Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 Sociology Solutions Unit 3 The Challenges of Cultural Diversity Long Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 12th Class Sociology Unit 3 The Challenges of Cultural Diversity Long Answer Questions
Long Questions With Answers
Define national integration and discuss various factors disintegrating the Indian nation.
Anation is a mosaic of cultures. It has many elements, many textures, and many colors. The Indian nation is such a rich mosaic of people, dress, diet, languages, and religious faiths. Diversity is mixed with unity. Neither do they oppose each other nor do they grow at each other’s cost. They support and sustain each other India sets a fine example of unity in diversity. Unfortunately, today’s country’s unity is seriously challenged.
The separatist forces have raised their head in different parts of the country. The forces of fundamentalism are at work. Besides the regional and casteist forces are out to divide the people into narrow lines. Looking at these unhealthy trends serious-minded people have started asking is the republic breaking up, Therefore, an understanding of the nature and problems of national integration is necessary.
Ordinarily by national integration, we mean the sentiment which blinds the people of a country together. If connotes a sense of oneness brotherhood and we-feeling. It creates a social bond which French sociologist Durkheim calls organic solidarity. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan says “integration is a thought which must go into the minds of the people. It is the consciousness which must awaken the people at large”.
According to Akin Benjamin, national integration means the assimilation of the entire people of a country to a common identity”. In the word Rasheeudin Khan term, National Integration means cohesion but not fashion, unity but not uniformity, and reconciliation but not the assimilation of the discrete segment of people constituting a political community or a state.
H. A. Gani writers, National integration is the socio-psychological and educational process through which a feeling of unity solidarity, and cohesion develops in the hearts of the people and a sense of common citizenship. Thus are define national integration as a sense of belongingness, a feeling of togetherness, and of unity. Some of the salient features of national integration are the following.
Firstly, national integration is a process in which people of a nation are made to know, feel and act as one people. Secondly, it means the composition of differences but not their complete disappearance. It does not require that the people of India should have one loyalty and that should be to India. A person can have a set of loyalties such as loyalty to the state he lives into his caste, religion, language, etc.
but at the same time, he is required to remain loyal to the nation. National loyalty is primary and should come first when it is in conflict with other loyalties. Thirdly, it stands for mental tolerance. It calls for the elimination of anti-national forces. Fourthly, it is a comprehensive process it includes political, social, cultural, and even emotional integration of people. Lastly, national integration requires secularism and democracy.
Dis- integrating factors:
Many disintegrating factors are coming up in the way of nation-building and have sorted out some major factors such as communalism, casteism, linguism, and regionalism.
Communalism means one’s loyalty to one’s community. This in itself is not bad but rather national. But when blind love of communal feelings turns one’s own community and religion it becomes a concern. Moreover, the interlinking of religion with politics makes the matter worse. Communalism has changed its scope. It is more confined to religion. It has spread to caste, class, ethnic groups, etc.
It is not only seen in urban areas but also found on rural areas. Communalism is the number one national enemy. It is very powerful and wide- spread. Religious sentiment is the most cherished and sacred sentiment of the common man. Communalists try to strive for the religious sentiments of a community through lies and disinformation. The distant history. They present facts that are half true and half lie.
They spread rumors against the rival communities which may be total lies. The irresponsible and dangerous game played by communal forces ends in riots causing mass disorder, rape, loot, etc. Poor of all the communities become poorer Business, industry, education, public utility services close, and health and sanitation all come to stand still. Thus, riots threaten the safety of the whole nation.
It also lowers the image of the country outside Enemies inside and outside the country take the upper hand. Recent happenings of communal violence on several parts of the country in general and the violence of Ayodhya and the destruction of Babri Masjid, in particular, prove this sufficiently.
Casteism is a grave menace to national integration. It is an abnormal feature of one caste system. When the consideration of superiority between he interest of one’s own caste as opposed to their castes are added to the caste. It is turned in to casteism. Casteism creates political or – side loyalty to fellow caste men, it generates inter- caste tensions Gandhiji compared casteism with that of the appendix in the human body.
As long as it continues to enjoy health it serves its purpose but when it becomes diseased it affects the whole system. So the sooner it is removed better for the health, indeed casteism has spread its roots and branches into various walks of socio-economic and political life. It has become a social evil.
Regionalism is another major challenge to nation-building. It does not mean a attachment to one’s region but has come up to mean loyalty to the nation but has come up to mean loyalty to the nation or state. Before understanding regionalism let us know what the term region implies. A region refers to an area marked by certain physical and cultural characteristics which are different from those neighboring areas.
Love for a particular region in preference to the country and in certain cases in preference to the state of which the region is part is called regionalism. Regionalism is also understood as a consciousness of loyalty to a distinct area within a country, usually characterized by a common culture and language or historical or social background.
What do you mean by communalism? What are its causes? Suggest some remedial measures to abolish Communalism in India?
Communalism is the number one national enemy. It is very powerful and widespread. Religious sentiment is the most cherished and sacred sentiment of the common man. Communalists try to the religious sentiments of a community through lies disinformation. they distort history. They present facts that are half true and half lie. They spread rumors against the rival communities which may be a total lie.
The irresponsible and dangerous game played by communal forces ends in riots causing mass murder, rape, loot, etc poor of all the communities become poorer. Business, industry, education, and public utility services like health and sanitation) all come to stand still. Thus riots weaken the safety of the whole nation. It also lowers the image of the country outside. Enemies inside and outside the country take the upper hand.
Recent happenings of communal violence in several points of the country in general and the violence of Ayodhya and the desecration of Babri Masjid, in particular, prove this sufficiently. Communalism means one’s loyalty to one’s community. This in our self is not bad but rather natural. But when blind love of communal feelings turns into one’s own community and religion it becomes cancerous.
Moreover, the interlinking of religion with politics makes the matter worse. Communalism has chaged its scope. It is no more confined to religion. It has spread to caste, class, ethnic groups, etc. It is not only seen in urban areas but also found in rural areas. Humayun Kabir, the former Minister for Education in the government of India has described communalism as a phenomenon by virtue.
persons belonging to a certain community are either discriminated against or shown favor to regardless of their merits or demerits just on the basis of their community. Harbans Mukhia defines communalism as the phenomenon of religious differences between groups often leading to tension and even rioting between them.
Briefly stated the characteristics of communalism are:
- Communalism is an ideology
- It is based on economic, political, and social interests.
- It is an instrument in the hands of the higher class or elite people.
- It is based on prejudice.
- It drives the masses toward violence
- It is dreadful and undesirable.
- It is opposed to secularism and national integration.
Causes of Communalism:
Communalism is a multi-dimensional social phenomenon. Any single cause cannot, therefore, give a full explanation of communalism. Following are some of the causes of communalism.
Many scholars have said that communalism is the consequence of the colonial past. The Britishers adopted the divide-and-rule policy. The communal award separates electorates etc are examples of this policy. The ultimate result of this policy was the partition of India into Pakistan and Hindustan.
Growth of Militant Nationalists during Indian Nationalism:
Indian nationalism gave birth to militant nationalists like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, etc. These leaders took Shivaji and Rana Pratap as their heroes. Tilak started the Ganapati festival and Shivaji festival to mobilize the masses against colonial rule. Of course, these great leaders were above communalism and gave a broader interpretation to the revival of this festival.
while infusing respect for tradition through these festivals. Hindus also hammered on respect for other- religions. But the fanatic Hindus took up only aspect of their gesture propagated Hindu communalism just as fanatic Muslims suspected those well-meaning. Hindu nationalists and fanned secret hatred for them among Muslims.
Communalism is essentially political in origin. The high-class people skillfully manipulate the religious sentiments of the community for their political gain. Some politicians have also linked with the anti-socials who create communal violence, Religion has come to stay in politics. Political parties use it as a tool to aim at the election. They connect the communal blocks to the vote banks.
Besides the religious teachers or priests viz. some Shankaracharyas, Shahi Imam of Jama Masjid in Delhi, etc. are also playing political roles. Over the years there is an increase in the number of visits to religious shrines by Hindu political leaders to pacify the Muslim fundamentalists India’s government changed the Supreme Court’s decision on the Shah Banu case through legislation.
Bipin Chandra says that distorted capitalist development in India is responsible for the growth of communalism in two ways First the capitalist economy has failed to solve the basic problems of poverty unemployment and inequality. Asa result there is unhealthy competition to grab adequate economic and social opportunities.
Second capitalist development in agriculture and industry besides creating higher income has created a new social class. For example, green revolution has given birth to a new middle class. The development process in the past years have also widened the gap between the rich and the poor. Such a situation provides the basis for the growth of Communalism.
Just like wars are born in the born in minds of the people, so also communalism is born in the mind of the people of India. Communal violence breaks out when mutual hatred and distrust between the Communities reach its height. Besides these communities have some communal stereotypes of fixed irrational beliefs towards one another.
for example, the Hindus believe that all Muslims are fundamentalists and fanatical by nature. They are unpatriotic and have a secret love for Islamic countries. On the other hand, Muslims hate Hindus as idolaters and thus Muslims also find that they are treated in India as Second rate citizens.
This means a deep emotional involvement with a ritualistic aspect of religion. It arouses a spirit of competition for the celebration of religious festivals among the members of different religious groups. Hindus beat drums and play music near mosques while taking processions and provoke Muslims giving rise to riots.
But Just as Hindus are not going to lose anything religion- else or they stop playing music in the procession near the mosque so also a true Muslim offering Namaj can be disturbed by music played on the road. It is only the human ego and demonstrative religion which is at the root of Communalism.
Misrepresentation of History:
The deserted view of Indian history is a major factor of the Communalism Falsification of India History was started by the Britishers. They tried to show that India had always been ruled by the tyrant Muslim rules. The Britishers had made the Hindus free from Muslim oppression. The Muslims and the Hindus had always been two rival camps, Indian History was divided into different periods such as the British period.
It has intentionally or unintentionally focussed the attention of the students separateness and rivalries among communities in N.C. Saxena writes the major ideology behind the writings of Indian history is communal, History, as it is taught in the schools, is either myths or half-truths.
Minorities’ tendency to remain aloof:
Another cause of communalism in India is the tendency of minority groups to remain away from the national mainstream. Most Muslims do not take part in the secular politics of the country. They organize themselves to maintain separate identities and sometimes give blackout to one who promises benefit for them as a community. Thus sometimes they choose to remain second-class citizens.
Encouragement from the outside countries:
Communalism gets encouragement from some other countries like Pakistan other big foreign powers also interfere in our internal politics and play one community against the other through their secret services of other countries like C.I.A. of the U.S.A has been suspected behind some large-scale communal riots.
The social practices, customs, traditions, laws ways of thinking, acting, and behaving of the Hindu and the Muslim Communities have marked differences. This creates a gap between them. The practice of polygamy and avoidance to adopt family planning by the Muslims create suspicion among the Hindus. Of course, such a feeling is baseless. Because very few Muslims practice polygamy. Among polygamous Muslims, the number of wives rarely exceeds two. This is not rare among Hindus either.
The Role of Mass – Media:
The press and other mass- media sometimes contribute to Communal tension in their own way. Many a time news items published are based on hearsay, rumours wrong interpretation of facts. Such news adds fuel to the fire of communalism.
Kashyap in his book communalism and Constitution states that our constitution is in no way less Responsible for the growth of communalism absence and the presence of certain provisions in the Indian constitution contribute to the growth of communalism.
Suggestions to fight out communalism:
We have explained some of the courses promoting communalism. The task is to offer some suggestions to eradicate communalism. The committee on National Integration has given some valuable suggestions. Briefly stated they are as follows.
- Celebration of community festivals jointly.
- Cultivating respect for the religious beliefs and practices of the neighbors.
- Prevention of destruction of idols and violation of customs observed by others.
- The formation of Ekata Committees at the local level to cheek the growth of antisocial elements and to maintain a healthy atmosphere.
In addition to the above suggestions, we should like to add a few more. People should be educated so as to feed that their primary loyalty is to their country and considerations are secondary. Communal activities should be treated as offenses under the law. Religion should be separated from politics.
The communal political parties should be banned Indian History should be rewritten on the model of national integration. The intellectual, political and religious leaders, media, voluntary organizations, trade unions, Kishan Sabhas should be tagged the task of de-communalizing people at all levels.
What is Casteism? What are its causes, Suggest some remedial measures to abolish Casteism?
Casteism is a grave menace to national integration. It is an abnormal feature of the caste system. When the consideration of superiority between the castes and the tendency to consider the interest of one’s own caste as opposed to other castes are added to the caste it is turned into Casteism. Casteism creates political or side loyalty to the fellow cautioned.
It generates inter-caste tensions. Gandhiji compared casteism with that of the appendix in the human body. As long as it continues to enjoy health it serves its surprise but when it becomes diseased it affects the whole system. So some it is removed better for the health. Indeed casteism has spread its roots and branches into various walks of socio-economic and political life. It has become a social evil.
According to Kaka Kalekar Casteism is an over-riding blind and supreme group loyalty that ignores the healthy social standards of justice, fair play, equality, and universal brotherhood K.M. Panikkar interprets casteism as loyalty to one’s sub-caste. In this way, it is only because of casteism that the smiths want to benefit only the smiths while the Joneses want to come to the aid of the other Joneses. It matters if the members of the other castes are irreparably harmed if it does not course any concern to the smiths and Joneses.
According to D.N. Prasad, casteism is a loyalty to the caste translated into politics. In this way, caste has beat dragged into the political areas in the form of casteism such as Brahminavada and Kayasthavada. We may define casteism as a phenomenon by virtue of which persons belonging to a certain caste group are either discriminated against or shown favor to regardless of their merits and demands, just on the basis of their caste.
Characteristics of casteism:
On the basis of the foregoing definitions, the following characteristics of casteism can be outlined.
- Casteism refers to the blind caste or sub-caste loyalty. It does not care for the interests of other castes.
- For a casteist my caste men and any caste only, right or wrong is the principle.
- It submits one’s sense of justice fair play, and humanity to the interest of his own caste.
- It is anti-democratic
- It defines the constitution by discriminating on the basis of caste.
- It is a barrier to national integration.
Casteism is very much active in the politics and administration in modem India The political leaders use caste links at the time of election. The candidates are put up in the constituencies on the basis of the number of castes formed on the area. Elections panchayats parliament are fought using caste as a mean village-level leaders are cultivating ministers for their privileges and favors ministers in return need the help of the village leaders to win in the election.
Many of the ministers at the national level, as well as provincial level, are the leaders of their caste groups, M.N. Srinivas writes regarding the state of affairs in Mysore not only the ministers even the secretaries are chosen on a caste basis. Caste seems to be the most important consideration on the selection of candidates to posts in their promotion certain percentages of seats in schools and colleges are reserved on the basis of caste. In this way, casteism has gone deep into our society.
Causes of Casteism:
Multiple factors are responsible for the growth and spread of casteism. Some of the important factors are:
Sense of Caste Prestige:
Caste prestige is considered to be one of the most important factors of casteism. In a caste society, an individual thinks that his status is linked with caste status. He does all sorts things fair of foul to improve the prestige of his caste. He may close his eyes to the interest of other caste people while doing something to increase caste prestige.
In a caste, society marriage are confined to one’s own caste.No one is allowed to marry outside the caste, People related by marriage develop a deep sense of belonging towards one another. This strengthens caste consciousness.
The discrimination against the backward castes in the matter of eating, drinking, marriage, and social interaction by the high castes makes them feel aggrieved. They are also aware that the economically, and politically powerful castes are hostile to their desire to move up. The high castes on the other hand, point to the discrimination practiced against admission to schools and colleges and in appointment to government posts. They say that merit is ignored in caste of caste. All in all inter- caste tension spreads. The after-effect of the execution of the Mandal Commission report is its burning sample.
Due to urbanization, people from rural areas to urban areas face an impersonal world to live in. They feel insecure which compels them to seek timely help from their own caste people. So they prefer to stay in a cluster formed on the basis of caste.
Casteism has become pervasive. Its root has gone deep into Indian soils. It can be uprooted overnight. It requires “a lot of beating” before it’s done away with However, different scholars have made different suggestions for its eradication. Some of the important M.N. Srinivas has suggested two types of measures for the abolition of casteism namely, short-term and long-term on a short-term basis through wide spread industrialization habits of urban life, co-education, and making inter-caste marriage popular can reduce inter-caste hatred.
On a long-term basis adult franchise, the industrial revolution through five-year plans, the spread of literacy and higher education among the lower castes, the legal rights to Harijans the privileges given to backward castes, and the greater Sanskritization of the way of life of the lower castes would gradually remove casteism. GS. Ghurye’s suggestion is that casteism can be removed by encouraging inter-caste marriage. Co-education will give an opportunity for the boys and girls to come together and inter-marry.
Mrs. Karve suggests the creation of economic and cultural equality between castes as a means to do away with casteism. According to P.N.H. Prabhu casteism can be eliminated if new attitudes in the people are developed. The cinema and other media can do much towards the creation of these attitudes.
What is regionalism? What are its causes? Suggest some remedial measures to abolish regionalism?
Regionalism is another major challenge to nation-building. It does not mean an attachment to one’s region but has come up to mean deciding loyalty to the nation or state. Before understanding regionalism let us know what the term region implies. A region refers to an area marked by certain physical and cultural characteristics which are different from those of neighboring areas.
Love for a particular region in preference to the country and in certain cases in preference to the state of which the region is a part is called regionalism. Regionalism is also understood as a consciousness of loyalty to a distinct area within a country, usually characterized by a common culture and language or social background. Seligman and Johnson have defined regionalism as a counter-movement to any exaggerated or oppressive form of centralization.
According to Iqbal Narain “Regionalism has both a positive and negative dimension speaking on positive terms it embodies a Guest for self-fulfillment on the part of the people of an area. Negatively speaking regionalism reflects a psyche of relative deprivation resulting from specific grievances. In the words of A.T. Philip and K.H. Shivaji Rao Regionalism refers to sub-nationalism demanding preference of the region, as against the country as a whole.
From the above definitions, we may note down the following characteristics of regionalism. Regionalism is a frame of mind. It is a live and loyalty shown to the region in preference to the state or nation. It is expressed on the ideas like the development of one’s own region even at the caste of other regions’ enjoyment of all benefits from the development by the people of the same regional one. It does not allow people from other regions to work and settle in the region.
Regionalism, today is expressed in the following ways:
The first is the demand for a separate state on the basis of language. The formation of Andhra Pradesh, the division of Punjab into three separate princes such as Punjab. Haryana and Himachal Pradesh the formation of a number of states in the North Eastern region outcomes of which demand.
The second is the slogan of the son of the soil. The essence of the demand is to secure preference for the local people-in matters of employment and protection of their trade and industries. The third is in the form of boundary disputes between the states. The fourth is in the form of the growth of militant regionalism in the name of various senses like Siva Sena in Maharasthra, Tamil Sena in Tamil Nadu, Hindu Sena in North India, etc.
The fifth expression of regionalism is in the form of demand for more state autonomy as is the demand by Assam Gana Parishad (A.GP.) or C.P.I.M. in West Bengal. Last out not least, the expression of regionalism is found in the inter-state water disputes. The conflict between Punjab and Haryana relating to the distribution of water from rivers like Ravi Beas and Sutlej and the fight between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu for the Cauvery Water, etc. can be cited as examples.
Causes of Regionalism
Regionalism is a complex social process. Its causes are many and varied. Some of the important factors promoting regionalism are discussed below:
India is a vast country. It has a number of distinct regions Each region has a number of distinct regions. Each region has a different kind of climate, topography, and settlement pattern. This Geographical difference gives people of a region a feeling that they are different from others.
Each region has its own customs, traditions, and culture. The people living in a region develop an identity with the culture. They develop a tendency to like at and treat the culture of other regions as alien.
Many of the regions have their local history. Historical traditional and local heroes. The people of these regions get inspired by their regional history. If for any region the local personalities are ignored regionalism becomes pronounced.
The economic factor is the root of regionalism, the uneven development of the country’s administration means of communication and education had affected the development of many regions during colonial rule. Even after independence regions have become more advanced economically, industrially, and agriculturally than others. Thus, the difference in economic development gives rise to the feeling of less developed regions have been relatively deprived. The recent movements for a separate LJttarkhand state, Jharkhand state, and Bodoland amply illustrate this.
Language also strengthens the hand of regionalism. India is a country with many languages. People speaking the same language feel united. They develop an emotional attachment for the language and its literature. This at times turns into linguistic regionalism.
Political parties use regions to serve their political ends. They exploit regional sentiments as and when necessary. At the time of the election, they make regional problems an issue for campaigning. A good number of regional parties are also raising their heads. Some such parties are ADMK and AIDAMK in Tamilnadu, Akali Dal in Punjab, Jharkhand Party in Bihar, Assam Gana Parisad in Assam, etc.
The task before the nation is how to fight out regionalism. In this connection, the following remedial measures can be suggested.
- Greater priority should be given to the economic development of the backward regions.
- Cultural interaction between the regions should be promoted on a large scale.
- A balanced distribution of national resources should be made for all the regions.
- People should be educated to wipe out separatist feelings and develop patriotic feelings.