Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 Political Science Solutions Unit 3 Democratic Process in India-II Long Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 12th Political Science Unit 3 Democratic Process In India-II Long Answer Questions
The other long-term development during this period was the rise of politics based on religious identity, leading to a debate about secularism and democracy. We noted in Chapter Six that in the aftermath of the Emergency, the Bharatiya Jana Sangh had merged into the Janata Party. After the fall of the Janata Party and its break-up, the supporters of erstwhile Jana Sangh formed the Bharatiya Janata Party ( BJP) in 1980.
Initially, the BJP adopted a broader political platform than that of the Jana Sangh. It embraced ‘Gandhian Socialism’ as its ideology. But it did not get much success in the elections held in 1980 and 1984. After 1986, the party began to emphasise the Hindu nationalist element in its ideology. The BJP pursued the politics of ‘Hindutva’ and adopted the strategy of mobilising the Hindus. Hindutva literally means ‘Hinduness’ and was defined by its originator, V. D. Savarkar, as the basis of Indian (in his language also Hindu) nationhood.
It basically meant that to be members of the Indian nation, everyone must not only accept India as their ‘fatherland’ (pitrubhu) but also as their holy land (punyabhu). Believers of ‘Hindutva’ argue that a strong nation can be built only on the basis of a strong and united national culture.
They also believe that in the case of India the Hindu culture alone can provide this base. Two developments around 1986 became central to the politics of BJP as a ‘Hindutva’ party. The first was the Shah Bano case in 1985. In this case a 62-year old divorced Muslim woman, had filed a case for maintenance from her former husband. The Supreme Court ruled in her favour.
The orthodox Muslims saw the Supreme Court’s order as an interference in Muslim Personal Law. On the demand of some Muslim leaders, the government passed the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act, 1986 that nullified the Supreme Court’s judgefnent. This action of the government was opposed by many women’s organisations, many Muslim groups and most of the intellectuals. The BJP criticised this action of the Congress government as an unnecessary concession and ‘appeasement’ of the minority community.
The second development was the order by the Faizabad district court in February 1986. The court ordered that the Babri Masjid premises be unlocked so that Hindus could offer prayers at the site which they considered as a temple. A dispute had been going on for many decades over the mosque known as Babri Masjid at Ayodhya.
Mughal emperor Babur’s General. Some Hindus believe that it was built after demolishing a temple for Lord Rama in what is believed to be his birthplace. The dispute took the form of a court case and has continued for many decades. In the late 1940s the mosque was locked up as the matter was with the court.
As soon as the locks of the Babri Masjid were opened, mobilisation began on both sides. Many Hindu and Muslim organisations tried to mobilise their communities on this question. Suddenly this local dispute became a major national question and led to communal tensions. The BJP made this issue its major electoral and political plank.
Along with many other organisations like the RSS and the Vishva Hindu Pari shad (VHP), it convened a series of symbolic and mobilisational programmes. This large scale mobilisation led to surcharged atmosphere and many instances of communal violence. The BJP, in order to generate public support, took out a massive march called the Rathyatra from Somnath in Gujarat to Ayodhya in UP.
Demolition and after. Explain.
In December 1992, the organisations supporting the construction of the temple had organised a Karseva, meaning voluntary service by the devotees, for building the Ram temple. The situation had become tense all over the country and especially at Ayodhya. The Supreme Court had ordered the State government to take care that the disputed site will not be endangered.
However, thousands of people gathered from all over the country at Ayodhya on 6 December 1992 and demolished the mosque. This news led to clashes between the Hindus and Muslims in many parts of the country. The violence in Mumbai erupted again in January 1993 and continued for over two weeks.
Write about the Anti-Muslim riots in Gujarat
In February-March 2002, large-scale violence against Muslims took place in Gujarat. The immediate provocation for this violence was an incident that took place at a station called Godhra. A bogey of a train that was returning from Ayodhya and was full of Karsevaks was set on fire. Fifty seven people died in that fire. Suspecting the hand of the Muslims in setting fire to the bogey, large-scale violence against Muslims began in many parts of Gujarat from the next day. This violence continued for almost a whole month.
Nearly 1100 persons, mostly Muslims, were killed in this violence. The National Human Rights Commission criticised the Gujarat government’s role in failing to control violence, provide relief to the victims and prosecute the perpetrators of this violence. The Election Commission of India ordered the assembly elections to be postponed. As in the case of anti-Sikh riots of 1984.
Chipko movement: The movement began in two or three villages of Uttarakhand when the forest department refused permission to the villagers to fell ash trees for making agricultural tools. However, the forest department allotted the same patch of land to a sports manufacturer for commercial use. This enraged the villagers and they protested against the move of the government. The struggle soon spread across many parts of the Uttarakhand region.
Larger issues of ecological and economic exploitation of the region were raised. The villagers demanded that no forest-exploiting contracts should be given to outsiders and local communities should have effective control over natural resources like land, water and forests. They wanted the government to provide low cost materials to small industries and ensure development of the region without disturbing the ecological balance.
The movement took up economic issues of landless forest workers and asked for guarantees of minimum wage. Women’s active participation in the Chipko agitation was a very novel aspect of the movement. The forest contractors of the region usually doubled up as suppliers of alcohol to men. Women held sustained agitations against the habit of alcoholism and broadened the agenda of the movement to cover other social issues.
The movement achieved a victory when the government issued a ban on felling of trees in the Himalayan regions for fifteen years until the green cover was fully restored. But more than that, the Chipko movement, which started over a single issue, became a symbol of many such popular movements emerging in different parts of the country during the 1970s and later. In this chapter we shall study some of these movements.
Party based movements :
Popular movements may take the form of social movements or political movements and there is often an overlap between the two. The nationalist movement, for example, was mainly a political movement. But we also know that deliberations on social and economic issues during the colonial period gave rise to independent social movements like the anti-caste movement, the kiscm sabhas and the trade union movement in early twentieth century.
These movements raised issues related to some underlying social conflicts. Some of these movements continued in the post¬independence period as Well. Trade union movement had a strong presence among industrial workers in major cities like Mumbai, Kolkata and Kanpur. All major political parties established their own trade unions for mobilising these sections of workers.
Peasants in the Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh organised massive agitations under the leadership of Communist parties in the early years of independence and demanded redistribution of land to cultivators. Peasants and agricultural labourers in parts of Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar and adjoining areas continued their agitations under the leadership of the Marxist-Leninist workers; who were known as the Naxalites (you have already read about the Naxalite movement in the last chapter). The peasants’ and the workers’ movements mainly focussed on issues of economic injustice and inequality.
These movements did not participate in elections formally. And yet they retained connections with political parties, as many participants in these movements, as individuals and as organisations, were actively associated with parties. These links ensured a better representation of the demands of diverse social sections in party politics.
It is a well-known Marathi poet Namdeo Dhasal. Do you know who these ‘pilgrims of darkness’ in this poem are and who the ‘sunflower-giving fakir’ was that blessed them? The pilgrims were the Dalit communities who had experienced brutal caste injustices for a long time in our society and the poet is referring to Dr. Ambedkar as their liberator. Dalit poets in Maharashtra wrote many such poems during the decade of : seventies.
These poems were expressions of anguish that the Dalit masses continued to face even after twenty years of independence. But they were also full of hope for the future, a future that Dalit groups wished to shape for themselves. You are aware of Dr. Ambedkar’s vision of socio-economic change and his relentless struggle for a dignified future for Dalits outside the Hindu caste-based social structure. It is not surprising that Dr.Ambedkar remains an iconic and inspirational figure in much of Dalit liberation writings.
By the early nineteen seventies, the first generation Dalit graduates, especially those living in city slums began to assert themselves from various platforms. Dalit Panthers, a militant organisation of the Dalit youth, was formed in Maharashtra in 1972 as a part of these assertions. In the post-Independence period, Dalit groups were, mainly fighting against the perpetual caste based inequalities and material injustices that the Dalits faced in spite of constitutional guarantees of equality and justice. Effective; implementation of reservations and other such policies of social justice was one of their, prominent demands.
Bharatiya Kisan Union:
The social discontent in Indian society since the seventies was manifold. Even those sections that partially benefited in the process of development had many complaints against the state and political parties. Agrarian struggles of the eighties is one such example where better off farmers protested against the policies of the state.
In January 1988, around twenty thousand farmers had gathered in the city of Meerut, Uttar Pradesh. They were protesting against the government decision to increase electricity rates. The farmers camped for about three weeks outside the district collector’s office until their demands were fulfilled.
It was a very disciplined agitation of the farmers and all those days they received regular food supply from the nearby villages. The Meerut agitation was seen as a great show of rural power of the Bharatiya Kisan Union (BKU), an organisation of farmers from western Uttar Pradesh and Haryana regions.
The BKU was one of the leading organisations in the farmers’ movement of the eighties. We have noted in Chapter Three that farmers of Haryana, Punjab and western Uttar Pradesh had benefited in the late 1960s from the state policies of green revolution’. Sugar aid wheat became the main cash crops in the region since then.
The cash crop market faced a crisis in mid-eighties due to the beginning of the process of liberalisation of Indian economy. The BKU demanded higher government floor prices for sugarcane and wheat, abolition of A Bhartiya Kisan Union Rally in Punjab.
Hindustan Times restrictions on the inter-state movement of farm produce, guaranteed supply of electricity at reasonable rates, waiving of repayments due on loans to farmers and the provision of a government pension for farmers.
Activities conducted by the BKU to pressurise the state for accepting its demands included rallies, demonstrations, sit-ins, and fail bharo (courting imprisonment) agitations.
Uttar Pradesh and adjoining regions. Throughout the decade of eighties, the BKU organised massive rallies of these farmers in many district headquarters of the State and also at the .national capital. Another novel aspect of these mobilisations was the use of caste linkages of farmers. Most of the BKU members belonged to a single community.
The organisation used traditional caste panchayats of these communities in bringing them together over economic issues. In spite of lack of any formal organisation, the BKU could sustain itself for a long time because it was based on clan networks among its members. Funds, resources and activities of BKU were mobilised through these networks.
In a village in the interior of Dubagunta in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh, women had enrolled in the Adult Literacy Drive on a large scale in the early nineteen nineties. It is during the discussion in the class that women complained of increased consumption of a alcoholism had taken deep roots among the village people and was ruining their physical and mental health.
It affected the rural economy of the region a great deal. Indebtedness grew with increasing scales of consumption of alcohol, men remained absent from their jobs and the contractors of alcohol engaged in crime for securing their monopoly over the arrack trade. Women were the worst sufferers of these ill effects of alcohol as it resulted in the collapse of the family economy and women had to bear the brunt of violence from the male family members, particularly the husband.
Women in Nellore came together in spontaneous local initiatives to protest against arrack and forced closure of the wine shop. The news spread fast and women of about 5000 villages got inspired and met together in meetings, passed resolutions for imposing prohibition and sent them to the District Collector. The arrack auctions in Nellore district | were postponed 17 times. This movement in Nellore District slowly spread all over the State.
The slogan of the anti-arrack movement was simple — prohibition on the sale of arrack. But this simple demand touched upon larger social, economic and political issues of the region that affected women’s life. A close nexus between crime and politics was established around the business of arrack.
The State government collected huge revenues by way of taxes imposed on the sale of arrack and was therefore not willing to impose a bail. Groups of local women tried to address these complex issues in their agitation against arrack. They also openly discussed the issue of domestic violence.
Their movement, for the first time, provided a platform to discuss private issues of domestic violence. Thus, the anti-arrack movement also became part of the women’s movement. Earlier, women’s groups working on issues of domestic violence, the custom of dowry, sexual abuse at work and public places were active mainly among urban middle class women in different parts of the country.
Their work led to a realisation that issues of injustice to women and of gender inequalities were complicated in nature. During the decade of the eighties women’s | movement focused on issues of sexual family and outside.
These groups ran a campaign against the system of dowry and demanded personal and property laws based on the norms of gender equality. These campaigns contributed a great deal in increasing overall social awareness about women’s questions. Focus of the women’s movement gradually shifted , from legal reforms to open social confrontations like the one we discussed above.
As a result the movement made demands of equal representation to women in politics during the nineties. We know that 73rd and 74th amendments have granted reservations to women in local level political offices. Demands for extending similar reservations in State and Central legislatures have also been made.
A constitution amendment bill to this effect has been proposed but has not received enough support from the Parliament yet. Main opposition to the bill has come from groups, including some women’s groups, who are insisting on a separate quota for Dalit and OBC women within the proposed women’s quota in higher i political offices.
Narmada Bachao Andolan:
An ambitious developmental project was launched in the Narmada valley of central India in early eighties. The project consisted of 30 big dams,-135 medium sized and around 3,000 Small dams to be constructed on the Narmada and its tributaries that flow across three states of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra. Sardar Sarovar Project in Gujarat and the Narmada Sagar Project in Madhya Pradesh were two of the most important and biggest, multi-purpdse dams planned under the project.
Narmada Bachao Aandolan, a movement to save Narmada opposed the construction of these dams and questioned the themselves to mobilisation and collective action by women. Women’s studies and women’s movements are often used synonymously.
Of course, both are closely related and the former includes the latter but the focus of the present essay, as we have discussed in Chapter I, limited to a review of the literature on women’s collective actions. For that purpose, research- based monographs on women’s movements in India are relatively few.
Most of them are at an exploratory stage.Except for a few, many of the studies are anecdotal, impressionistic and polemical for action—prescription for action—written by feminist activists in journalistic style. For activists involved in feminist movements, feminism is not merely a discourse to be analysed, but ‘a method of bringing about social change’.
Whether one argues that the discourse and methodology—strategies, tactics and programmes—for social change are inseparable or not, the increasing literature certainly provides valuable theoretical and philosophical articulation and empirical data, posing relevant questions and hypotheses for in-depth studies on the social system in general and women’s position therein, in particular.
Some theoretical studies are also available, but more often than not, it is felt that they deal mainly with issues raised by western scholars. Even if this is so, this should not belittle the importance of such studies. Western influence, after all, affects all spheres of our life.
This is more so in the era of globalisation. Moreover, ‘women’s resistance to male domination’, as we understand it today, was the product of western education. British, women took the initiative in forming women’s organisations and defining their objectives!
Women’s liberation movements in India are believed to be largely influenced by women’s movements in the west, which emphasise the ‘universality’ of gender oppression and therefore ‘universal sisterhood’ of women. This has been questioned by many intellectuals.
Which among the following statements about the partition is incorrect?
(a) Partition of India was the outcome of the “two-nation theory”.
(b) Punjab and Bengal were the two provinces divided on the basis of religion.
(c) East Pakistan and West Pakistan were not contiguous.
(d) The scheme of Partition included a plan for transfer of population across the border.
(d)The scheme of partition included a plan for transfer of population across
Match the principles with instances:
|(a) Mapping of boundaries on religious ground||(i)Pakistan and Bangladesh|
|(b) Mapping of boundaries on grounds of different languages||(ii)India and Pakistan|
|(c) Demarcating boundaries within a country by geographical zones||(iii)Jharkhand and Chhatisgarh|
|(d) Demarcating boundaries within a country on administrative and political grounds||(iv)Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand|
(a)-(ii), (b)-(iv), (c)-(i), (d)-(iii)
Take a current political map of India (showing outlines of states) and mark the location of the following Princely States,
The places are marked as 3(a), 3(b), 3(c) and 3(d).
Here are two opinions: Bismay: “The merger with the Indian State was an extension of democracy to the people of the Princely States.” Inderpreet: “I am not so sure, there was force being used. Democracy comes by creating consensus.” What is your opinion in the light of accession of Princely States and the responses of the people in these parts?
Accession of Princely States and merger with Indian union was to expand democracy all over the country because princely states never enjoyed their political rights. Indian government central government used force to extend democracy to some extent as this was mandatory to have a uniform base in the country.
Read the following very different statements made in August 1947: “Today you have worn on your heads a crown of thorns. The seat of power is a nasty thing. You have to remain ever wakeful on that seat you have to he more humble and forbearing now there will be no end to your being tested. ” -M.K, Gandhi “India will awake to a life of freedom we step out from, the old to the new we end, today a period of ill fortune and India discovers herself again. The achievement we celebrate today is but a step, an opening of opportunity, -Jawaharlal Nehru Spell out the agenda of nation building that flows from these two statements. Which one appeals more to you and why?
Answer: These two statements focus on the agenda of secularism, democracy, sovereignty and freedom. It focuses on the path which will lead to the real development and prosperity of our country. The first statement appeals to me more than the second one because it invokes the countrymen to remain awake, alert and conscious as it is not the end of our struggle. The time to build the nation initiates now.
What are the reasons being used by Nehru for keeping India secular? Do you think these reasons were only ethical and sentimental? Or were there some prudential reasons as well?
Reasons for keeping India secular:
1. All the Muslims did not leave India during participation, some muslims stayed in India as a minority and Jawaharlal Nehru wanted to deal with them in a very civilised and dignified manner.
2. He advocated security and democratic rights of Muslims as a citizen of India. No, these reasons were not only ethical and sentimental, but there were some prudential reasons also as:
- India’s secular nature cherished its long term goals and principles like socialism, equality, liberty and fraternity.
- Secularism stops any single faith to become superior and inferior to those who practicised another religion. Hence it considers all citizens equal irrespective of religious affiliation.
Bring out two major differences between the challenge of nation building for eastern and western regions of the country at the time of Independence.
The two major differences between eastern (Bengal) and Western (Punjab)regions can be summed up as follows:1. These regions were the muslim majority provinces to be joined. Hence, it was decided that new country Pakistan will comprise two territories i.e. West and East Pakistan.
2. Secondly, there was a problem of minorities on both sides of border (East and West). Lakhs of Hindus and Sikhs in areas of Pakistan and Muslims on the Indian side of Punjab and Bengal found themselves trapped with no option except to leave their homes.
What was the task of the States Reorganisation Commission? What was its most salient recommendation?
The State ReorganisationCommission was set up in 1953 by central government to look into the matter of redrawing of boundaries of state:
1. The commission evolved that states’ boundaries should reflect the boundaries of different languages to accommodate linguistic diversity.
2. The State Reorganisation Act was passed in 1 956 which resulted the creation of 14 states and 6 union territories.
3. Its most salient recommendation was the formation of linguistic states i.e. to reorganise states on the basis of accommodation of their languages to prepare a uniform base for the nation.
It is said that the nation is to large extent an “imagined community” held togetherby common beliefs, history, political aspirations and imaginations. Identify the features that make India a nation.
India proved herselfthrough all stages of three challenges at the time of nation building like:
1. India is a secular country where people speak different languages and follow different cultures and religions to be recognised as a-nation of unity in diversity with common faith and beliefs.
2. Political aspiration ensures demo-xratic setup based on parliamentary form of government creating political competition in a democratic framework.
3. India’s imaginations established a welfare state on the principle of equality and special protection to socially disadvantaged groups and religions as well as cultural communities.
Read the following passage and answer the questions below:
“In the history of nation-building only the Soviet experiment bears comparison with the Indian. There too, a sense of unity had to be forged between many diverse ethnic groups, religious, linguistic communities and social classes. The scale-geographic as well as demographic was comparably massive. The raw material the state had to work with was equally unpropitious: a people divided by faith and driven by debt and disease.”—Ramachandra Guha
(a) List the commonalities that the author mentions between India and Soviet Union and give one example for each of these from India.
(b) The author does not talk about dissimilarities between the two experiments. Can you mention two dissimilarities?
(c) In retrospect which of these two experiments worked better and why?
(a) Commonalities between India and Soviet Union:
(i) Both the nations shaped the nation on linguistic basis.
(ii) To promote welfare motives, the economic and technological developments took place in India also.
(iii) States were divided 6n the grounds of geographical boundary and strength of populations also in both the nations.
(i) Soviet Union was divided into 15 independent republics/countries to be disintegrated.
(ii) India maintained its unity and integrity even among diversified nature of’ ates and peoples without any more division.
(c) The Indian experiment worked better to promote linguistic and cultural plurality without affecting unity and integrity of the nation though India adopted some diplomatic measures to make country united.
Long Answer Type Questions With Answers
What forced the Union Government of India to appoint the State Reorganisation Commission in 1953? Mention its two main recommendations. Name any four new states formed after 1956.
1. State Reorganisation Commission was appointed in 1953 by central Government to rearrange the boundaries of states.
2. Its main recommendations were to organise states on language basis as well as the boundaries of state could reflect the linguistic aspects also.
3. The Madras province under British India created following linguistic states:
(a) Andhra Pradesh (Telugu)
(b) Taniilnadu (Tamil)
(c) Kerala (Malayalam)
(d) Karnataka (Kannad)
4. The state Reorganisation Act was passed in 1956 which created 14 states and 6 Union territories.
Explain any three challenges faced by India at the time of its independence.
Answer: India had to face many challenges immediately after she got independence, which can be summed up as follows:
1. Challenge to Shape a Nation: India was divided among various states at the time of independence. Hence a great challenge arose to unify and integrate country into one bond. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel took upon himself to integrate these states either wishfully or diplomatically to be completed into different stages.
2. To Establish Democratic Set up: India constituted representative democracy based on parliamentary form of government and it was a great challenge to develop these democratic practices in the nation.
3. To Ensure Development and Well Being ofthe Society: Indian polity made herself to achieve welfare goals with the evolvement of effective economic policies and eradication of poverty and unemployment.
How did the reorganisation of states take place in India after its independence? Explain.
1. In the initial years it was felt that linguistic states may foster seperatism and create pressures on newly founded nation, but India considered democracy and federalism by making a favour to linguistic states only.
2. State Reorganisation Commission was appointed in 1 953 central Government to rearrange the boundaries of states.
3. Its main recommendations were to organise states on language basis as well as the boundaries of states could reflect the linguistic aspects also.
4. The State Reorganisation Act was passed in 1956 which created 14 states and 6 union territories.
5. Linguistic states enhanced democratic practices.
6. Linguistic states reduced separatist attitude by accepting the regional and linguistic claims of all regions.
Explain any three consequences of partition in India.
1. In the name of religion, people of one community killed and mained people of the other community. Cities like Lahore, Kolkata and Amritsar were titled as communal zones.
2. People went through social sufferings also be forced to abandon their homes especially minorities, who took shelter in refugee camps.
3. To preserve the honour offamily, many women were killed even many children were separated from their family and if crossed borders, they did not have any home.
4. The partition did not only divide property, assets or liabilities but also the government employees and the railways, etc.
Assess the role played by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in nation building.
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel is also known as ‘Iron man of India, became India’s Deputy Prime minister and Home minister during integration of princely states. He played a historic role in negotiating the rulers of princely states and diplomatically brought most of them in Indian Union. It was very complicated which required skilful persuation i.e. there were 26 small states in today’s Odisha, Saurashtra Region of Gujarat had 14 states with 119 small states, etc.
Picture/Map Based Questions
A. Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:
What does this picture represent?
This picture represents the painful scene of partition of country when people were supposed to leave their homes.
Mention some consequences of partition.
(i) Communal Riots (ii) Social Sufferings (iii) Administrative Concerns and Financial Strains.
Which year is being denoted in the picture?
The year of 1947, most abrupt, unplanned year in the history.
B. Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:
Identify the person in the centre of the cartoon and mention the challenge surrounding him.
The person is the first Prime Minister of India Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru, who faced the first and foremost challenge of integration of princely states and formation of linguistic states.
What does the picture actually refer?
The picture refers the problem of reorganization of states on linguistic basis with the fear of disintegration in the country.
How did India avoid all these conflicts?
India identified and respected regional demands of the people and enhanced democracy by providing some autonomy to the states also.
C. On a political outline map of India locate and label the following and symbolise them as indicated:
Name and mark the original state from. which the following states were carved out.
(a) Gujarat (b) Meghalaya (c) Haryana (d) Chhattisgarh
(a) Gujarat (from Bombay) (b) Meghalaya (from Assam) (c) Haryana (from Punjab) (d) Chhattisgarh (from Madhya Pradesh)
Name and mark the countries reorganised on religious grounds.
(a) India (b) Pakistan
Demarcated boundaries of these countries by geographical zones.
(a) Pakistan (b) Bang