Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 Sociology Solutions Unit 2 Indian Social Structure Short Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 12th Class Sociology Unit 2 Indian Social Structure Short Answer Questions
Very Short-Answer Type Questions
What is Caste?
A caste is a closed and rigid social class.
C.H Cooley when a class is somewhat strictly hereditary we may call it a caste.
Caste – Panchayat.
There is a caste-panchayat or caste connect for every caste to supervise the conduct and behaviour of active members. Such a caste panchayat is constituted by some eminent members of the caste and works as a powerful weapon.
Mention two features of the caste system.
- Hereditary occupation.
Mention two functions of the caste system.
- Maintenance of Race party,
- (ii) Religious functions
Mention two Dysfunction of the caste system.
- Denies of mobility of labour,
Mention two factors affecting caste system.
- Modem Education,
Mention two recent changes on the caste system.
- Declined superiority of Brahmins
- Change in the Restrictions regarding social Habits.
What is the class?
Class is a system in which a person’s social status in completely depends upon his activities. According to him, class is determined by its possession of such objective usually economic criteria like wealth, occupation and income etc.
According to Maclver and page “A social class any portion of a community marked off from the rest by social states.”
Mention two distinctions between caste and class
Caste is based on the birth of a person whereas not is based on a person’s status. The caste is closed and rigid. But the structure of the class is open and flexible.
What is the village?
A village is a community consisting of a group of people residing permanently in a definite geographical area and the members of which love developed community consciousness and cultural, social and economic relations, which separate them from other communities.
Define village community.
According to Prof M.N. Srinivas, a village is a body of people living in a restricted area, at some distances from others similar with extremely poor roads between them, the majority of people being engaged in agricultural activity all closely dependent upon each other economically and otherwise, having a vast body of common experience must have some sense of unity.
Characteristics of the village community.
The Indian village community has some specific characteristic features. We can have a better idea on the Indian village community when we come across its characteristics. The important characteristics are as follows:
- Small size
- Definite locality
- Community sentiment.
- Primary relation
- Joint family system.
Types of villages.
There are many types of villages in India. Some important types are given below:
- Linear village
Short-Answer Type Questions
Discuss the characteristics of the caste system.
The membership of every caste is determined by birth. The members of a particular caste cannot marry outside their caste. There are marriage restrictions regarding food, drink and social intercourse in every caste. There is a hereditary occupation for every caste. There is a hierarchical gradation on the caste system in which the Brahmins occupy the top position.
Discuss the functions of the caste system.
The caste system has occupied the highest place in the Indian social system.
- Determination of social status
- Fixation of occupation.
- Guarantee of social security
- Control over Behaviour.
- Provide mental security.
- Maintenance of Race purity.
Discuss the Dysfunctions of the caste system.
Besides the mentioned functions caste system discharge many dysfunctions, also
1. Denies of mobility of labour
3. Retards social solidarity
4. Obstacle to social utility
5. Obstacle to social progress.
6. Oppose to Democracy.
Discuss the factors affecting the caste system.
Under the impact of certain powerful functions caste system is undergoing drastic changes on modem India.
- Modem Education
- Rigid Development of Transportation and communication.
- Social reform movement
- Political movement
- Religious movement
Recent changes in the caste system. Discuss.
Change is a universal law of nature. The law of nature has been prevailing from the permissive period till now. Declined superiority of Brahmins. Change on the Restrictions regarding social Habits. Changes on the Restrictions regarding marriage. Change in the Restrictions regarding occupation. Change in caste structure.
The distinction between caste and class.
Though caste and class function is two opposing groups yet there are many similarities between them. Caste is based on the birth of a person. Where as not is based on a person’s status power and occupation in class. The structure of caste is closed and rigid. But the structure of the class is open and flexible. There are some restrictions regarding the selection or choice of occupation on the caste system. But on the other hand in the class system, there is no restrictions regarding the choice of occupation.
Mention the various characteristics of a joint family.
The various characteristics of a joint family are the following:
Large size :
The size of the joint family is also large. A single-family consists of only a husband wife and children. But a joint family consists of parents, children and other near relatives.
All the members of the joint family usually live in a common home which means they live under the same roof.
Common kitchen :
In every joint family, there is a common kitchen as the members of the joint family eat food cooked at one health.
In a joint family, the own production and consumption of wealth of all the members of the family have equal rights on both movable and immovable property.
The members of a joint family believe in the same religion and worship similar deities. They perform jointly the religious rites and duties.
Rule by Karta:
A joint family is guided and regulated by the head or Karta controls and directs all the members. There is the supreme authority of the family.
Discuss the merits of joint family in India.
Simple division of labour:
Every member of the family is given work according to his abilities without being compelled. There is separate work on the basis of age and sex.
It provides opportunities for leisure to its members. Due to the division of labour, the assigned work is completed within little time and takes rest.
In joint families, orphans, widows, old and sick people get an opportunity to maintain a comfortable life.
Social virtues :
It fosters great virtues as sacrifice, love, affection, co-operation broadens among the members.
According to H. Maine, the joint family is like a corporation the trustee of which is the father or the head of the family. Everyone gets according to his capacity and also gets as per their need.
Discuss the dysfunctions of joint family.
The dysfunctions of joint family are discussed below:
In a joint family, the condition of women is very inconvenient. They can neither talk nor express their views independently. Women are not permitted to move outside the family so their personality is not developed. A joint family encourages safety among the members. All the members of the joint family are sure of economic security. Therefore, some, members do not work for the progress of the family.
A joint family is the centre of the conflict. It creates conflict among the members at any time. Joint family acts as a great obstacle of social change. The members of the joint family are more conservative and they do not accept any change of society easily. They strictly follow the old traditional customs, folkways and modes. In that way, it hinders social change.
A joint family hinders the economic progress of society because those who work hard are not properly rewarded. There is always dissatisfaction among the earning members. It checks and hinders the economic progress of the family. A joint family disorganises society by creating of certain social problems. It creates social problems like population growth, juvenile delinquency, unemployment, divorce and so on.
Briefly discuss the changes in the joint family.
Firstly, there has been a change in the traditional characteristics i.e. common residence and common kitchen of a joint family. Now- a – days joint family is found to be seen without these two characteristics. Secondly, there have been changes in the size of the joint family. As in the past joint family, today does not consist of many large families. Thirdly, there have been changes in the position of women in joint families.
Traditionally the condition of women was very pitiable in a joint family but now it is not so. There is much improvement in their status as a joint family. Fourthly, there have been changes in the absolute authority of the head. At present, the head of the joint family is no more enjoying such absolute power. Fifthly, there is a change in the role of joint family in providing recreation and entertainment to its members.
Write a short note on Illom.
Illom is a kind of Hindu joint family found among the Nambudri Brahmins of Kerala. The property of Illom is impartible. Division of property in the Illom is not so easy as it requires, the consent of all the members of the family. The property is headed by the Illom as a whole. The continuation of the Illom is facilitated by the custom, according to which the eldest brother alone marries a girl from his own caste.
while all other brothers marry Nayar women, who along with their children stay in their matrilocal families. Only when the eldest son fails to have a child the next senior brother marries a girl of his own caste for the continuation of the family. In Illom the female members of the family have equal rights with men in the property. A female can set aside any alienation of property.
Write a short note on Tarwad.
The matrilineal Hindujoint family of the Nayars of Kerala is known as the Tarward. lt is composed of a woman, her sons and daughters, daughter’s daughter and sons and so on. It does not include the children of son. All the male and female members of the Tarwad own its property.The property of a Tarwad is practically impartible though partition is theoretically allowed.
The eldest male member of the Tarwad is its manager and is known as the Kamavan. All the junior members of the Tarwad have rights to maintenance in the family property Kamavan has absolute authority over the family property but he cannot permanently alienate it. He may be removed from his position if required.
What is a Joint family?
A joint family is a group of people who generally live under one roof who eat food cooked at one hearth who hold property on common and who participate in common worship and are related to each other as some particular type of kindred.
Define Joint family
A joint family is one which consists of males having a common male ancestor, female offspring are not married and women brought in the group of marriage. All of these persons might live in common households near to one another. In any case so long as the joint family holds together its members are expected to contribute to the support of the where and to receive from it a share of the local product.”
Features of Joint family.
(1) Common Habitation.
(2) Common Kitchen
(3) Common property
(4) Common worship.
(5) Exercise of Authority.
Impact of Industrialization of Joint Family.
Industrialisation refers to the birth of the factory system of production. The growth of industries has contributed to the growth of the cities. As a result of industrialisation, people have started moving towards the industrial areas in search of employment. It has affected the character and the growth of a joint family.
Three important functions.
A joint family has the responsibility to provide all sorts of facilities for the welfare of its members and society. It acts as an important institution because of the advantages it provides to its members.
- Provides social security
- Ensures economy of expenditure.
- Provides division of work.
- Provides Psychological security.
Three important dysfunctions of Joint Family.
In spite of the advantages of a Joint Family, the Joint Family also suffers from a serious setback. Its disadvantages are in countable strength. The significant among them are : (1) Encourages idleness.