Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 Political Science Solutions Unit 5 Issues in International Politics Short Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 12th Class Political Science Unit 5 Issues in International Politics Short Answer Questions
Short Questions With Answers
What is security?
The concept of security in general refers to freedom from the risk of loss or damage to a thing that is important to survival and well-being. It can have both broad and narrow application, and it can apply to a limited set of objects to be secured, or to a deeper array of interconnected elements in a social system. In its shallowest and narrowest form, which is also its most influential and widespread interpretation, security refers to the security of the nation-state from attack from armed forces.
Define National security.
Richard Ullman (1983), for example, has defined a national security threat as anything that can quickly degrade the quality of life of the inhabitants of a state, or that narrows the choices available to people and organizations within the state.
What is securitization?
Indeed, because security is a “speech act” that raises the profile of a problem to be of paramount importance to whoever constructs the discourse, broadening the range of security risks without explicitly identifying a referent object that is not the state most often operationalizes state monopolization of responses to meet the new security challenges. This is what is implied in the idea of “securitization”.
What is “Global”?
The scale of consumption and pollution in modem, high-energy societies has caused large decreases in primary forest cover; biodiversity losses; depletion of fish stocks; land degradation; water pollution and scarcity; coastal and marine degradation; the contamination of people, plants and animals by chemicals and radioactive substances; and climate change and sea-level rise. These environmental changes are “global” because they are ubiquitous and because some pollutants such as greenhouse gases and radioactive wastes have global consequences.
Define human security.
Human security is the combination of threats associated with war, genocide, and the displacement of populations. At a minimum, human security means freedom from violence and from the fear of violence.
Define corporative security.
Corporate security is the involvement of international corporation depending on the nature of threat and the willingness and ability of countries to respond.
Mention any two human rights in poltical field.
One is freedom of speech and expression and second is freedom to assemble in peaceful maimer.
Which is the greatest danger to security as per traditional notion of secuirity?
It is from military threats which lies in another country to endanger the core value of sovereignty independence and territoirial integration of country.
What is meant by disarmament?
Disarmament bound state to give up certain kinds weapon to avoid mass destruction through signing various treaties.
What is global poverty?
Global poverty signifies a condition available in the state to suffer from low income and less economic growth that is developing or underdeveloped countries.
Is the notion of security applicable to all the state.
All states do not experience the same threat at a time hence security is groued into two as per requirements. Traditional and non-traditional conception.
Suggest any one effective step which would limit war and violence between countries.
An effective step may be in the form of cooperative security only that involves international corporation which may be bilateral, regional, continental or global which depends upon the nature of threats and the willingness and ability of countries to respond to limit war or violence corporative security place at national and international levels.
Highlight any two threats of country’s security as per traditional notion of security or explain traditional concept of security.
Traditional notion of security covers both internal and external threats of country’s security. External threats consist of four components that is military threats, threat of war, balance of power and alliance building. Internal threats include maintenance of internal peace and order and recognise corporative security to limit violence.
What is military threats?
Military threats refers to military action from another country to endanger the core value of country’s sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity. Military action often targets men and women that is ordinary citizens.
Explain non-traditional concept of security.
Non-traditional concept of security includes human an4 global security covering a wide range of threats affecting human existence.
(1) It does not covers the state only but also the individual and community.
(2) It emphasize on security on nature of threats and right approach to deal with threat.
Write a note on Arms control.
Arms control regulates the acquisition or development of weapons by adopting following measures:
- The Anti Ballistic Missiles Treaty in 1992 stopped the US and Soviet Union from using ballistic missiles to limit large scale production.
- Other arms control treaties were also signed i.e. Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty and Nuclear non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) to limit the weapons which may bring large scale destruction.
- NPT regulated the acquisition of nuclear weapons in 1968.
- NPT did not abolish nuclear weapons rather it limited number of countries that could have them.
What is global security?
Defining global security In an address in 1993 I defined “global security” as the absence of threats to the vital interests of the planet, and I argued that this new concept should replace that of “national security.” Furthermore, the idea of security must extend well beyond its traditional military dimension to encompass the interrelated military, political, economic, environmental, health and other threats I list above. Now is an opportune time to build global consensus on these issues and the logical party to take the initiative would clearly be a revitalized UN. International cooperation will become increasingly important in achieving our shared global security goals. We will need new theories and analytic frameworks for global security to replace traditional theories such as containment, balance of power, deterrence, and hegemonic stability.
What is Human security?
Defining human security “Human security” will be defined here as the absence of threats to the vital interests of individual people on a worldwide basis. In the words of the UN Development Programme, which originated the concept, human security is “freedom from pervasive threats to people’s rights, safety or lives,” involving both “safety for people from violent threats, such as organized conflict, gross violations of human rights, terrorism and violent crime” and “safety from non-violent threats, such as environmental degradation, economic crises, illicit drugs, infectious diseases and natural disasters.” These two concepts of security, global security and human security, are not inconsistent; rather, they are both complementary and mutually reinforcing.
What are the main features of Human Security?
Human security brings together the ‘human elements of security, rights and development. As such, it is an inter-disciplinary concept that displays the following characteristics: people-centered multi-sectoral comprehensive context-specific prevention-oriented As a people-centered concept, human security places the individual at the ‘centre of analysis. ’
Consequently, it considers a broad range of conditions which threaten survival, livelihood and dignity, and identifies the threshold below which human life is intolerably threatened. Human security is also based on a multi-sectoral understanding of insecurities.
Therefore, human security entails a broadened understanding of threats and includes causes of insecurity relating for instance to economic, food,health, environmental, personal, community and political security.
Explain the concept of environmental degradation.
Environment constitutes a. very important part of our life. To understand life without studying the impact of environment is simply impossible. The need to protect environment can be ignored only at our peril. We use environmental resources in our day to day life. These resources are renewabteand non-renewable. We have to be more cautious in consuming non-renewable resources like coal and petroleum, which are prone to depletion.
All human activities have an impact on environment. But in the last two centuries or so, the human influence on environment has increased manifold due to the rapid population, growth and the fast development in science and technology. These two are the major factors in reducing the quality of environment and causing its degradation. The environmental degradation poses a great danger to man’s own survival.
It should be realized, sooner than later, that conservation and improvement ofthe environment are vital for the survival, and well being of mankind. Natural resources of land, air and water have to be used wisely as a trust to ensure a healthy environment for the present and future generations.
Write about awareness about environment problem.
In the past two decades, environment has attracted the attention of decision makers, scientists and even laymen in many parts of the world. They are becoming increasingly, conscious of issues such as famines, droughts, floods, scarcity of fuel, firewood and fodder, pollution of air and, water, problems of hazardous chemicals and radiation, depletion of natural resources, extinction of wildlife and dangers to flora and fauna.
People are now aware of the need to protect the natural environmental resources of air, water, soil and plant life that constitute the natural capital on which man depends. The environmental issues are important because the absence of their solutions is more horrible. Unless environmental issues are not solved or not taken care of the coming generations may find earth worth not living. The need of the planet and the needs of the person have become one.
There is no denying the fact that environment has to be protected and conserved so to make future life possible. Indeed, man’s needs are increasing and accordingly, the environment is also being altered, indeed, nature’s capacity is too accommodating and too regenerative yet there is a limit to nature’s capacity, especially when pressure of exploding population and technology keep mounting. What is required is the sustenance, conservation and improvement of the changing and fragile environment.
Which third weapon both the superpowers did not want to give up under the concept of disarmament?
Disarmament requires all states to give up certain kinds of weapons i.e. the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and 1992 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) banned the production and possession of these weapons. Despite the US and Soviet Union were not ready to give up the third type of weapons of mass destruction namely nuclear weapons.
“The secure states do not imply the secure people in itself”. Examine the statement.
The secure states are supposed to protect their people from an individual in security also rather the territorial security only. Hence they are required to provide security from foreign attacks hunger, diseases and natural disasters, etc. because it destructs the people rather than war.
How is global poverty a source of insecurity? Explain.
Global poverty refers to low economic growth, low national income, and low standard of living of developing or least developed countries. It is a source of insecurity because:
- Half the world’s population growth occurs in just six countries- India, China, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, and Indonesia, considered developing countries, and even in the poorest countries population is expected to triple in the next 50 years.
- Globally, this disparity contributes to the gap between the northern and southern countries of the world.
- Poverty in the south has also led to a large migration to seek better economic opportunities in the north.
- All these created international political fiction as international law and norms make a distinction between migrants and refugees as they do not get ready to accept migrants.