a sound body only. So it achieved health values. So much emphasis should be given on the secondary school education.
Explain different methods imparting Value Oriented Education.
a)In the age of science there is degradation of morality. For this a sound education system is essential. How the values can be achieved, inculcated among our children, can be imparted to the pupils on different methods. Such methods are of three types, such as:
1) Direct Method
2) Indirect Method
3) Informal Method
1) Direct Method:
Value education can be imparted in the classroom and when values can be taught, it should be pre-planned. Time table is to be fixed. In certain states moral teachings are imparted.
While imparting such value teachings the teacher should make discussions, story telling and examples, illustrations of great men, their biography. As a result valuable thinkings can be developed among the children. There will be a good relation of teacher and taught.
2) Indirect Method:
Now-a-days there is work load in classroom study. So far value education there is no chance of utilization of special curriculum for value education. Because of work load many educationists do not appreciate to impose value education in schools. They give opinion that such value education is to be imparted through co-curricular activities indirectly.
The children are supported with different textbooks. Thereare aimed for value education. The innate potentialities should be guided and it will be possible through dutiful conscious teachers.
For example, in teaching science, it should be done through open observation, scientific thought and truth arguments. This will develop values among the children. While teaching geography they should be taught about living style of the people of different countries.
While teaching mathematics, they will develop up the arguments, thinking values, likewise in upper class teachings S.U.P.W., cooperative values will develop. It will depends on the teacher and his method of teaching.
b) Co-curricular activities:-
Value education is also fruitful through different co-curricular activities. By organisation of such co-curricular activities, group thinking, tolerance, democratic living, secularism etc.
Values can be injected. The children will participate in games, gymnasium and NCC, NSS, Redcross, Scout and it will give a lot of chance of developing value education. By participating in such activities they will develop social culturally and intellectual values.
What is Value Education? Explain its Aims and Objectives.
Value Education, what it means :
What is essential to us, what is acceptable has values. It may be material or non-material or spiritual like truth, beauty and goodness. Which things or materials fulfills our needs, aims and objectives hopes and aspirations has certain values.
The things, the more essential to us, the more the values of it. The social aims and religious beliefs is ideals, religions, philosophical and ideological aspects of culture is considered as values. (A.K.C. Ottaway).
Aims and Objectives of Value Education:
- Peace, love, kindness, sympathy and cooperation has reduced because of the degradation of morality. For this value education is needed.
- The leading and developed countries of the world are utilising the atomic energy in the destructive ways and it has brought a dangerous situation of the existence of human society with the world. In such a state there is need of developing morality among the people.
- The evolution of idealism have reduced the impact of religion. Day by day the effects ofreligion has reduced. For this the love and affection among the people are declining day by day. To evoke the reiligion feelings among the people there is need of value education.
- People now leading the life of white collared jobs and after education despise has increased in such type of feudalistic thought is harmful for the nation. To create interest towards labour and engage them in community work and S.U.P.W. activities there is need of value education.
- The qualitative value injustice, vocations, morality, democracy, secularism, socialism in every aspects reduced. There is growth of inhumanity, violence war
attitude, among the people. To avoid such thing and restore peace there is need of value education.
- Now patriotism, national consciousness among the people become disorder. To evoke such type of values among our children, there is need of value education.
- Because of population explosion people are facing wants. There is degradation of moral and social values. Asound taste, cooperation and aesthetic attitude has reduced from man. In such a situation value education is needed.
- There is spreadof regionalism, communalism, caste feelings among the people. People have blinded to these things. People are disliking national integration and international understanding. Education is the only instrument which can solve all these problems. To build the nation and evoke social, moral, aesthetic, scientific and spiritual values among our children there is need of value education.
What is democratic value in Education? Explain.
Down through the ages the world has experimented various forms of government. Among all the forms of government, democracy is accepted as the best for life values, are stated below:
(1) Develop love for work:-
The present system of education fits the student for getting themselves admitted into higher classes and units for life in order to create a democratic society. Education should took the lead of developing an attitude a love for work.
(2) Training for Leadership:-
In Indian the political leaders follows democractie. values. It inculcates democratic consciousness. The leaders get their second birthday education. They develop an adequate capacity to discharge their duties. They follow democratic principles and value in a democracy. The leaders try to speak the truths.
(3) Dignity of Labour:-
In a democracy the individuals participate and exercise of sovereign power. So the government is there to safeguard the security of its citizens, the dignity of all people. Democracy treats all equal with the feeling of caste, creed, colour and religion.
(4) Democracy as freedom:-
Theverynatuieofone’sindividualitydiffersfromhis fellow beings. Man wants to be free in a democratic state. The aim of education is allowing this freedom to ensure for the individual opportunity to express this unique personality.
(5) Social Values:-
Individuals constitute society which has certain ideals, conduct, duties and responsibilities towards one another. Schooling is preparatory state for cultivating the sense of social values. It develops scientific attitude towards the social life. The child participates in NCC SUPW activities, Redcorss, Community activities in the social school
Discuss the problems on the way of Value Education? Explain the role Of the teacher in this aspect?
In the present day society there is no existence of value. There is a good number ofobstaclesonthe way of value.
- Value education continues from birth to death in an integrated way. There is need of socialchange. It will take a long time and long patience to achieve value
- The child is influenced by his pregroups like family, friends and mass media. The society is filled with social evils. There is no love affection, willingness, blessings for others.There stands suspense and disbelief. The human child cannot understand his duties and rights as a citizen. In such a state who thinks of value.
- Education is a sub-process of the society. The value can return back by education. When all will conscious and teachers high ideal, duties, patriotic feelings, love for student will develop, then value education will be created.
- There is individual differences and every individual chooses a value. What is good and beautiful to one becomes bad and ugly to others. It will be changed by value education.
Role of the teacher in Value Education :
The role of teacher is creating social, spiritual and aesthetic stand significant. The teachers are ideals for students. They are the source of inspiration for them. They are the symbol of incarnation of value, so they should be fight ideals, spotless character, modified behaviour, affectionate, a friend and a philosopher for a student.
The teacher is a sample for a student. Under his guidance and supervision the students can run. Their personality will fall upon them. Their ideal thinking will lead them in proper way. In the past the gurus are the genuine fire, false things violence, preference has no touches to them.
Gurus are Brahma, Vishnu and Maheswar who can sprint the innate potentialities of the children. It can elicit the ignorance from them and shows the light, then the value of education can be achieved.
What are the objectives and importance of Environmental Education?
Environmental education means the educational process dealing with man’s relationship of population pollution resources, allocation and depletion, conservation, transportation, energy distribution all together with the Biosphere.
The environmental education brings knowledge of the causes of pollution, the adverse effects and solution of generation, the dangerous and bad impacts of pollution.
To create awareness among all growth of the society relating to sources, causes, remedy of pollution.
To help social groups and individuals to gain variety of experiences and acquire basic understanding of environment and its associated problems.
To help social groups and individuals acquire a set of value and feelings for the environment and motivation for actively participating in environmental improvement and protection.
To help social groups and individuals acquire the skills for identifying and solve the environmental problems.
To provide social groups and individuals with an opportunity to be actively involved all the levels in working towards the selection of environmental problems.
- Environmental education is very important for the child as well as the adult for self-fulfillment and social development. It helps on the maintenance of life and health. So far the preservation of human race are concerned.
- To help to understand food chain relationship and ecological balance in nature.
- It helps to understand and appreciate how the environment is used for making a living and for promoting material culture.
- It stimulates concern for changing environment in a systematic manner not only for the future but also for immediate welfare of mankind.
- It directs attentions towards the problems of population explosion, exhaustion of natural resources and pollution of environment and sheds light on methods of solving them.
- Environmental education should consider the environment on its totality, natural and manmade, technological and social.
- Focus on currents and potential environmental situations while taking into account the historical perspective.
- Explicitly consider environmental aspects in plans for growth and development.
What is Environmental Pollution? Give the ad verse effects of pollution.
Pollution is derived from the word ‘pollute’ which mean make dirty, destory purity. So pollution means the act of making dirty or the act of destroying purity.
Environmental pollution means destorying the environment in such a way that it is unable to play the role properly and polluted environment to sustain humanity. Such environmental pollution includes the pollute of natural environment by water pollution, air pollution, land pollution and noise pollution.
a) Water Pollution:
Water is polluted by industrial waste products and create infectious diseases. The main causes of water pollution are:
(1)Washing and Bathing:
It is a normal proactive that the bath and wash our clothesin rivers, ponds, canals and dead bodies of animals are thrown into rivers, which pollute the water level.
(2) Domestic Garbage:
The destroyed domestic garbage are thrown into the water. The water level become poisonous. The people use them directly suffer from diseases. The fishes are also destroyed.
(3) Industrial Wastage:
The industrial waste products are sent into the river, polluting the water.
The dirty water of sewarage pollute to water in rivers and canals, ponds.
(5) Pesticides and Biocides:
We use pesticides and biocides like DDT mercury and other such medicines for agricultural purposes which mixes the river water and pollute it.
To increase production we use fertilizers and chemicals but the deposits of nitrates make river water poisonous.
Differents kinds of detergents are used for cleaning purposes mixed river and phosphate deposits become harmful for use.
b) Air Pollution:
Air pollution occurs in different ways. They are as follows:
(1) Means of Transport:
The modem means of transport filled with carbon monoxide lead nitrogen which pollute the air.
The gas and smokes coming out from the factories cause air pollution. The factories produce hydrogen sulphate, oxides, chloride and dist, and other gases which pollute the air.
Burning of raw coal produce carbon dioxide and other poisonous gases.
(4) Use of Insecticides:
The insecticides are used to destory insects which makes the air poisonous and causes air pollution.
Deforestation gives rise to carbon dioxide and pollutes the air.
In cities and towns heaps of residual materials lying here and there, pollute the surroundings and create health hazards.
(c) Land Pollution:
Over fertility of land is descreasing as a result dust, storms, floods and irrational use of irrigation, the problem of soil erosion and salinity of the soil develops land pollution.
(1) Over Population:
Overpopulation cause land pollution. Form lands and grasslands are destroyed for residential purpose, constructing houses and opening of new industries, industrial estates.
Deforestation cause soil erosion and such soil erosion is seriously hampering agricultural industries.
(3) Use of chemicals:
Chemicals and synthetic manures are being used to increase production and such chemicals destory the fertility of the soil.
(4) Scientific Explosion:
Nuclear explosion hydrogen bombs, atomic experiments and nuclear explosion causes air and land pollution.
(5) Noise and sound pollution:
The vehicles producing the high sound and loudspeakers used for propaganda creates ear defects, the mass media’s like gramophones, tape recorders are hazzard for peace-loving citizens.
(d) Adverse Effects:-
(1) Adverse effects of Water Pollution:
It causes diseases, causes land pollution and adversely affect oceanic, vegetation and fisheries.
(2) Adverse effects of Air Pollution:
Climate becomes dirty and carbondioxide rises by 10 % and one cannot get fresh air. The buildings affect adversely due to air pollution. Productivity decreases and the quality ofagriculture deteriorate. Plants are affected by breathing an impure air causes different diseases and affects the future generations.
(3) The adverse effects of Land Pollution:
Decrease the grasslands, croplands, and farmlands and soil erosion are caused. It damages the soil and fertility. Shifting of cultivation takes place. Land pollution causes decrease in power of land fertility. It leads to the shortage of drinking water and wells water are polluted.
(4) Adverse effect on Sound Pollution:
Noise pollution causes deafness, noise causes accidents, high blood pressure, mental tension, irritation, heart diseases. Efficiency in work decreases with noise.
What is the Ecology of Education? What are the ecological factors that influence learning? Explain.
Ecology of education as newly developed science and the term ‘Ecology’ has been borrowed from the field of biology and has been newly applied in the field at education. Just as the environment influences the organism, so also the organism affect the environment.
So ecology of education means the systematic study of how the school environment affects education, learning and growth of learners, how education improves the environment and how environment and education interact with each other.Ecology of education, means the educational environment of a particular institution as related to children’s learning.
Ecological factors influencing education:-
The over all growth and development and the changes of behaviour of a learner entirely depends on the environment. The environmental factors that influences the child’s development include:
- Biotic and
- Abiotic Factors
(1) Biotic Factors:
Biotic factors are living components such as teachers, students and administrators. The number of teachers, their educational qualifications, experiences and behaviour influences in what and how much the students can learn. Similarly, the number of students, their socio-economic background, the interaction pattern among them also influence education and development.
For example, if the classroom is over croweded it leads to low standard of education. Similarly, if the administration is autocratic and unsympathetic it may lead to number of problems. Teacher-pupil interaction also influence learning.
(2) Abiotic Factors:
Abiotic factors are non-living components, may be physical or chemical factors.Physical factors include temperature, light, location and type of building, furniture, laboratoiy, library, playground, equipment, etc. Chemical factors include sanitation, ventilation, pollutant gases, etc. and these factors influenced learning.
for example, the ancient systems classes were held in the open air and under the tree there was no formal school building. Sophisticated aids and equipments were not available at that period. Teaching style and the ability of analysis and expression of the Guru were the basic of education.
So both the biotic and abiotic factors make education and improve the education environment. It is through the programme of environmental education in schools, we can create awareness among the students to check environmental pollution and develop the quality of life.
Trace the background for Right to Education 2009.
Right to free and compulsory education for children in the age group six years to fourteen years has a long background history. Its journey began in the year 1813 and ended on April 2010 taking almost two hundred years, with the enactment of Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009.
(1) Charter Act 1813 made it obligatory for the state to promote ‘knowledge of the science ’ among natives of India.
(2) Indian Education Commission, 1882 declared Elementary Education of the masses to be the major responsibility of the State.
(3) In March 1910, Gopal Krishnan Gokhle put forward the demand for bee and compulsory Elementary Education in the country. No progress was made. Again on March 16, 1911, Sri Gokhale moved his Private Bill deam and during gradual introduction of the principle of Compulsory Elementary Education for the country children. The bill was rejected.
(4) Basic Education:
The scheme of basic Education, conceptualized by Mahatma Gandhi and presented in 1935, recommended that education should be free for all boys and girls between the age of six and fourteen years. However, as a concession girls, if their guardians so desired, could be withdrawn from school after their twelfth year.
(5) The Sergeant Report:
The Sergeant Report of 1945, recommended that a system of universal compulsory and free education should be introduced for both boys and girls between the ages six to fourteen.
(6) 1947 Status:
By 1947 Primary Education had been made compulsory in 152 urban areas and 4995 rural areas. India Gests Freedom and After
India became a free country in 1947. The framers of the constitution of Free India realized the importance of education. It was laid down in Article – 45 of the Directive Principles of State Policy. “The State shall endeavor to provide within ten years of the commencement of this constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they obtain the age of 14 years.
(8) Constitutional Amendment 2002:
Unfortunately, the goal fixed by the constitution for the attainment of universal primary education within 10 years, that is, 1960. could not be achieved. The Hon’ble Supreme Court also held that the right to free education falls in the ambit of the “right to life” enshrined in Article 21.
The 86th. Amendment Act, 2002 of the Indian Constitution declared – vide Article 21 A, that children in the age group 6 to 14 years shall receive free and compulsory education. Thus, Elementary Education becomes a fundamental right for children in the age group 6 to 14 years.
(9) The National Knowledge Commission’s Recommendations:
The National Knowledge Commission appointed by the Government of India in 2005 asserted that, “Providing universal access to quality school education is a cornerstone of development and a minimum necessary condition for any progress towards making India a knowledge society”.
So the commision pleaded for legislation at the cultural level to affirm the right to education, which is a fundamental right mandated by Article – 21 (A).
(10) RTE Act 2009:
The right of children to Free and Compulsory Education Bill 2008 was introduced in the Parliament. The said bill was passed by both the House of Parliament and received the assent of the President of India on the 26th. August 2009.
Right to Education is every child’s Fundamental right. Discuss.
Rights of the Child:
All the rights granted under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UNO) in general and for Indian citizens particular granted under the constitutional right. Certain special provisions have been made for children. The fundamental rights become legal and constitutional on the 20th. November, 1959. Principle – 7 ofthe 10 principles clearly states “the child is entitled to receive education which shall be free and compulsory in Elementary stages.
In 1989,20th. Novermber, the General Assembly of united National Convention on the Rights of the child. Article 28,29 and 30 of the convention provides for educational and cultural rights of children which is ratified on 2nd. December, 1992. India has adopted in 1974 a National Policy for children doing the growing stages for their physical mental and social development.Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009
Right to Education of the constitution included in Article 21A draft of bill composed in the year 2005. Mandatory provision to provide 25 % reservation for disadvantaged children in private schools.
The bill approved by the Cabinet on 2nd July, 2009 and Rajya Sabha passed the Bill on 20th July 2009 and Lok Sabha on 4th. August 2009 and Presidential assent on 26th. August, 2009 as the children’s right to free and compulsory education, except Jammu and Kashmir. India become one of the 13 5 countries of the world to make fundamental right of every child and act come into force on April 1, 2009.
Main Provision / Key Features :
The right of the children to free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 (Age group 6 to 14) was enforced on the 1st. April 2010. The following are the salient features of the Act.
- Short Title – Right of children to free and Compulsory.Education Act 2009 (Except Jammu and Kashmir).
- Right to Free and Compulsory Education – Every child (male or female) of the age 6 to 14 years shall have right to free and Compulsory Education (Section 3).
- Special Provision for Admission – Where a child above six years foils to get admission in school or fails to complete his / her elementary education, then he/she shall be admitted in a class appropriate to his or her age (Section 4).
- Right to Transfer to other schools – In case there is no provision for completion of elementary education, a child shall have the right to seek transfer to a school where he/she complete elementary education (Section 5).
- Neighbourhood School – For carrying out the provisions of the Act, the appropriate Govt, and the local authority shall establish within such area or limits of the neighborhood, as may be prescribed, a school, where it is not so established within a period of three years from the commencement of this Act (Section 6).
- Centre and States share financial responsibility – The Central and State Govt, s hall share financial responsibility for carrying out the provision of the Act (Section 7).
- Appropriate Govt, to Ensure Admission, Attendance – The appropriate Govt, shall ensure compulsory admission attendance and completion of Elementary Education by every/ child of the age of 6 to 14 years, ensure availability of neighborhood schools, ensure zero discrimination to children belonging to disadvantaged groups or to weaker section, provide infrastructure, ensure quality primary education, provide training facility for teacher (Section 8).
- Parents / Guardian’s Duty – Parents and guardians are duty-bound to get their children ward admitted to a neighborhood elementary school (Section 10).
- No Capitation Fee – No school or person shall while admitting a child collect any capitation, free and subject the child or his or her parents or guardians to any screening procedures (Section 13).
- Lack of Age no bar – No child shall be denied admission in a school for lack of age proof (Section 14(2).
- No Holiday Back any child – No child admitted in a school shall be held back in any class or expelled from school till the completion of elementary education (Section 16).
- No Physical punishment – No child shall be subjected to physical punishment or mental punishment (Section 17).
- Certificate of Recognition Required – After the commencement of this Act, no school to be established by some private body shall be allowed to function without (19). obtaining a certificate of recognition from competent state authority. Recognition shall be granted only if the school fulfills the prescribed norms and standards (Section 18).
- Teachers to posses minimum qualification – Persons to be appointed teachers must possess such minimum qualifications as laid down by a competent academic authority, authorised by the Central Govt. In case a teacher at the commencement of the Act does not possess the required minimum qualification he/she shall acquire the same within a period of five years (Section 23).
- Pupil-teacher ratio – Every school shall maintain 14 specified pupil-teacher ratios (Section)
- No private tuition by teachers – No teacher shall engage himself or herself in private tuition or private teaching activity (Section 28).
Explain the right to education Act – Criticism and evaluation.
The following points of criticism have been raised against the Act.
1. Hastily Drafted:
There is general complaint that the act has been hastily drafted. A large number of groups or organisations active in education have not been consulted.
2. Quality of Education Sacrificed:
The framers of the Act have not been considered the quality of education provided by the Govt, system 80 % of schools suffers from getting trained teachers. There is infrastructural gaps. There is mismanagement. Average school teacher salaries in private rural schools in some states about 4000/-per month lower than Govt, schools.
3. Private Schools Discriminate against Weaker Sections:
Children attending the private schools are weaker sections. There is no free education. There is inferior quality of school education.
4. Infringement of Minority Rights:
The Act is a clear infringement of private and religious minority right to administer their educational systems.
5. Barter for Orphans:
The Act provides admission of children without any certification.Orphan children are unable to produce income, caste certificate and BPL cards and birth certificates. As a result the schools are not admitting them.
Evaluation and Conclusion:
It fills the gap in social system (Kapil Sibal) the RTE Act is an opportunity to break gender, caste, class and community barriers.
What is International Understanding? Discuss the role of education in promoting International Understanding.
The international understanding means the understanding among the nations, to restore peace to wipe out war, to set up universal brotherhood. By international understanding we have to create a feeling of world community, world citizenship and world brotherhood.
The following programmed are to be launched and can be adopted in schools for promoting international understanding.
(a) Teaching About UNO:
The teacher should taught the students about the purposes, principles, structures and activities of UNO and its other organisations like UNICEF and UNESCO. The UNICEF is aimed at work for the growth mother and child, mother and child care in the world.
Such fund provides necessary funds to the world countries for physical care of mother and child. UNESCO works for the improvement of education, culture, science in the world. The teacher should taught this to their children. It will arouse an interest in children to tell the importance of world peace.
(b) Teaching of Social Studies:
By reading social studies the child would be able to understand himself and his human relationship. Simplified world history given to the students can create world understanding. History properly taught can help the children to become critical and human.
They must be given the knowledge about world citizenship and essentials to prompt world citizenship. By teaching geography they would learn about the geographical situation of different sub-continents.
(c) Teaching of Social Science:
In teaching science its social implication should be emphasized. The students must know how the scientific inventions and discoveries can be utilised for enhancing the progress and prospertiy of humanity. They should be given the impression that it is only science which has brought the nations closer and closer. It has conquered time and distance.
(d) Teaching of International Language:
We can develop respect for other people, if we can know them fully. So to know other people we must learn in international language or the language spoken by majority of the people of the world nations. The emotional attachment will be increased by languages we can understand them better and appreciate them better. For international communication English is to be taught.
(e) Art and Literature:
Art and literature have universal appeal. The children can enter into the feelings of other nation by studying their art and literature. They can compare their own art and literature with those of other nations.
The writers and artists of the nation directly and indirectly influence the articles of another nation, fully Indian writers like Rabindranath Tagore. The western writers are also influenced by Tagore. Tagore established Shantiniketan and Biswa Bharati University for East and West relationship.
(f) Celebration of International Days:
International understanding can be fostered by providing children the opportunities to celebrate international days like U.N. Day, World Labour Day, and other such world organisations days. They also learn about the functions of these international days. By observing such occasions they will arouse interest for world understanding. By globalisation, the whole world has become a family.
(g) Various co-curricular activities:
The various co-curricular activities can provide opportunity to achieve this goal. All among them School Assembly, Dramatic Presentation, Folklore, Music, Games and Sports, Newspapers, Magazines, Bulletins, Travels, Exchange Lectures and Conferences can develop and arouse the lasting freindship among different countries of the world. These items should be arranged in schools to develop global outlook among our students.
What do you mean by Computer Assisted Instructions (CAI)? Explain the advantages.
Computer finds alternative implications in the field of education. It is said that which human brain fails to do is done by this big brainchild, the computer.
The computer can store a good amount of informations and can use selected portion to meet the needs of individual learners.
Computer Assisted Instruction is a natural out gorwth of the applications of programmed instruction. The aim of such computer programming is to provide individual instruction to meet the special needs of individual learners. Through a computer the child is capable of displaying messages generated by the computer. The form of numbers, words or patterns.
Earphones and microphones are also available to the child to interact with the computer. He can ask questions to the child to interact with the computer. He can ask questions to the computer and can receive answer in return. If the child makes any error, the computer is programmed to detect the error of the child.
The computer programmes are so designed that a child can get adequate knowledge and information correctly, accurately and at a rapid rate. When the child encounter difficulties and no progress occurs the computer notices the teacher who then gives the learner as much assistance as necessary.
Advantages of Computer-Assisted instructions :
- A computer has a tremendous capacity to teach the learners. Because of its great speed of operation if can engage and instruct of group of students at a time.
- There is scope for direct interaction with the computer. The child and the computer can communicate to teacher message can be typed out by the computer and the child in turn can enter his response by the keyboard.
- Drill and practice become easier by computer concepts, ideal rules and formulation can be practised conveniently both by the teacher and the pupils. There are standardised programmes in elementary mathematics, science and lanugage for drill and practice,
- Tutorial system is made available of the learners through the computer. The computer takes the responsibility of presenting a concept and developing a skill for its use, As both presentation and evaluation of programmes is done by the computer it acts like a tutor and suits all categories of learners.
- The students can exchange dialogues with the computer. Subject matter is presented by a screen. The computer talks for the students and the students feeds the response in the keyboard. It is exactly like a teacher student dialogue in a classroom.
- The computer provides individualised instruction. A studnet can take his own pace for learning programme on computer can engage as many students as possible depending on the number of terminals connected with it.
- Through the computer the students can assimilate diverse curriculum as per their needs, interests. They can get information on any subject they like. Instead of search of many books the students can refer only the computer for variety information.
- Teaching differs from teacher to teacher, because of human variables. At times, students get confused due to variations, presentation of concepts and data. Computer overcomes these variations and makes the instruction uniform for all.
- Most of the paper works like correction of errors, tabulation of marks, gradation of students, achievements and certification of their performance can be done by a computer, the teachers are free from these monotonous stereotyped works. Teachers will devote more time in planning curriculum and co-curricular activities.
- The wise use of computer in education provides opportunity and challenge for invocation in curriculum development and evaluation.
What are the major components of a computer?
A computer is divided into two parts – (i) Hardware and (ii) Software
It is the physical equipment in a system usually containing electronic component and performing some kind of function in information processing, i.e. the components which can be seen and touched. It includes all types of electrical and electronic components.
The hardware part is again dividied into two parts :
- CPU (Central Processing Unit)
- Some of the common input devices are keyboard, mouse, OCR, MICR, Barcode scanner, joystick, lightpens etc.
(2) Output device:
It is a device through which the result of the program are obtained.
(3) Backing storage:
The secondary storage are mainly hard disk, floppy disk, CDs, etc. which were store data and information.
(b) CPU (Central Processing Unit) :
It is the completely electronic part of the computer. The processor or microprocessor is the heart or brain of the computer. All processing are done here. The main work of the processor is :
- Fetch the instruction.
- Decode the instruction.
- Execute the instruction.
(1) Fetch the Instruction:
The operation involves getting each instructions stored in the memory.
(2) Decode the Instruction:
After the instructions are fetched from memory are converted into a language understood by the computer. This language is known as machine language.
(3) Execute the Instruction:
After the instructions are decoded the computer understood the operation to be carried out and acts accordingly. This processes termed as execution ofinstruction.
The processor is a very fast and very powerful arithemetic machine of millions of calculations per second. The processor is based on the computing, adding and subtracting of ones and zeros.
Beyond arithmetic, basic processor functions include:
(1) Processing central instructions that tell the arithmetic and logic operations that makes use of small number-holding areas called registers.
Typical micro processor operations include adding, subtracting, comparing two numbers and fetching numbers from one are to another.
These operations are the result of a set of instructions that are part of the microprocessor design when the computer is turne ‘on the microprocessor is designed to get the instructions from the basic input / output systems(BIOS) that comes with the computer as part of its memory. After that, either the BIOS or the operating system or an application is driving the microprocessor, giving instructions to perform.
Processors are usually measured by their speed in terms of millions of cycles per second (magnetic). Each cycle is the period of time required for the processing of partial or complete instructions.
Basically, CPU does everything in binary language. It has three components parts:
- ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)
- CU (Control Unit)
- Storage (Memory)
The ALU is the place where the actual data processing occurs. All calculations and comparisons made on this unit. The unit takes instructions from control unit. It takes data from memory unit and returns information to memory unit. Since it has to do calculations very fast all the components of ALU work very fast.
(1) ALU performs two functions:
- It carries out arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
- It performs certain logical actions based on ‘AND’ or ‘OR’ functions.
This unit has a number of registers and accumulations of short-term storage of characters while given to a computer by the operations in computers language. This unit has an electronic clock that sends millions pulses in seconds on which computer works.
The control unit directs all operation inside the computer. It is known as Nerve centre of the computer because it controls and co-ordinates all hard work operations.
(2)It performs the following actions:
- It gives commands to transfer data from the input device to the arithmetic and logic unit.
- It also transfers the result from ALU to the memory and on to the output device for
- It stores the program in the memory takes instructions one by one, understands them and issues appropriate commands to other units,
- It fetches the required instructions from the main memory. Then it interprets the instructions and gets it executed by sending a command signal to the concerned hardware device.
Storage on Memory:
Memory is basically a storage place. Input data programs and the results ready for output are stored in the main memory. Memory is the most important part ofthe computer. It determines the size and number of programs that can be simultaneously held within the computer as well as the amount of data than can be processed immediately. The memory is made up of several small storage areas called as location or cells. Each of these locations can store a fixed number of bits called as word length of that memory.
The Motherboard is the device that integrates the processor and other components including the memory disk drives, keyboard and displays.
The motherboard also contains one or more parts which enable the computer to communicate with peripherals devices.
Such as printers, modems, and scanners. Most personal computers have parallel parts commonly used for printers and serial parts commonly used for modems.
It is a set-up program that carry out certain procedure and coordinates between hardware and user (operator). It includes two parts:
- System software
- Application software
(a) System Software:
System software is a special type of software. Without its presence, a computer can not be started. This is very essential to run a computer. It consists of operating systems and utilities.
Ex – DOS, Windows, Novell, OS/2, LINUX, UNIX, etc.
Used for specific purposes. This is not essential for a computer. EX-MS Office, Word, Excel, Powerpoint, MS paint, DBMS, etc.
What are the different types of computers?
The computer is an electronic digital data processing system. Depending on their function computers are classified into four categories.
- Micro Computers.
- Mini Computers
- Main Frame Computers.
- Super Computers.
(1) Micro Computers:
The most familiar kind of computer is the microcomputer. Theseare typically found in homes and business centers. They can process about 200 millions operations per second. They can be used along or be connected other computers. They are produced in many shapes and sizes.
The microcomputers are called micro for two reasons.
One, because it is miniature in size (micro million times less than unit quantity) and another because it uses a microprocessor. Micro-processor is actually the data processing part of the computer. It is the heart of a computer. It is also known as a central processing unit (CPU).
The entire CPU of a microcomputer contained either in a single chip or thumbnail size of a few chips. Telecommunications database management, accounting, word processing. PC can also be played like a musical instrument.
Microcomputers can be classified as :
- Desktop computers.
- Portable computers.
(a) Desktop Computers:
Desktop computers are those used by most individuals one designed to be permanently positioned on a desk.
Workstations are small but extremely powerful and expensive computers used mainly by engineers, scientists, people who work with graphics and other professionals who processed a lot of data. People who need to forum complex programs and display both work in progress and results graphically also use workstations.
Workstations use displays, screens, featuring high-resolution colour graphics and operating systems such as UNIX that permission multitasking, workstations also use powerful networking links to other computers. The more powerful workstations are called super micro.
Examples of well known workstations are those made by SUN, Apollo, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, etc.
(c) Portable Computers:
One type of PC that is rapidly growing in popularity is the portable computer which can be easily carried around. Laptop or Notebook PCS, subnotebooks and Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), if)
(2) Mini Computers:
Mini computers are also known as mid-range computers work first developed as special-purpose main frame computers. They are used to control machines in a manufacturing unit. However, now they are widely used as general-purpose computers. The more powerful mini-computer modes are called as superminis. Also the increasing power of microcomputer workstations have made it harder to distinguish between mini computer.
For example, an executive could use the server to search the company’s centralised database and retrieve selected data. He could then use a spreadsheet on his microcomputer to analyse the data.
(3) Main Frame Computers:
The scare the large size computer which occupies larger air-conditioned ram fiill, space and main memory size upto 128 megabytes. Since all its peripherals are mounted in a large cabinet type of frame. These computers are also known as mainframe computers.
Mainframe computers can process several million program instructions per second such a computer system can be used 128 uses simultaneously in time-sharing mode and employing mini computers as a front and processor.
Large organizations rely on these room-size systems to handle large programs with lots of data. Mainframes are mainly used by Insurance Companies, Banks and Railway reservations systems, etc. IBM’s 308 X 580 series, IBM 3090, 4300, 4381, DEC1070, 1090 Cyber’s 170, ICL’s Series 9, Honeywell DPS 88/860, UNIVAC 1100/60, and ACOS 100 are the popular mainframe computers.
A mainframe is associated with centralized rather than distributed computing. Today; IBM refers to its larger processors as larger servers and emphasizes that they can be used to serve distributed users and smaller servers in a computing network.
(4) Super Computers:
Supercomputers are the fastest calculating device ever invented. A desktop microcomputer processes data and instructions in millions of a second or microseconds, whereas a supercomputer can operate data speed measured in nanoseconds and picoseconds. The supercomputer is one thousand to one million times as last as microcomputers.
They are used for many scientific and technical applications including weather forecasting and automotive design and are also used to generate the extremely realistic graphs that does calculations one after another. This supercomputer has over 7000 processors that do 7000 calculations at a time.