CHSE Odisha Class 12 Political Science Unit 4 India in World Politics Short Answer Questions

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 Political Science Solutions Unit 4 India in World Politics Short Answer Questions.

CHSE Odisha 12th Class Political Science Unit 4 India in World Politics Short Answer Questions

Short Questions With Answers

Question 1.
What do the following abbreviations stand for?
(a) CTBT
(b) NPT
(a) Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
(b) Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

Question 2.
What is McMahon Line?
This is the boundary line between India and China, east of Bhutan. lt was determined in 1914 at a Conference of representatives of British India, Tibet and China. The Secretary of State for India (in British Cabinet) Arthur Henry McMahon represented British India in the Conference.

Question 3.
What is LoC?
LoC The Ceasefire line determined in 1949 was called the LoC after 1972. Some people believe that the possible solution to Indo-Pak problem on Kashmir is the conversion of LoC into international boundary.

Question 4.
Who are the neighbouring countries of india?
India’s policy has been the promotion of international peace and cooperation and developing friendly relations with all countries, especially the neighbouring countries. Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Burma and China are India’s immediate neighbours with whom it has friendly relations based on bonds of common culture and heritage.

Question 5.
Discuss the causes of 1962 war between India and China.
Conflictual issues between India and China pertain to Tibet and the border dispute. India recognised Chinese suzerainty over Tibet which is stated in the 1954 Agreement between India and China. But the border dispute that escalated into a war in 1962 In which India loss territory to China, still remains. After years of distance, India and China are normalising relations by first improving economic ties and now starting border talks.

Question 6.
Kashmir is the root cause of all problems between India and Pakistan. Do you agree?
Kashmir is a bone of contention between India and Pakistan which has brought the two.countries into open clash in 1947, 1965, 1971, 1999. Cross border terrorism is a major irritant. India tried to bring a positive change in the relationship of the two countries through Shimla agreement , Lahore Declaration, etc. leading to increased cultural and academic exchange. A composite dialogue is being pursued with Pakistan.

Question 7.
Trace the causes of the separatist problem in Sri Lanka. Also discuss the steps taken by India to help resolve this problem.
Relations between India and Sri Lanka can generally be termed as friendly, except for the brief spell in which the Tamil ethnic problem cast its shadow on the relations of the two countries. Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) sent to Sri Lanka was a bitter experience to India. After their withdrawal in 1990, India preferred to keep its hands off the ethnic problem of Sri Lanka, letting room for other countries like Norway to initiate substantial peace process to the problem. But growing economic ties between India and Sri Lanka are a symbol of mutual trust.

Question 8.
Define Foreign Policy.
Foreign Policy is an set of principles and policies and decisions which guides the behaviour of the state in international relations. Each nation state has its own foreign policy.

Question 9.
Name the main elements which determine the formulation of foreign policy of a nation.
Social economic and political environment of the country, geographical factors, industrial and technological factors, culture and history, international environment, personality of the top decision-working leader and quality of government.

Question 10.
What are the two main elements of a foreign policy?
Foreign policy defines the goals of national interest and the means to be used for securing goals of national interests in international relations. Foreign policy always. tries to secure the goals of national interests by the use of national power.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Political Science Unit 4 India in World Politics Short Answer Questions

Question 11.
What are the three fundamental features of Indian Foreign Policy?
The three fundamental features of Indian Foreign Policy are:
(1) Non-alignment.
(2) Independence in foreign relations.
(3) An independent nuclear policy.

Question 12.
What are the main features of a non-alignment foreign policy?
To keep away from military or security alliances, cold war and power politics, to develop friendly cooperation with all nations and to maintain independence in foreign relations.

Question 13.
What was the change in India’s Nuclear Policy in 1998?
In 1998, India decided to change her nuclear policy and decided to have nuclear weapons. Prior to that India maintained the policy of developing nuclear technology but not making and testing nuclear weapons.

Question 14.
What are the three main features of foreign policy of India in contemporary times?
(1) To cooperate and continuously work for eliminating international terrorism.
(2) To secure and promote regional economic cooperation for development.
(3) To secure a permanent seat in the UN Security Council.

Question 15.
What is being done by Indian Foreign Policy for protecting the interests of third world countries?
India has been playing a leadership role in the process of consolidation of third world solidarity. It has been hying to strengthen cooperation among the developing countries as well as for cooperating with these for protecting their shared interests in the WTO.

Question 16.
What is Panchsheel?
Panchsheel stands for five principles of mutual relations among states- Mutual respect for each others territorial integrity and sovereignty, non-aggression, non-intervention, mutual benefits and equality and peaceful coexistence.

Question 17.
What is non-aligned movement?
Non-aligned movement is the largest international movement of out times. Non-aligned countries are its members. Non-alignment now stands for promoting cooperation among all developing countries.

Question 18.
Name the P-5 Countries. What is the status of Indian as a nuclear power?
P-5 countries are USA, the UK, Russia, China and France. India is a responsible state with advanced nuclear technology and nuclear weapons and a defacto nuclear power.

Question 19.
What is UN?
It is during the period of Second World War that the necessity of a new general and comprehensive organisation of nations having the responsibility for maintaining peace and promoting internal cooperation was greatly felt. It is a international organisation capable of serving the need for presenting international peace and security through the development of friendly and cooperative relations among nations.

Question 20.
What is the objectives of the UN?
(1) To save the future generations from the scourge of war.
(2) To maintain faith in fundamental human rights.
(3) To establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties can be maintained.
(4) To promote social progress and a better standard of life.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Political Science Unit 4 India in World Politics Short Answer Questions

Question 21.
The birth of United Nation.
After the ratification of the UN Charter by the required number of states i.e. the USA, USSR (Russia), China, France and Britain, the United Nation organisation came into existence on October 24, 1945.

Question 22.
What is the sessions of General Assembly?
The General Assembly meets in a regular session every year on third Tuesday of September each year. Its special session can be called by the Secretary General either on the request of Security Council or of the majority of the members of UN.

Question 23.
Describe the meaning of Foreign Policy.
Foreign Policy can be defined as a set of principles, decisions and methods which a nation adopts for securing its national interests in relations with other nations. It guides and directs the path of the nation in the sphere of international relations. “Foreign Policy is the substance of nation’s efforts to promote his interests vis-a-vis other nations”.

Question 24.
Why did India adopt Non-alignment?
When India got her independence, the two super powers were following the policy of cold war and forming military or security alliances with other nations. India thought it fit to keep away from the cold war, security alliances and power politics. Such a policy of India got the name non-alignment in international relations.

Question 25.
Write the four essential parts of every foreign policy.
(1) A set of principles adopted by the nation which guide her behaviour in international relations.
(2) Identified goals of national interest which the nation wants to secure in international relations.
(3) The name which a nation can use for securing its goals of national interests.
(4) A view of all major international objectives, issues and problems.

Question 26.
What are the negative and positive features of non-alignment.
Positively speaking non-alignment means: an independent foreign policy, active participation in international relations, judging each issue on merit and taking decisions on the basis of the merits of the case and the national interests of the non-aligned countries in the world.

Question 27.
What are the five principles of Panchsheel?
(1) Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
(2) Non-aggression.
(3) Non-intervention in each other’s domestic affairs.
(4) Mutual benefits and equality.
(5) Peaceful coexistence.

Question 28.
When was NAM launched? Who played a leadership role in launching NAM in international relation?
NAM was launched in September 1960. In launching NAM Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, Egyptian President A.B.Nasser and Yugoslavian President Marshal Tito played a leading role. NAM was launched for projecting and promoting the rights and interests of the non-aligned countries in the world.

Question 29.
What is India’s role in the UNO?
India fully supports and follows the principles and aims of the United Nations. India has been consistently participating in the UN Peacekeeping operations. India has always paid its share of UN expenses. India wants democratization of the UNO, particularly the UN Security Council. India supports the demand for a reform of the UN. India has a legitimate claim for a permanent seat in the UN Security Council.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Political Science Unit 4 India in World Politics Short Answer Questions

Question 30.
What are the main features of Indian Nuclear Policy?
The main features of Indian Nuclear Policy are:
(1) To develop and maintain nuclear weapons.
(2) Not to make a first use of nuclear weapons against any other nation.
(3) To use nuclear weapons against a state which may dare to use nuclear weapons against India.
(4) Not to sign discriminatory and partial nuclear treaties like the NPT and CTBT.
(5) To support the demand for total nuclear disarmament in the world.

Question 31.
What are the features of India’s Neighbourhood Policy?
The features of India’s neighbourhood policy are:
(1) To develop and maintain friendly relations with all the neighbours.
(2) To continuously develop all round cooperation with all the neighbours.
(3) To solve all bilateral issues and disputes peacefully through bilateral negotiations.
(4) To develop and strengthen SAARC.
(5) To provide all necessary help and assistance to her small neighbours.

Question 32.
What is India’a Policy towards its neighbours?
India realises fully the importance of relations with her neighbours Neighbours are always our first relatives as well as competitors. Development of friendly, peaceful and cooperative relations has been always a necessity and Indian foreign policy has been fully alive to this need. In fact, development of high level friendship and cooperation with the neighbours has been a salient features of Indian Foreign Policy.

Question 33.
What is India’s Foreign Policy towards developing countries?
(1) India identifies herself with the developing countries.
(2) India continuously works on all international platforms for securing the. interests of the third world countries.
(3) India has been developing cooperation among the developing countries.
(4) India has been trying to protect the interest of the third world countries in the WTO.

Question 34.
How India and China have been trying to develop their relations since 1988?
India and China havedecided to maintain peace and tranquility along the borders. A joint working group for resolving the boundary dispute is at work. It is headed jointly by Indian foreign Secretary and Chinese Vice-Minister for foreign affairs: Both the countries have decided to develop cooperation in Civil Air Transport, Science and Technology development and culture cooperation.

Question 35.
What are the features of India-China relations in contemporary times?
(1) Bilateral economic and trade relations have been developing in a satisfactory way.
(2) Peace and tranquility is being maintained on borders.
(3) Indian and Chineses forces have been holding joint military exercises.
(4) Both countries have been exchanging high level visits of their political leaders, public officials and business trade and cultural delegations.
(5) India needs Chinese support for getting a permanent membership of the UN Security Council.

Question 36.
Discuss the irritants of India-China relations.
(1) China continues to be in the illegal possession of a large part of Indian territory. The boundary dispute continues to remain unresolved.
(2) Pro-Pakistan feature of Chinese Foreign Policy continues to be a limiting factor. Even after 26/11 terrorist attacks against Mumbai by Pakistan based terrorists.
(3) Continued Chinese help for Pakistan’s nuclear weapons and missile programme.
(4) China continues to use Pakistan as a check over Indian power in Asia.

Question 37.
What is India’s Kashmir Policy?
So far as India is concerned, Jammu and Kashmir has been and continues to be an integral part of India. The Maharaja of Kashmir made it a part of India. The sole political party of the people of Jammu and Kashmir, the national conference accepted this decision. Under its Article 370, the constitution of India gave a special place to Jammu arid Kashmir. The Jammu and Kashmir legislature then passed a resolution and accepted Kashmir’s accession to India. The people of Jammu and Kashmir have been periodically elected their state legislature.

Question 38.
What is General Assembly of UN?
The General Assembly is the most popular and the largest body of the UN. It is termed as the “Town meeting of the whole world”. In it all the members of the UN, are heard. In debates, discussions and decision-making. All the members of UN are members of the General Assembly. Every state has only one vote in the General Assembly.

Question 39.
What is the principles of the UN?
The principles of the UN are:
(1) The organisation is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its members.
(2) All the members will fulfil in good faith the obligations in accordance with the Charter.
(3) The UN shall ensure that the states which are not members of the UN will act in accordance with the principle of the UNO.
(4) All the members of UNO will settle their disputes peacefully.
(5) The members shall refrain from using force or threat of use of force against territorial integrity of any state.
(6) UNO is not to interfere in the domestic matters of the state.

Question 40.
What is the purpose of the UN?
Article 1 of the UN Charter lays down the following purpose of the UN.
(1) To maintain international peace and security. To take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threat to peace.
(2) To achieve international cooperation in solving international problems of economic, social, culture and humanitarian character.
(3) To develop friendly relation among nations based on respect for the principle
of equal rights.
(4) To be a centre for harmonizing the actions achieving the above ends.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Political Science Unit 4 India in World Politics Short Answer Questions

Question 41.
What is the composition of the UN Security Council?
Originally the UN Security Council consisted of 11 members of the UN: China, France, the United State of America, Russia, and the United Kingdom as five permanent members and six non-permanent members elected by the General Assembly for a term of two years. Now the demand for increasing the membership of the UN Security Council has been raised. It is being considered to increase its strength to about 25.

Question 42.
What is ICJ?
ICJ is (International Court of Justice): The International Court of Justice came into existence on 18 April 1946. The ICJ is an organ of the United Nations. It also functions in accordance with the provision of the UN Charter. The members of the UN are under obligation to comply with the decisions of ICJ in cases to which they are parties.

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