Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 Political Science Solutions Unit 5 Issues in International Politics Long Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 12th Class Political Science Unit 5 Issues in International Politics Long Answer Questions
Long Type Questions With Answers
Explain any four components of India’s security strategy.
(a)To strengthen its military capabilities.
- India has been involved in conflicts with its neighbours as Pakistan in 1947-48, 1965, 1971, 1999 and China in 1962
- In South Asian region, India is surrounded by nuclear armed countries.
(b) To strengthen international norms and institutions.
- India’s first Prime Miniter J.L. Nehru supported Asian solidarity, disarmament, decolonisation and the UN as a forum to settle down international conflict.
- It used non-alignment to help to carry out an area of peace outside the blocs.
(c) To meet security challenges within country.
- Several militant groups from areas such as Nagaland, Mizoram, Punjab, Kashmir have sought to break away from India.
- India has made efforts to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system by providing freedom of speech and expression along with the right to vote.
(d) To develop its economy:
- India develops the way to lift vast mass of citizens out of poverty, misery and huge economic inequalities.
- A democratically elected government is supposed to combine economic growth with human development without any demarcation between the rich and the poor.
Identify and explain any four new sources of threats to security.
Four new sources of threats to security can be identified as follows.
- Terrorism is a war against democrary and a crime against humanity. It refers to political violence that targets civilians deliberately and discriminately to use it as a weapon against national government. It has become a global phenomena because even superpower is not free from terrorist attacks.
- Human rights are those basic conditions which an individual is supposed to enjoy as a human being. These rights include political rights, freedom of speech and expression, economic rights, social and civil rights and fights of indigenous people to lead as honourable and dignified life.
- Global poverty refers to low economic growth, low national income and low standard of living of developing or least developed countries.
- Health epidemic is a very serious threat to a country’s security because severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), HIV-AIDS, bird flue etc. diseases spread across countries through migration business, tourism and military operations.
What is meant by Security? Mention any four components of Indian security strategy.
At its most basic, security implies freedom from threats. Human existence and the life of a country are full of threats. We generally say that only those things that threaten ‘core values’ should be regarded as being of interest in discussions of security. Thus, security relates only to extremely dangerous threats- threats that could so endanger core values that those values would be damaged beyond repair if we did not do something to deal with the situation.
India’s security strategy has four broad components which have been used in varying combination from time to time.
- The first component was strengthening its military capabilities because India has been involved in conflicts with its neighbours – Pakistan in 1947-48,1965, 1971 and 1999 and China in 1962. Since it is surrounded by nuclear-armed countries in the South Asia region,
- India’s decision to conduct nuclear tests in 1998 was justified by the Indian government in terms of safeguarding national security.
The second component of India’s security strategy has been to strengthen international norms and international institutions to protect its security interests.
- The third component of Indian security strategy is geared towards meeting security challenges within the country. Several militant groups from areas such as Nagaland, Mizoram, the Punjab and Kashmir among others have from time to time sought to break away from India. India has tried to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system.
- There has been an attempt in India to develop its economy in a way that the vast mass of citizens are lifted out of poverty and misery and huge economic inequalities are not allowed to exist.
Give a comparative analysis of Indian expenditure on traditional and non-traditional security.
- India spends more on traditional security than non-traditional because:
- India has been involved in conflict with its neighbours as Pakistan in 1947-48, 1965,1971 and 1999 and China in 1962.
- In South Asian Region, India is surrounded by nuclear armed countries. Hence, India’s decision to conduct nuclear test n 1990 was justified to safeguard national security.
- India’s first tested nuclear device in 1974.
- Though India has made efforts to develop its economy and an individual’s security from poverty but still it is lagging behind even now and we are supposed to make more efforts.
Mention and explain the components and India’s security strategy.
India has faced traditional military and non-traditional threats to its Security that have emerged from within as well as outside its borders. Its security strategy has four broad components i.e.:
- To strengthen its Military capabilities;
(a) India has been involved in conflict with its neighbours, as Pakistan in 1947¬48, 1965, 1971 and 1999 and China in 1962.
(b) In South Asia Region, India is surrounded by nuclear armed countries. Hence, India’s section to conduct nuclear test in 1990 was justified to safeguard national security.
(c) India first tested nuclear device in 1974.
- To strengthen international Norms and international Institutions:
(a) India’s first Prime Minister J.L. Nehru supported Asian solidarity, disarmament, decolonisation and the UN as a forum to settle down international conflict.
(b) India signed Kyoto Protocol in 1997 to be a part of roadmap for reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases to check global warming.
- To Meet Security Challenges within the Country.
(a) Several militant groups from areas such as Nagaland, Mizoram, Punjab, Kashmir has sought to break away from India.
(b) India makes efforts to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system by providing freedom of speech and expression along with the right to vote.
- To Develop its Economy.
(a) India develops the way to lift vast mass of citizens out of poverty, misery and huge economic inequalities.
(b) A democratically elected government is supposed to combine economic growth with human development without any demarcation between the rich and the poor.
Explain the areas of operation of non-traditional notion of security.
Non-traditional concept of security includes human and global security covering a wide range of threats affecting human existence:
1 It does not cover only the states but also the individuals and communities also.
2. It emphasises on security on nature of threat and right approach to deal with the threat its sources can be identified as follows:
- Terrorism refers to political violence to target civilians deliberately and discriminately to use it as a weapon against national government.
- Human Rights refer to basic conditioons which an individual is supposed to enjoy as a human being as political rights, freedom of speech and expression, economic rights, social and civil rights to lead an honourable and dignified life.
- Global poverty refers to low economic growth, low national income and low standard of living of developing or least developed countries.
- Health epidemics is a very serious threat to country’s security because severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (ARS), HIV, AIDS, bird flue diseases spread across countries through migration, business, tourism and military operations.
What is Traditional security?
The traditional security paradigm refers to a realist construct of security in which the referent object of security is the state. The prevalence of this theorem reached a peak during the Cold War. For almost half a century, major world powers entrusted the security of their nation to a balance of power among states.
In this sense international stability relied on the premise that if state security is maintained, then the security of citizens will necessarily follow. Traditional security relied on the anarchistic balance of power, a military build-up between the United States and the Soviet Union (the two super powers) and on the absolute sovereignty of the nation state.
States were deemed to be rational entities, national interests and policy driven by the desire for absolute power. Security was seen as protection from invasion; executed during proxy conflicts using technical and military capabilities. As Cold War tensions receded, it became clear that the security of citizens was threatened by hardships arising from internal state activities as well as external aggressors.
Civil wars were increasingly common and compounded existing poverty, disease, hunger, violence and human rights abuses. Traditional security policies had effectively masked these underlying basic human needs in the face of state security. Through neglect of its constituents, nation states had failed in their primary objective.
In the historical debate on how best to achieve national security, writers like Hobbes, Macchiavelli and Rousseau tended to paint a rather pessimistic picture of the implications of state sovereignty. The international system was viewed as a rather brutal arena in which states would seek to achieve their own security at the expense of their neighbors. Inter-state relations were seen as a struggle for power, as states constantly attempted to take advantage of each other.
According to this view, permanent peace was unlikely to be achieved. All that states could do was to try to balance the power of other states to prevent any one from achieving overall hegemony. This view was shared by Writers such as E.H. Carr and Hans Morgenthau. More recently, the traditional state-centric notion of security has been challenged by more holistic approaches to security.
Among the approaches which seeks to acknowledge and address these basic threats to human safety are paradigms that include cooperative, comprehensive and collective measures, aimed to ensure security for the individual and, as a result, for the state. To enhance international security against potential threats caused by terrorism and organized crime, there have been an increase in international cooperation, resulting in transnational policing.
The international police Interpol shares information across international borders and this cooperation has been greatly enhanced by the arrival of the Internet and the ability to instantly transfer documents, films and photographs worldwide.
Identify various factors causing environmental degradation.
Envirnomental Problem: Some of the notable problem of environment can be identified as under: –
- Land Air And Water: Pollution of land and water has affected plants, animals and human beings. The quality of soil is deterionating resulting in the loss of agricultural land. The loss is estimated to be about five to seven million hectares of land each year. Soil erosion, as a result of wind and/or water, costs the world dearly. The recurring floods have their own peculiar casualties like deforestation, silt in the river bed, inadequate and improper drainage, loss of men and property. The vast oceans, after being turned into dumping grounds for all nuclear wastes, have poisoned and polluted the whole natural environment.
- Population Growth: Population growth means more people to eat and breathe, and putting an excessive pressure on land and forest, and ultimately disturbing the ecological balance. Our growing population is putting pressure on land, leading to poor quality of productivity, deforestation (the loss of forest land so necessary for ecological balance and exitinction of wild life leading to imbalance in the ecological order, loss of wild life heritage and ultimately dwindling of several species. The growing population is not only a problem for the natural environment; it is a problem for any other aspect of environment, say, for example social, economic, political etc.
- Urbanization: Urbanization is no less a source of pollution, and therefore, a threat to the environment. Urbanization means maddening race of people from villages to the cities. The net result of urbanization is dirt, disease and disasters. In a state of growing urbanization, environmental problem like sanitation, ill-heath, housing, water-supply and electricity keep expanding. On the other, the environmental degradation is caused in the rural life due to indiscriminate collection of firewood, overgrazing and depletion of other natural resources.
- Industrialization: Industrialization coupled with the development of the means of transport and communication has not only polluted the environment, but also has led to the shrinking of the natural resources. Both ways, the loss is really heavy. Increasing level
of heat fluxes, carbon dioxide and particulate, radioactive nuclear wastes and the like create environment hazards. On the other hand, the consumption of conventional source of energy leads to the loss of natural resource. We are building a world without caring for future generations.
What are the national and international commitment for environment protection?
The growing awareness about environmental protection has resulted in new measures across the world. The late Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi was the only Head of Government, attending the 1972 Stockholm conference, which was called the “U.N. Conference on Human environment”. The Rio Conference 20 years later was called the “U.N. Conference on Environment and Development”.
It was Mrs. Gandhi who first pointed out that poverty was the greatest polluter and unless it was eliminated through national and international efforts it was futile to talk about protecting the planet from environmental disaster. UNDP, the World Bank and other institutions of the U.N. system are now advocating the elimination of poverty as the central task in sustainable development.
Indeed environmental and development polices are seen as complementing each other. The compulsions of development is certainly to be resolved. But any world order cannot be sustainable if three-fourths of its population continues to live in poverty. Environmental rights and developmental rights together constitute the democratic and human rights of all the people of the world.
The Montreal convention and the conventions on climate change; bio-diversity and forest adopted at Rio are important landmarks in the world movement for sustainable development and environmental protection. India has accepted these conventions and is taking systematic measures to implement them. An environmental action programme funded by U.N.D.P.is under implementation. There are 31 schemes for industrial pollution control approved by the World Bank, involving of US. $ 105 million.
On the anvil are common effluent plants for small industries located in a cluster, the big plants being looked after individually. Seventeen grossly polluting industries have been identified for environment control within a time schedule. For certain categories of industries, prior environment clearance is compulsory before they can be set up.
In regard to transport pollution apart from conversation measures, population free engines are being designed, some of which have already been introduced for two-wheelers, three-wheelers and some of the popular cars. A National Forestry Plan is in progress. Environmental Brigades, Afforestation Brigades and Ecological task Force have been organized by Non-government organizations (NGOs.) India’s wild life conservation projects have met with remarkable success.
India has a protected network of75 national parks and 421 wild life sanctuaries. The Tiger project has been a great success. India also has an elaborate law relating to the prevention of pollution of water, soil and air and a system of environmental audit of most industrial projects. While this is voluntary for most countries, India has a mandatory rule in this regard.
India is also engaged in serious and systematic efforts to develop alternative and renewable sources of energy like solar, wind and wave energy which are environment friendly. Emphasis is laid on solar energy on which some significant technological progress has been made. India is taking all these measures partially with international assistance.
Write about the justice of the poor against factories that pollute the Environment.
- Environmental Courts: Special courts are being set up to ensure speedy
- Environment Friendly Products: The government is setting stringent standards for all products in the market. Those, which meet these standards of production and performance will be given the label of excellence like the ISI mark.
- Unleading of Petrol: Refineries are being persuaded to make their petrol lead free. Indian petrol has the highest lead content, which creates major pollution through automobiles.
- Ban on Harmful Pesticides: Eight chemical pesticides, of which DDT, BHC, Aldrin and Malathion are the main culprits have been isolated. There are now plans to replace them with safe biopesticides.
- National Waste Management Council: The main task is to convert 40 million tones of fly ash, that lie as a mountain near thermal power plants into bricks, city garbage into energy and sewage into fertilizer.
- Public Liability Insurance: This makes it mandatory for all companies to take out a public liability insurance to be paid in 48 hours.
- Pollution by Motor Vehicles: Anti-pollution measures against motor vehicles are being strictly enforced. Vehicles not adhering to the standards prescribed are fined heavily and may even be asked to be off the road.
- Hotel Near Sea Shore: Action has been taken against a large number of hotels which encroach beaches in flagrant violation of laws.
- National River Action Plan: The proposal is to set up a National river authority which will plan policy for water use and waste management at the national level.
- Solar Energy Commission: Since the energy sector is the major polluter, the idea is to create decentralized energy at the village level, instead of multiplying the mainstream producer.
- No Smoking In Public Places: A ban is proposed on smoking in public places. The Delhi government has taken a lead in this direction, majors taken by India for environment pollution.
What is sustainable development?
The world commission on environment and development (the Brundtland commission) submitted its report entitled “Our common future in 1987. This report highlighted and popularised the concept of ‘sustainable development’. Sustainable development has been defined on meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the need of future generations. All developmental activities involve some amount of environmental degradation.
What is required is to take into account the damage to environment as a result of development, and strike a balance between development and environmental protection. The aim should be to achieve sustainable levels of people’s welfare and development. The primary concern is how many people can ultimately be supported by environment and at what level of quality of life.
The mainstream greens scholars like Carr, Brown, Dala, Schumacher. Does not make sense and others, all lay stress on the “sustainability” of the environment together with development. The emphasis of the mainstream green’ are not on pollution, but on
- energy and its resource may be renewed, and be kept renewing,
- the waste be changed into raw-material, raw-material into waste, waste into raw- material: recycling of waste into raw material;
- gross national product and its growth targets need not be sought, but what should be sought is the satisfaction of real human needs’.
The greens say that growth means cancer, a cancer that threatens to spread worldwide and destroy all life. The concept of sustainable development is more about the environment and less about development; more about stability and less about change; more about restricting one’s wants and less about continuing material development more about the non-exploitative attitude towards environment and less about harnessing it; more about small communities and less about the larger ones.
It is not a concept of development with environment, but is environment without growth. Indeed, ecological degradation should stop. But why should the pace of development stop? A disciplined uses of environmental benefits go a long way for all round development. Scholars and activists assert that environmental degradation can be controlled and reversed only by ensuring that the parties causing the damage should be made accountable for their action and that they should participate in improving environmental conditions.
What is needed is a set of norms, which bring the demands of development and the compulsion of the environment closer to each other.
What is the objective of India’s National Environment policy?
Ans. In India, environmental awareness gained importance in 1 970s after the UN-sponsored conference on the environment in Stockholm (1972). The Indian government took many environment-friendly activities. Ministry of environment and forest was established and laws were enacted on environment protection in -1986. The objective of India’s National Environment, policy, here, is worth stating.
- Conserve and develop a safe, healthy, productive, and aesthetically satisfying environment.
- Upgrade, develop and manage rural and urban settlements to enhance the quality of life.
- Plan development on sound ecological principles with environmental impact assessment and incorporating appropriate environmental safeguards.
- Promote environmental safety technologies, recycling of resources, and utilization of wastes.
- Conserve the biotic diversity in the country by creating nature reserves and sanctuaries for specific habitats such as mountains, rain forests, pastures, deserts, wetlands, lakes, beaches, mangroves, estuaries, lagoons, and islands.
- Safeguard the environment within the national maritime Exclusive Economic Zone.
- Evolve environmental norms and establish effective mechanisms for monitoring surveillance and collection and dissemination of information.
- Preserve science landscapes, as well as historic and cultural monuments and their environs.
- Promote environmental education at all levels and create public awareness.
- Encourage research in environmental science and technological and social investigation to conserve and improve the environment.
- Develop adequate manpower within the country, of ecologists, environmental scientists, planners, and managers of the highest- quality and recognize their work as an important component of national development.