Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Political Science Solutions Unit 2 Basic Concept Short Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class Political Science Unit 2 Basic Concept Short Answer Questions
Short Type Questions with Answers
What is liberty?
Liberty means freedom enjoyed under the law of the state. It means equal and adequate opportunities for all to enjoy their rights.
What is negative liberty?
Negative liberty means absence of restraints. It gives one the freedom to do whatever one like to do.
What is positive liberty?
Positive liberty means freedom under rational restraints. It gives equal and adequate opportunities for all to enjoy their rights.
What is natural liberty?
Natural liberty is an abstraction which people enjoyed in the imaginary state of nature. It implies the enjoyment of unrestrained new freedom.
What is civil liberty?
Civil liberty consists of the rights which an individual enjoys as a member of civil society. It is enjoyed under certain restrictions.
What is political liberty?
Political liberty consists of those political rights through which an individual takes part in the affairs of state. In includes the right to vote, right to contest in election, right to hold public office, etc.
What is economic liberty?
Economic liberty means freedom of an individual from exploitation and insercurity. It enables an individual to earn one’s daily bread.
What is national liberty?
National liberty means freedom of the the nation from the control of any other country. It can be identified with national independence.
What is International liberty?
International liberty means freedom from threat of war. It means cooperation and co¬existence among nations.
What is religious liberty?
Religious liberty means freedom to profess any religion. It further means freedom of faith and worship and non intervention in religious affairs of the people.
What is Equality?
Equality means the absence of unjust and unnatural inequalities. It believes in giving equal opportunity to all for development.
What is natural equality?
Natural equality means that God has given all individuals equal psychological traits, mental ability and capacity. All are equally capable of enjoying all human rights and freedoms.
What Is social equality?
Social equality means absence of special privileges for any class or group on artificial grounds. If means giving equal social opportunities to all irrespective of discrimination.
What is civil equality?
Civil equality means equality under the law of the state. It stands for the grant of equal rights and freedom to all social groups.
What is political equality?
Political equality means equal opportunity for participation in the political process. One man one vote upholds the principle of political equality.
What is Economic equality?
Economic equality stands for removal of gross inequalities of wealth. It pleads for giving fair and adequate opportunities to all for work and earning livelihood.
What is legal equality?
Legal equality means equality before law. And equal subjection of all to the same law and legal protection of rights and freedom.
What is a right?
Right is a power possessed by an individual against others which are recognized by the state. It provides opportunities to citizens to develop their personality.
What is a moral right?
Moral right is based on morality and ethics. It lacks the backing of state authority.
What is a civil right?
Civil rights enable individuals for a free and decent civil life. These rights are concerned with the life. Liberty and property of individuals.
What is a political right?
Political rights enable a citizen to participate in the affairs of the state. These are available to citizens in a democracy.
What are human rights?
Human rights are certain natural rights by which an individual can lead a dignified life. These rights are universal in character and every one irrespective of any distinction enjoys it.
What is personal liberty?
Personal liberty is the freedom enjoyed by an individual to satisfy his needs. This liberty is enjoyed with due regard to the liberty of others.
How law is related to liberty?
Law is a condition for enjoying liberty. Without adequate legal provisions no one can enjoy his liberty.
What is justice?
Justice implies neutrality, fairness and right conduct. Let right be done is the motto of justice
What Is Social Justice?
Social justice is an ideal social order devoid of social inequality and exploitation. It believes in abolition of injustice, blind beliefs and oppression from society.
What is Economic justice?
Economic justice means to give the opportunity to an individual to earn one’s livelihood. Abolition of economic exploitation and provision for basic minimum needs to everyone promotes economic justice.
What is political justice?
Political justice refers to the opportunity to participate freely in the affaris of state. Universal suffrage, right to form political parties and the freedom to criticize the govt, ensure political justice.
What are the various types of rights?
Rights can be divided into moral and legal rights. Further, legal rights can be divided into civil, political and economic rights.
Mention at least two ways of violation to human rights?
Discrimination based on caste, religion and sex violates human rights. Corruption and excessive police action.
How human rights can be protected?
Human rights can be protected by conscious human efforts. The government through legislation, the judiciary by imposing punishment on violates of human rights can safeguard human rights.
What is secularism?
Secularism implies religious equality and tolerance towards other religions. It further means that the state and the activities of government must be free from religious influence.
What is Indian approach to secularism?
Indian approach to secularism means Opposition to religious communalism and Equal treatment to all religions.
What is western approach to secularism?
From the western point of view, secularism means, The government activities must be free from religious influence and Non interference of the state in the individual religious beliefs and practice.
What is capitalist model of development?
Capitalist model of development is individual centric development. It relies an industrialization, technological development, modernization and employment generation.
What is socialist model of development?
Socialist model of development believes in state control over means of production and distribution. Protection of working class, social justice and grant of social rights.
What is sustainable development?
Sustainable development means social economic and environmental development. It brings development for the present with due regard to future development.
Nature of liberty.
Liberty does not mean absence of restraints. It consists of the reasonable restraints on individual liberty. Liberty creates a condition for development of personality. Law is a condition of liberty. It is the product of rights enjoyed by individuals.
What is positive equality?
Positive equality means grant of equal opportunities to all for development of individual personality. It does not believe in artificial discrimination based on caste, religion, sex and colour. It eliminates all types of inequality. The state by providing basic minimum needs to all establishes positive quality.
Characteristics of equality.
Equality means absence of special privilege. It gives equal treatment to all. Rule of law ensures equality. It is based on artificial discrimination.
Equal opportunity to all ensures equality.
Liberty and equality are complementary.
Rousseau, Maitland, Laski, Barker and others argue that liberty and equality are complementary. They believe that liberty can not be enjoyed unless it is available to all equally. Without equality liberty becomes incense. For development of individual and welfare of society both liberty and equality are equally necessary.
Liberty and equality are opposed to each other.
Lord Acton and De Tocqueville plead that liberty and equality are antithetic. Liberty does not believe in restraints Equality cannot be maintained without regulating liberty. Actually, liberty is not opposed to equality Liberty does not mean absence of restraints rather an imposition of reasonable restraints on the individual freedom.
What is legal justice?
Legal justice is ensured through the legal system and judiciary. It insists on enactment of good laws and its implementation. Neutrality of law ensures legal justice. It gives equal treatment to rich poor, men women and high and low. Neutrality of judges law courts and Rational laws are essential for ensuring legal justice.
The term secularism has been derived from the Latin word saculum, which means that the activities of state must be free from religion and morality. The state does not patronize any religion nor interferes in the religions beliefs of the citizens. In India, it believes in coexistence of all religions and equality to all religions. It prohibits religious exploitation and oppression. Secularism does not mean hatred towards religion but separation of religion from state administration.
What is western secularism?
Western secularism means western approach to secularism. It keeps the state away from religious influence. It grants equality to all religions and religious freedom to individual. The state never interferes in the religious belief of individuals. The state does not give grants in aid to any religious community nor obstructs their activity.
Indian approach to secularism.
Secularism in India means religious tolerance and security to women backward classes and minorities. Every individual is free accept or reject any religion of his choice. The state in India can introduce religious reforms. Unlike west, the state and government do net rc main free from religion, The state in- the name of protection of minorities makes inroad into religious freedom of individuals. It believes in equality to all religions and coexistence of all religions.
Distinguish between moral and legal rights.
Moral rights differ from legal rights on the following lines.
Moral rights are based on morality, values and ideals, but legal rights are based on law. Moral rights are not supported by law but legal rights are, Violation of moral rights does not invite punishment but violation of legal rights is visited with punishment Right to life is a legal right but to beg aims by the beggar is a moral right.
Indian secularism vs western secularism.
Indian secularism differs from western secularism in the following way
Western secularism save the state from the influence of religion. But Indian secularism believes in religious freedom of the individuals. Western secularism does not allow the state to interfere in the religious rites and ceremonies, but in India the Govt, in the name of secularism frequently interferences in the religious matters. The government in the \Vdst is never influenced by religious, groups and communities, but in India the, Govt, in the name of protecting minorities, backward people interferes in religious matters. Secularism in India is used as a slogan for vote catching, but not in the west.
Capitalist model of development.
The capitalist development model is known as western model of development. It is individual centric in nature. It emphasizes on rapid industrialization technological development, modernization and employment generation. It believes in free market economy and uninterrupted competition in the economic sphere. It gives priority to privatization and profit.
Socialist model of Development.
Socialist model is just the reverse of capitalist development model. This model can be found in China, North Korea & Vietnam today. In this model the economy is completely regulated by state. It relies on state control over production and distribution. The state exercises complete control over education, health service, industry, market and social security.
What is development?
Development refers to any change for better growth. It consists of social, economic, cultural, mental and physical development. Development is a continuous process. Modernisation of agriculture, industries, transport and communication, higher living standard and better security pirovisions, are the indicators of development. Development refers to strengthening national economy.
What is sustainable development?
Sustainable development refers to socio economic development, protection of environment and conservation of minerals & natural resources for use in future. It is a well thought out plan that ensures development for the present and future generation. Excessive use of energy, natural resources and environmental pollution have posed a question mark on the continuity of the development process. Therefore, states are now planning their development model with due attention to rural development, poverty alleviation. Pollution control and careful use of natural resources to have a secured future.
What is the meaning of the term ‘Liberty’
‘Liberty’ has been derived from the Latin word ‘Liber’ which means freedom. But liberty does not mean absolute freedom or licence to anything whatever one likes. Liberty is an essential condition for the development of individual personality. It does not mean absence of all restraints but imposition of reasonable and just restrictions on the activities of individual in the interest of the state. It is an atmosphere created by the state where individuals can develop their personality to the best extent possible.
What do you mean by positive liberty?
‘Positive liberty’ implies a condition or atmosphere created by the state where the individual can develop his personality to the best possible extent. It does not mean absence of restraint, but grant of equal opportunity to every individual for self development and self realization.
It implies three tilings.
- Grant of maximum rights by the state
- Grant of equal freedom for all without discrimination, and
- Equal opportunity for every individual to develop his personality to the fullest extent.
What docs negative liberty imply?
Negative liberty implies individualists conception of liberty. This means freedom from restraints and the power to an individual to do whatever he likes. States interference encroaches upon individual freedom, but such a conception of liberty cannot be enjoyed in civil society.
What is natural liberty?
‘Natural liberty is an abstract idea which was prevalent in the state of nature. It is based on the feeling that liberty is natural to man. The individual is completely free to do whatever he likes. Natural liberty is in other words called license’. It cannot be enjoyed in a civil society.
What is moral liberty?
Moral liberty consists in acting in conformity with one’s moral self, reason or conscience. Moral liberty can be identified with self realization. It means the freedom to do such flings according to the dictates of one’s conscience. It has a meaning only in the context if common good and it grants facility to each individual to develop his personality.
What is civil liberty?
‘Civil liberty’ or ‘personal liberty’ implies the rights and freedom enjoyed by in individual in civil society; It consists of the rights and privileges which the state creates and enforces through law. Civil liberty consists in equality before law, security of property, freedom of though and expression and freedom of religion, etc. It enables an individual to lead a peaceful and happy life in society.
What is the meaning of political liberty?
Political liberty refers to the freedom of the individual to play an active role in the affairs of State and Government. It is guaranteed only to citizens in a democratic state. It is the capacity of a citizen to constitute and exercise control over the government. It includes the right to vote, right to contest in election, right to hold political public office, right to form or join a political party etc. Political liberty enables a citizen access to state authority. Political liberty demands that citizens must be vigilant and well informed and the mass media must be impartial so that every individual can be able to enjoy political liberty.
What does economic liberty mean?
Economic liberty means the freedom of an individual to earn one’s daily bread. It does not mean grant of equal income but elimination of inequalities of wealth, exploitation, unemployment and insufficiency. It consists in the individuals right to work, right to decent wages; leisure and social insurances like, old age sickness, unemployment or disablement. It includes the freedom to earn and the freedom to protect one’s wealth.
What is the meaning of national Liberty?
National liberty implies the right of a nation to be free from the political domination of others. National liberty is identified with national independence or freedom and it is based on the principle of self determination National liberty demands that every nation must be free from fqreign control or domination and internal and external sovereignty. It is the foundation of all other civil, political liberty.
What does international liberty connote?
International liberty connotes a world free from war violence, arms race, colonialism and use of force. It implies the freedom of every nation to live in peace, harmony and cooperation with others. It is a modem idea which believes in renounciation of war, limitations on use and production of arms and pacific settlement of disputes.
Liberty does not mean absence of restraints.
Liberty-iri its negative aspects means the absence; of all restraints. This is individualistic conception of liberty which can – not be accepted in the civil society. Liberty does riot mean absence of restraint but on the other hand imposition of reasonable and just restrictions on, the freedoms and rights of individuals so that none can harm the liberty of others. Absolute freedom if at all is granted to an individual, will create a chaotic and lawlessness condition in society, hence none can be able to enjoy his liberty.
What is Laski’s view about liberty?
Laski’s view of liberty coincides with the positive aspect of liberty. He holds liberty as the product of rights. According to him the state through grant of right creates an atmosphere where every individual can be free to develop his personality to the maximum possible extent. It does not mean mere absenceof restraint but on the other the positive andequal opportunity of self realization,
What are the various safeguards of enjoyment of liberty?
- Democratic, representative and economic government.
- Separation of powers between the executive, legislature and judiciary.
- Constitutional guarantee of fundamental rights.
- Vigilant and well-informed public opinion.
- Free press and independent Judiciary, and
- Above all rule of law etc are the safeguard of liberty.
‘Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty Comment.
This statement clearly explains that individual liberty can be best safeguarded with an ever vigilant public opinion. If the individual citizens of a community are conscious any civilized then they can defend their liberty against and encroachment. Laski says the proud spirit of the citizens is the most real safeguard against abuse of power by the rulers. Where the people are alert and vigilant their liberty cannot be at stake.
What is positive equality?
Positive equality means ‘adequate opportunities for all. It means equality of chances for the development of individual faculties. The state must provide suitable opportunities for all citizens irrespective of any distinction. It further demands that the basic needs of life without which life is meaningless must be made available to all.
What are the basic features of equality?
Equality means absence of special privileges. It provides equal opportunity for all. It is based on rule of law. It does not believe in discrimination. It is formed only in democratic society.
What are the main features of liberty?
The main features of liberty are
It is an essential condition for the development of individual personality. It does not mean absence of restraint, but imposition of reasonable restraints on the actions of the individual. Liberty is the product of right. It is guaranteed only to the citizens in a democracy. Liberty always seeks to promote social goods.
How law is related to liberty?
Law and liberty are complementary to each other. Law is a condition of liberty. It is only obeying law’s that individual can enjoy liberty in a state. Law upholds of liberty and the state maintains its legal system only to ensure liberty to the people. Violation of law results in curtailment of individual liberty.
Whatis International Equality:
International equality is a modem idea which means equality among nation states as sovereign entitles. In the international sphere, all sovereign nations must be treated equally and none should be allowed to interfere in the domestic jurisdiction of another state. All states, whether big or small, powerful or weak, developed of underdeveloped must be treated with identical terms. The right to vote given to each member of the UNO must carry the same weight.
What is the meaning of Equality?
Equality is a leveling process which aims at the abolition of discrimination. It rests on the assumption that, all men are created equal and all should be entitled to equal opportunity and there shall be no external discrimination among the citizens. Equality goes against granting of any special privileges to any class or section of people in the society. In political context equality implies the absence of discrimination or man made special privileges to a particular section of the community. Equality amounts to equal distribution of rights by the state.
What is political equality?
Political equality implies that all citizens should have equal political rights and should have access to all public offices and authority. Political equality refers to equality with regard to vote, contest in the election and to hold any public officers. Political equality is essential for the successful working of democracy.
What is Economic Equality?
Economic equality implies that everybody should have equal right in the matter of earning one’s own livelihood. There shall be no barrier with regard to income or any profession which does not go against the interest of the community. Economic equality also refers to removal of inequalities, prohibition of exploitation and elimination of the problem of unemployment etc. Economic equality also refers to the equal distribution of wealth, scope of employment and fixation of equal wages for all leisure and share in the management of economic concern. Without economic equality and economic stability political right is meaningless.
What is Social Equality?
Social equality refers to the abolition of privileges or preferential treatment in the society irrespective of caste, class, colour, creed or religion. Social equality refers that, there should not be any discrimination in the enjoyment of social faculties or privileges. In the social sphere no person would be as inferior and the others as superior in terms of race, caste, religion, rank etc. Just by enacting legal formulation the problem of social inequality would be solved father for social equality there necessitates the consciousness of the citizens and the appropriate democratic ethics.
What do you mean by a right?
Right is a power possessed by an individual against others. It is recognized and upheld by the state. It provides opportunity to a citizen to develop his personality to the maximum extent. Rights are granted in the interest of the individuals and society by the state.
What docs moral right?
Moral rights imply the lack of coercive support behind themselves. These rights are based on morality or ethical rules and if one does not conform to these then no enforcement action can be taken. The state does not grant or protect a moral right. The right of the beggar to beg alms is a moral right.
What is the meaning of legal right?
The rights of the individual provided on the basis of laws and principles for formulated by the state are called legal rights. These are recognized and enforced by the state. Violation of legal rights leads to punishment by the state. These rights are guaranteed is the basis of equality irrespective of caste, colour, religion or sex discrimination. The legal rights are further subdivided into civil, political and economic rights.
What is meant by civil right?
The civil rights are a constituent of legal rights. These rights are guaranteed by the State to the individuals for a free and decent civil life in society. The civil rights are mostly concerned with the life, liberty and property of the individual. Without civil rights no individual can lead a happy and prosperous life. These are available both to the citizens and aliens.
What is a political right?
Political rights is one of the legal rights guaranteed under the protection of State. These rights enable a citizen to participate in the affairs of State. These are available only to the citizens. The political rights consist of the right to vote, right to contest for political office, right to criticize the Govt, right to petition, residence, resistance, public meeting etc. These are provided only in a democratic countries.
What do you mean by human rights?
- Human rights are the inherent natural rights of every individual without which no men can lead a dignified life.
- These rights are universal in character, and every individual irrespective of caste, colour, sex, religion and place of birth enjoys this right.
- The human rights enhance the status of individual in society and provide with safeguards which are considered necessary for his protection against arbitrary authority of State.
- Human rights are moral in character.
- These are available in democratic policy.
What is the importance of human rights?
Human rights are essential for human, welfare and prosperity. These rights are natural rights and they seek to enhance the dignity and status of the individual. It gives protection to children, women and backward classes from exploitation. It makes us liberal in treatment of criminals and prisoners of war. Human rights promote democratic values in the minds of individual.
What are the different types of Human Rights?
Human rights are classified into four types
- Civil Human Rights
- Political Human Rights
- Economic Human Rights
- Cultural Human Rights.
What are the Civil Human Rights?
The human rights associated with decent social life are called civil human rights. These are
- Right to life, liberty and personal freedom.
- Freedom from slavery and servitude.
- Freedom from cruel, torture and inhuman treatment or punishment.
- Right to an effective judicial remedy, that is, right to a fair trial and public hearing by an independent tribunal.
- Freedom from interference with privacy,family, home and correspondence
- Right to marriage, to have family and to own property
Write down the Political Human Rights.
- Rights to freedom of Political assembly and association.
- Right to nationality.
- Right to take part in Govt, and equal access into public services.
- Right to equal suffrage and
- Right to free movement, opinion and expression.
What are the economic human rights?
The economic human rights include
- The right to social security
- Right to work and equal pay for equal work
- Right to form and join trade unions
- Right to rest and leisure
- Right to adequate health and good living standard etc.
What are the modes of violation of human rights?
Human rights can be violated in the following methods.
Terrorism and killing of innocent people. Establishment of military rule. Racial discrimination, communal tension and caste rivalry Colonial and imperialist exploitation. War and aggression. Aggressive regionalism, ethnic violence and nationalistic tensions. Evil social costumes
What are the means of redressal of human rights?
The states should establish Human Rights Commission at the union state and District levels to provide redressal for the human rights violation. The Govt should enact law for the enforcement of human rights. The Govt must take the responsibility for human rights violations by public authorities. Stringent and severe punishment must be given to the offenders of human rights. The media, educational institutions and statements must create awareness among people about the value of human rights.