Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 Sociology Solutions Unit 4 Social Inequality, Exclusion and Movement Long Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 12th Class Sociology Unit 4 Social Inequality, Exclusion and Movement Long Answer Questions
Long Questions With Answers
What is caste? What are the important features of the caste system?
The word ‘Caste’ owes, its origin to see. Spanish word ‘Caste’ means ‘breed’ race, strain or a complex of hereditary qualities. The Portuguese applied this term to the classes of people. In India, it is known by the name of Jati. The English word ‘caste’ is an adjustment in the original term.
Definition of Caste:
- Maclver: “When a status is wholly predetermined so that men are born to their lot without any type of changing it, then class, takes the extreme forms of caste.”
- A. W. Green: “Caste is a system of stratification which mobility up and down the status ‘ladder, at last, may not occur.”
- Lundberg: “ A caste is nearly a rigid social class in to which members are bom from which they can withdraw or escape only with extreme difficulty.”
Important features of caste:
The caste system is highly complex in nature. The following have been the main traditional features of the caste system.
Caste – As a hierarchical Division of Society :
The Hindu society is a gradational one. It is divided into several small groups called castes and sub-castes. A sense of ‘highness’ and ‘lowness’ or ‘superiority’ and ‘inferiority’ is associated – with this gradation or ranking. The Brahmins are placed at the top of the hierarchy and are regarded as ‘pure’ supreme or superior.
The degraded caste or the so-called ‘untouchable’ (Harijans) have – occupied the other end of the hierarchy. All over India neither the supremacy of the Brahmins nor the degraded position of the – Harijans or outcastes has been questioned. It is taken for granted, but regarding the exact position of the intermediary castes, there are disputes ‘on the part of the members.
Caste – As a segmental division of society :
The Hindu society is a caste-ridden society. It is divided into a number of segments called, castes, It is not a homogeneous society. Castes are groups that defined boundaries of their own. The status of an individual is determined by his birth and not by selection or by accomplishment. No amount of power, prestige, and self can change the position of man.
The membership of the caste is hence unchangeable, acquirable, inalienable, unattainable, and non-transferable. Further, each caste in a way has its own way of life. Each caste has its own customs, traditions, practices, and rituals. It has its own informed rules, regulations, and procedures. Their members also. The caste used to help its members when they were found in distress. Indeed, the caste was its own ruler.
Caste Panchayat :
During the early days in every village, every caste used to have its own Caste Panchayat. It consisted of five chosen members who enjoyed much social privilege and respect. The Caste Panchayat used to perform a number of functions; It used to make the members comply with caste rules and regulations. Setting caste disputes and giving its final verdict on the issues referred to it, were also its other functions.
It was giving punishments to those who violated caste rules and obligations. Matters such as breaking the marriage promise, refusal on the part of the husband to take the wife to his house, cruelty to the wife, adultery on the part of the wife, killing the cow, insulting the Brahmins having illicit sexual relations with other caste people, etc. were dealt with by the Panchayat.
It was giving punishments such as arranging dinner parties for fellow caste-men, imposing frames, purification, pilgrimage, casting, etc. for the offenders. The Caste Panchayat was also striving to promote the welfare of the caste members. Safeguarding the interests of the caste members was yet another function of the Panchayat. These Caste Panchayats have become weak and ineffective nowadays.
Restrictions on food habits:
The caste system has imposed certain restrictions on the food habits of the members, they differ from caste to caste. Who should accept what kind of food and from whom? is often decided by caste. For example, in North India, a Brahmin would accept ‘Pakka’ food (cooked in ghee) only from some castes lower than his own.
But he would accept ‘kachcha’ food (prepared with the use of water) at the hands of no other caste except his own. As a matter of rule and practice, no individual would accept kachcha food prepared by an inferior caste man. Generally, any kind of food that is prepared by the Brahmins, is acceptable to all caste people.
This factor explains why the Brahmins dominated the hotel industry for a long time. Further, restrictions are also they’re still on the use of certain vegetables for certain castes. Even today, some traditional Brahmins do not consume onions, garlic, cabbage, carrot, beetroot, etc. Eating beef is not allowed except for the Harijans.
Restrictions on social relations :
The caste system puts restrictions on the range of social relations also. The idea of pollution makes this point clear. It means a touch of a lower caste man. (particularly Harijan) would pollute or defile a man of a higher caste man. In Kerala for a long time, Nayar could approach Anambra Brahmin but would not touch him.
Further, Taiwan was expected to keep himself at a distance of 36 steps from the Brahmin and a Pulaya a distance of 96 paces. In Tamilnadu, the Shanar toddy tapper was expected to keep a distance of 24 paces while approaching a Brahmin. This has resulted in the practice of untouchability. This practice has made the lower caste people to be segregated completely from the higher caste.
Social and religious disabilities of certain castes :
In the traditional caste society, some lower caste people (particularly, the Harijans) suffered from certain civil or social, and religious disabilities. Generally, the impure castes are made to live on the outskirts of the city or village. In South India, certain parts of the towns or villages are not accessible to the Harijans.
It is recorded that during the Peshwa rule in Maharastra the Mahars and Mangs were not allowed within the gates of Poona before 9 a.m. and after 3. p.m. The reason was during that time their bodies would cast too long shadows which if were to fall on the Brahmins would defile them. Socially Harijans or the so-called untouchables are separated from other members.
Even today, in many places they are not allowed to draw water from the public wells, during the early days, public places like hotels, hostels, public lecture halls schools, temples, and theatres were not kept open, for the lower caste people. Entrance to temples, and theatres were not kept open for the lower caste people. Entrance to temples and other places of religious importance was forbidden for them.
Educational facilities’ legal rights and political representation were denied to them for a long time. In South India, restrictions were placed on the mode of constructing houses of the lower caste people, and their types of dresses and patterns of ornamentation. The Toddy – tappers of Malabar were not allowed to cany umbrellas, to wear shoes or golden ornaments, or milk cows. They were forbidden to cover the upper part of their body.
The civil and religious privileges of certain castes :
If the lower caste people suffer from certain disabilities, some higher caste people like Brahmins enjoy certain privileges. Now there the Brahmins suffered from the disabilities acted above. They are given more liberty because they are believed to bom ‘pure’ and ‘ superior’. The Brahmins never saluted others, but they always had the privilege of being saluted by others.
They never even bowed to the idols of the lower caste people. Education and teaching were almost monopolies of the higher caste people. Chanting the Vedic mantras was a great privilege of the Brahmins. The upper caste people in general enjoyed social, political, legal, and religious privileges.
Restrictions on occupational choice:
In the caste-ridden society, there is a gradation of occupations also. Some occupations are considered to be superior and sacred while certain others degrading and interior. For a long time occupations were very much associated with the caste system. Each caste had its own specific occupation.
The caste members were expected to continue the same occupations. The caste members were expected to continue the same occupation. Occupations were almost hereditary. Weaving, shoe-making, oil-grinding, sweeping, scavenging, curing, hides, tanning, washing clothes, barbering, pottery, etc. were considered to be somewhat degrading.
Learning priesthood, and teaching were the prestigious professions that mostly the Brahmins pursued. Individual talents, aptitudes, interests, enterprise, abilities, and achievements were neglected. But agriculture, trade, and labor in the field were thrown open to all the castes. At the same time, no caste would allow its member to take up to any profession which is either degrading or impure.
Restrictions on marriage:
The caste system imposes also restrictions on marriage. A caste is an endogamous group. Endogamy is a rule of marriage according to which an individual has to many within his or her group. Each caste is subdivided into several sub-castes: which are again endogamous. For, example, layers, Iyengars, Smarthas, Madhava, Hawanga Brahmins, Kota, Shiva, Kandavara Brahmins, etc. are all Brahmin sub-castes which are again endogamous.
Similarly, the Vikkaliga caste consists of Morasu, Halikar, Nanaba, Gangadiga, and other sub-castes. According to the rule of endogamy a Shivallu Brahmin, for example, has to marry a Shivallu girl, an Iyengar, an Iyengar girl, and so on. Inter-caste marriages were strictly forbidden to them. Even at present, inter-caste marriages have not become popular.
Violation of the rule of endogamy was strictly dealt with during the early days. This mle of endogamy has resulted in a clause in breeding. Some workers like Hutton have regarded endogamy as the very essence of the caste system. The exception to this rule of endogamy is seen in places like the hill parts of Punjab and also in Malabar. The caste provides for some kind of exogamous marriage also.
Occupations are fixed :
Every caste regards some occupation as its own hereditary and exclusive calling and tries to debar the others from exercising it. The original and exclusive occupation of Brahmins was to perform priestly duties. The Kshatriyas and Vaisyas were to occupy themselves with defense and commerce and the function of Shudras was to serve the other three castes. In course of time, many adjustments and changes have, however, been made in these rigid pursuits of occupations.
Explain the functions of the caste system.
By functions of the caste system, we refer to those positive consequences of the system which are helpful for the society; the consequences that help in preserving social structure maintaining its continuity and bringing about peace and harmony. The caste system has many such functions or advantages. It is because of its functions that the system has been the pivot pillar of Indian social structure from time immemorial.
The functions of caste can be looked into from two viewpoints i.e.,
- from the individual point of view and
- from the social point of view.
These functions of the caste system are discussed below.
Functions of the caste system from the viewpoint of the individual:
The caste system provides fixed social status to individuals:
Under the caste system, the social status of an individual is determined from his birth by his caste. As caste is based on the principle of birth, an individual by virtue of his in a particular caste, automatically becomes a member of it and gets the traditional status of that caste in society by ascription. This scripture’s status of the individual is fixed for all times, neither poverty nor wealth can alter his status. A Brahmin enjoys a high status in society because of his birth in it.
The caste system provides social security to individuals:
Caste provides social security to the individual from his birth to death. It provides him with an occupation, acts as a trade union, a benefit society, health insurance, and also provides for his funeral if it is needed.
Caste guides individual behavior:
The caste system like many other social institutions guides the behavior of the individual by providing ready-made behavior patterns in matters like diet, ceremonial observances, rituals at birth, marriage, imitation, death, etc.
Caste provides mental security to individuals:
It provides psychological security in the form of fixed social status. Making every provision for man’s happiness from birth to death it guarantees mental peace to individuals.
Caste determines the occupation of individuals:
What kind of occupation will be followed by an individual in his future life is determined by his caste from his birth. Every caste has some caste occupations which its members follow.
Functions of the caste system from the viewpoint of society:
Besides performing some functions for the individual caste system also performs some important functions from society’s point of view.
These functions are as follows:
Caste system transmits and preserves culture :
Every society as a distinct social system must have to transmit culture from one generation to another with little change.lt also preserves culture for transmission from one generation to another.
Caste system integrates society:
The caste system helps in the integration of society. It integrates different, diverse, racial religious, linguistic, and ethnic groups into a vast society. The caste system is capable enough in integrating different groups is such a way that it becomes part of the social whole and at the same time retains its own distinctive character and identity.
Brings stability to society:
The caste system has been responsible ging in society. It saved Hindu society from being disrupted by foreign invasions and upheavals of all kinds in the past Hindu society remained stable for a long time because it believed in the caste system.
The caste system also brings political stability to society:
It acts as an apolitical stabilizer in society. It provides a constitution for the Hindus. The caste system has been responsible for the preservation of India from barbarism and despotism. It acts as a sure basis for orderly government.
The caste system serves as a device for the division of labor:
The caste system continues to act as a unique system of division of labor in Hindu society. It has made arrangements for all kinds of occupations ranging from education to scourging. This distribution of occupations is supported by religious beliefs as a result it has become acceptable to people.
Maintains purity of blood:
Endogamy is the main principle of the caste system. By its insistence on endogamy, the caste system prevents hybridization and thereby purity of blood is maintained. Hence, it is said that the caste system has served as a method for maintaining the purity of blood.
Discuss the dysfunctions of the caste system.
By dysfunctions of the caste system, we refer to the negative consequences of the system that are harmful or detrimental to society as a whole. In a rudimentary sense, the dysfunctions of the caste system are in fact, disadvantages or demerits of the system. Along with its advantages, the caste system has a number of negative effects on social life. As has rightly been remarked by ‘P.N. Bose, the caste system has acted essentially to impose that attitude of mind needed to raise men from savagery but to stop them halfway on progress.
Some of its important dysfunctions are as follows:
Barriers on the way of modernization:
Modernization essentially needs a change in attitude and outlook along with socio-economic development. But the caste system stands as a great barrier. It also hinders economic development as well. Under this system, a man is not permitted to take up a profitable occupation.
The caste system encourages individuals’ loyalties toward one’s own caste and sub-castes which creates Casteism. This Casteism stands as an obstacle in achieving complete political unity. Disunity among castes and thereby among Indians encourages many foreigners to invade India. It is found that in the past 2500 years India was a victim of foreign invasion at least 125 times.
The caste system perpetuates social inequalities :
The caste system by its differential distribution of privileges and disabilities to different caste people perpetuates social inadequacies. Higher caste people used the caste system as an instrument to maintain their privileged position in society. It creates permanent feelings of inferiority and insecurity in the minds of lower-caste people.
The caste system encourages the pitiable condition of women :
Another important dysfunction of the caste system is that it implies severe hardship on women. In a caste-based society when a caste wants to increase its “Status in the caste hierarchy follow certain customs like child marriage, the seclusion of women, and other which entails hardships for women. Because of the practice of the above custom women suffer a lot.
The caste system creates untouchability:
The caste system is solely responsible for the creation of untouchability in society. This untouchability is the ugliest expression of the caste system. It keeps a large number as untouchables who suffer from all civil and religious disabilities.
The caste system stands as an obstacle in the way of social progress as it does not allow changes to be introduced easily. Here the individual is not free to choose an occupation of his own liking and conform to the age-old customs and traditions. Any violation of this is seriously dealt with. This rigidity has almost paralyzed Hindu society.
Retards economic progress:
The caste system acts as an important stumbling block in the way of economic progress. An individual is compelled to follow his caste occupations against his liking. This leads to immobility and inefficiency and thereby economic backwardness.
Discuss the recent changes in the caste system.
Under the impact of social, political, and economic forces a number of changes have taken place in the caste system.
Firstly, there has been a steep decline in the supremacy of the Brahmin in society. Under the caste system, the Brahmin in society. Under the caste system, the Brahmin occupies the highest position. In fact, the whole system revolved around the prestige of the Brahmin. But. today he does not enjoy the same high and dominant social position that he once used to.
The second important change in the system is the greater fluidity in its status structure. Traditionally caste, society was a closed and rigid society. Each caste had its own traditional status in the hierarchy of castes, which was more or less permanently fixed. But at present, the people of lower castes are adopting the lifestyles of higher castes and claiming an actually adverse highest status in society.
Thirdly, as a result of this governmental policy or protective discrimination, the socioeconomic conditions of the Harijans have been considerably improved. In the fourth place, there are changes in the functions of caste for example in a caste society ascription of social status to its members by virtue of their birth in it. was one of the traditional functions of caste.
But under the changed conditions of modem society, both is no longer regarded as the basis of social prestige. Today wealth and achievement have replaced birth as the basis of social status. As a result, caste has lost its traditional function of determining the status of individuals in society.
Fifthly, there is a relaxation in the miles of regulating marriage. Every caste or sub- caste was an endogamous group the members of which were put in ketkars words forbidden by an inexorable social law to marry outside the group. But at present, the barriers of endogamy are no longer inexorable. They are now increasingly being violated.
Sixthly, there are changes in ideas about pollution and other restrictions on food, drink, etc. But at present, these rules along with the ideas of pollution by touch have lost their significance in Hindu society. In the seventh place, there is a change in the restrictions regarding the choice of occupation was not free.
Each caste had its own traditional occupation. But nowadays people follow occupations, which they consider more creative than traditional ones. Finally, the caste system has lost its grip on the minds of the people. Now they do not seem to be convinced of the theory that the caste system is a divine or dawned institution.
Discuss the factors affecting the caste system.
Changes in the caste system are due to many forces of modernization operating in Indian society, which can be discussed briefly as follows.
The system of modem education:
The system of modem education has given a heavy blow to the institution of caste. Modem education being essentially scientific and rational in nature has neglected all sorts of blind beliefs and faiths. Not the divine sanctions but the scientific laws govern the life and attitude of a modem-educated man.
He fought the principles of equality, fraternity, and democracy which directly go against the caste system. Again the common’ educational institutions and public schools at the primary level have made a Brahmin child feel equal to that of a Sudra child or a child from an untouchable caste.
He sits by his side, talks with him, plays with him, and enjoys many leisure hours with him which never gives a scope for the development of the idea of untouchability in his mind. Besides, as modem education is imparted through co-educational institutions, it encourages inter-caste marriage and at the same time, the untouchability principle cannot be followed in the classroom which affects the very basis of the caste system.
The industrial economy has also played an equally important role in undermining the importance of the caste system. The caste system is mainly based on the rural economy but the industrial economy strikes at the root of the caste system. Specialized caste occupations can not survive in the face of large-scale industrialization.
For example, weaving caste people with their traditional caste occupations cannot compete with modem textile mills. Hence, as a result of industrialization caste occupations are not followed by its members. Now members of all castes are engaged in modem factories. And while working in factories it is not possible to observe caste rules. Besides now- a- days there is much freedom in the choice of occupations.
Urbanization is an offshoot of industrialization. It is possible to observe caste rules in an urban city. In an urban area, one is not interested in knowing another caste. The concept of purity and pollution has no value in urban areas. Hence, urbanization strikes at the root of the caste system by not allowing the observance of caste rules and restrictions.
Modern means of transportation:
Geographical isolation was a favorable condition for the continuation of the caste system. But due to the development of the modem transportation system, the spatial mobility of the people increased which ultimately put an end to the caste system. Besides while traveling by the modem means of transportation like buses and trains, it is not possible to observe caste rules and restrictions. The principle of palliation to touch has no meaning nowadays.
The increasing importance of wealth:
In present-day modem society, wealth is relating birth as the basis of social status. As a result, caste is no more the basis of individual status, In our modem society, a rich Sudra is more respected than a poor Brahmin. Wealth is the main criterion in the determination of social status.
New social movements:
In the past, a number of movements have been launched that struck at the root of the caste system. Raja Ram Mohan Roy started ‘Brahmo Samak’ and Dayananda Saraswati started ‘ Arya Samaj ’ which brings a lot of changes in the caste system. Ideas of these Samaj influence the intelligence of the country against the caste system as a result of which a number of changes are being introduced in the caste system.
India national freedom movement launched a strong public opinion against the caste system. After independence, all discriminatory practices based on caste were abolished and a democratic pattern of society was established. Besides because of the spread of ideologies like capitalism and communalism new groups based on class interest emerged in the country which put an end to the caste system.
Introduction of New Legal System:
The introduction of a new legal system by the Britishers has played an important role in weakening -the influence of caste in India, under this new system the principle of equality before the law was established. As a result of which the age-old discrimination against the Sudra caste has been removed. Besides, the establishment of the Judicial Court put an end to the Caste Panchayat as a result of which caste cannot be enforced. Further, a number of acts have been passed which affect the caste system vehemently.
Constitution of India:
Indian constitution possesses a very serious threat to the very existence of the caste system. Different constitutional provisions under different articles of the Indian Constitution have helped in the eradication of the caste system. Article 15 of the constitution declares that all citizens are equal as a result of which the principle of inherited inequality of the caste system receives a major setback. Thus, because of the impact of the above factors, a number of changes are being introduced in the caste system. Caste rigidity is being broken down.
The distinction between caste and class.
To explain the distinction between caste and class. Warner and Dorns say that caste may be defined as a rank order of superior super- ordinate orders with inferior subordinate orders that practice endogamy, prevent vertical mobility and inequality distribute desirable and undesirable social symbols whereas.
The class may be defined as a rank order of superior and inferior orders which allows both exogamy and endogamy, permits movements either up or down the status to which he has bom, it also unequally distributes the lower and higher evaluated symbols. The above quotation throws enough light on the difference between – caste and class.
The following points make the distinction more specific and clear.
The stratification in a caste society is based on birth whereas stratification is based on wealth in a class society. As the individual has no control over his birth, hence his caste position is essentially an ascribed one whereas his class position is mainly an achieved one, as the acquisition of wealth depends mainly on his abilities and hard work.
In a caste-based society, occupation was fixed for various castes. The members of each caste are required to follow their traditional caste occupations. But in a class-based society, no such restrictions are imposed on the choice of occupations. Here, it is individuals, that occupation determines their Class.
The caste system is believed to have a divine origin and is supported by religion. It is based on different religious dogmas like Karma, Karmaphala, Rebirth, etc. But the class system is believed to be secular in nature hence here nothing to do with religion. Another distinction between caste and class is regarding their structure.
The structure of the caste system is closed whereas the structure of the class system is open. As the case of an individual is determined by his change from one caste to another is impossible, but mobility from one class to another is quite easy as it is determined by individuals’ occupations and wealth.
The caste system imposed certain restrictions on the members of different castes in respect of food, drink, and social intercourse. But in a class system, no such restrictions are found to exist. In a caste-based society, there is an existence of Caste Panchayat which maintains the caste structure by punishing those who violate the customs and traditions of their respective castes.
But no such organization is found to exist in a class society. The caste system is based on un-democratic principles of inherited inequality, hence stands as an obstacle in the smooth function of democracy. But the class system is not based on such undemocratic principles and created no such problems for the smooth functioning of democracy.
Who are the Scheduled Castes? Discuss the constitutional provisions to safeguard the right of the Scheduled Caste.
Indian society is stratified on the basis of the caste system. It has divided society into different segments. At the top of the caste hierarchy, there are Brahmins. The Sudras are at the bottom being the lower caste. It is said that all Sudras are not untouchables but all untouchables are Sudras.
The Scheduled Castes who comprise the bulk of untouchables are technically outside the four-fold vama scheme. These castes were imputed with the maximum degree of ritual and social impurity, while their occupations were treated as the lowest (defiling occupation) in the hierarchy.
Realizing the age-old backwardness of the SCs and STs the constitution of India and the five-year plans have regarded their progress as a major objective of national policy. The Constitution of India prescribes protection and safeguards for the SCs and STs and even for the OBCs with the object of removing their social disabilities and promoting their various interests.
The main safeguards are:
- Abolition of untouchability
- Protection from social injustice and various forms of exploitation.
- Throwing open religious institutions of a public character to all sections.
- Removal of restrictions on access to shops restaurants wells tanks and roads.
- Giving them the right to move freely.
- Right to acquire property
- Right to admission to educational institutions and receiving grants out of the state funds,
- Permitting the state governments to make reservations for them in services.
- Giving them special representation in the LokSabha and VidhanSabha.
- Setting up separate departments and advisory councils.
- Prohibiting forced labor and
- Making special provisions for the administration and control of the scheduled area.
The Government of India set up three Parliamentary Committees the first in 1968, the second in,1971, and the third in 1973 to examine the constitutional safeguards for the welfare of the SCs and STs. The state Government has separate departments to look after the welfare of the SCs and STs. It appears that their status has improved socially, economically, and politically very little.
Socially they have not changed their evil customs, economically more than 30 percent SCs live below the poverty line, educationally they are backward, politically they are not organized. After all, it is said that there are some trends of upward mobility among the SCS enjoying high administrative positions. Broadly speaking the SCs have registered little progress in the last decades.
Describe the tribal development and welfare measures adopted by Government.
After independence, various efforts were made to improve the socioeconomic conditions of the tribal and to sustain the constitutional safeguard given to them. A number of safeguards are provided to the Scheduled Tribe to facilitate the implementation of the Directive Principles of State Policy and Article 46 of the constitution.
Article 40 provides for the promotion of the Educational and economic interests of SCs, STs, and Tribal areas. It makes provision for the inclusion of a fifth scheduled in the constitution for incorporating processions for the administration of Scheduled Areas. Article 275 relates to grants from the union Government to certain states for the welfare of STS and providing them with better administration.
Article 330 and Article 332 make provisions for reservation of the House of People and state legislative Assemblies respectively. In accordance with the constitutional provision, a commissioner is required to be appointed by the Union government for the SCs and STs. A number of commissions, committees, and working groups were formed from time to time to evaluate the conditions of Scheduled Tribes.
The different programs and schemes initiated by the government during the different plan periods can be grouped broadly into six categories economic, educational, health, sanitation, family welfare communication, housing, socio-cultural and political. If the first plan was mostly as part of the Community Development various programs were initiated with particular reference to health; housing etc.
The welfare of Scheduled Tribes:
The Indian Constitution has made important provisions for the welfare of Scheduled Tribes. The Central Government and State Governments have made an incessant effort in the direction of tribal welfare. Special programs for their welfare and development have been undertaken in the successive five-year plans.
The primary objective of the Community Development Programme was to achieve rural development. This was envisaged by making available the required services at people’s doors. But there were remote inaccessible areas and there was an almost total absence of additional infrastructural facilities.
Therefore special efforts and greater financial investments were required to extend the services available under the Community Development Programmes to tribal areas. Initially, 43 such blocks were selected for the purpose soon it was realized that it would not be possible to sustain such an intensive development approach for long.
The Tribal Development Blocks were introduced for the development of tribal areas. These Tribal Development blocks were expected to have their role in matters of economic development, education, health, and communication by the end of the Third Five-year plan. There were more than 500 such Tribal Development Blocks serving around 40 percent of the TDBS to other areas of tribal concentration that took place after the third five-year plan.
In the Fourth Five year plans a series of programs such as Small arguments Development Agencies (SFDA), Marginal Farmers, and Agricultural Development Agencies were conceived and implemented. The above-mentioned programs were introduced on an experimental basis in tribal areas.
The Tribal Development Agencies were identified on the same pattern as that of the Small farmer’s Development Agencies Each Tribal Development Agencies cornered a group of Tribal Development Blocks. During the fourth plan, six Tribal Agencies were started and another two were added during the fifth plan.
These Agencies were expected to incorporate elements of economic development, social service, and other progressive measures. In actual practice, the TDAs could not do anything other than agriculture development and construction of roads but the experience gained from the TDAS provided valuable means for evolving better policies and programs for the development of Scheduled Tribes.
The approach and strategy for tribal development were revised comprehensively on the eve of the Fifth Five plan. It was thought as recommended by the Shilo AO Committee that Tribal Development Blocks as an instrument of tribal development. Unsuitable to tackle complex tribal problems.
Besides the situation in tribal areas in terms of resource target groups, local priorities were different from non-tribal areas. Even within the tribal areas problems faced by the tribal people are not uniform in nature. To tackle the complex and diverse tribal problems effectively a comprehensive program of development known as Tribal Sub-plan Areas. A development block was taken as the smallest unit of development under this new strategy.
This unit is known as the Integrated Tribal Development Project (ITDP). The Tribal Sub-plan Approach includes.
Integrated Tribal Development projects comprising generally administrative units like subdivisions/Districts/ tehsils. With to percent or more scheduled tribal population. Pockets of tribal concentration have a total population of 10,000 or more and an ST population of 50 percent or more.
Primitive Tribal group projects :
The tribal sub-plan continued as the main instrument for the development of STs. The sixth plan attached primary importance to poverty alleviation among the STs effort was made under TSP to raise at least 50 percent of STs Effort was made under TSPs to raise at least 50 percent of the tribal population above the poverty line.
The major objective of Tribal Development has remained as follows.
To take up family-oriented programs in order to raise productivity levels of the beneficiary families in the fields of agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry small-scale industries, etc. To liberate tribals from the exploitation of land grabbing, money-lending, debt bondage, forest- labor, etc. To improve the quality of life through education and training programs and To provide infrastructural facilities in tribal areas.
The constitution of India provides for a number of safeguards for the STS mainly to facilitate the implementation of the Directive Principles contained in Article 46 of the constitution. The important safeguards provided in the constitution include Article 46 promotion of Educational and Economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and other weaker sections 330 (Reservation of seats for Scs and Sts in the House of People 332 reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Legislative Assemblies of the states 335 1 claims of the SCs and STs to service to posts, etc.
Programs for which central assistance is given can be divided into three groups namely education, economic upliftment, and health. The services provided to tribals under these programs are free education, provision for educational equipment Ashram schools scholarship, etc.
Discuss the causes of the Agrarian unrest of the peasant movement.
The peasant movement has been caused by various factors.
- Feeling of relative deprivation towards the Zamindars, enamdars during the British rule.
- Foreign invasion atrocities towards the peasants and also exploitation of different kinds instigated the peasants to fight.
- Destruction of cottage industries of the farmers.
- The increasing burden of debt.
- An increasing number of landless and the unemployed
- Anti-Farmer measures of the Government.
- Increasing political awareness among the farmers.
- Use the modem technology.
- The exploitation of the tribals.
- Indian fanners at the beginning of the 21 st century, have faced the toughest challenges. So they agitated due to having the above factors.
Santha! Insurrection (1855-56):
There is the first peasant movement took place in India. The Santhals are a group of tribals largely concentrated in Bihar. They are mainly agriculturalists, Due to the establishment of the permanent settlement of 1793 by the Britishers, lands were taken away by that which the Santhals had cultivated for centuries.
The Zamindars took to land on auction from the British Government and gave it to the peasants for cultivation. They increased the land tax and the common peasantry was oppressed by them. Thus was unbearable for the Santhals and they took to insurrection. They go against Zamindar’s money lenders and traders. The Santhal insurrection was very strong but due to various reasons, it was suppressed.
The Blue mutiny (1859-1862):
Poor peasants and small landlords opposed indigo planters in Bengal. In this, they were helped by moneylenders whose own credit, and resources stood threatened by the structure of the monopolistic right of the planters.
The Pabna and Boora uprisings (1872-1875):
Rich cultivators benefiting from the commercialization of agriculture and producing cash crops protested to secure further their occupancy rights granted nominally in 1859.1n thus they succeeded by 1885 when the Bengal Tenancy Act was passed later by the middle twentieth century such tenants were transformed into rent-receivers.
The Mappila /Moplah Rebellions (1836-1921):
The Moplah peasant movement was engineered in 1921 among the peasants of the Malabar district in Kerala. The Moplah tenants were Muslims. They moved on to agitation against the Hindu landlords and the British Government. The land tenure system in Malabar was quite unfavorable to the Maplah tenants. They protested for the security of tenure. Thus was granted in 1887 and 1929.
But only a rich tenantry benefited from these movements. 1921 Moplah agitation was the Khilafat movement which constituted a wider part of the national struggle for Independence. The Moplahs took an active part in the Khilafat movement and Moplah tenants became so much mixed that the government issued prohibitory notices on all Khilafat meetings on 5th February 1921. This displeased the Maplahs and ended up with the agitation of the Maplah peasantry.
The Deccan Riots (1875):
Up against a heavy land revenue demand of the state. (1840-1870) Cultivators lost their lands to moneylenders from the town. The symbiosis of peasants with rural money lenders was upset as the dependence of these latter on the moneylenders was upset the dependence of these latter on money lenders of the towns developed. The protest against the standards of legal authority which allowed such land transfer took the farm of anti-moneylender riots.
Punjab Agrarian Riots (1907):
The state intervened to prevent the alienation of land from peasants to moneylenders in 1900 but Urban middle classes protested in nationalist idiom against government intervention. Riots broke out against money lenders. The government appeared pro-peasant as the peasants rioted against agriculturalist moneylenders who were landlords. Landlords were over the long term supported by British rule.
Peasant movement in India (1918-1922):
The peasants of eastern Uttar Pradesh defied large landlords through a tenant movement for the security of tenure, and oppressive traditions of forced labor were attacked through fierce agrarian riots. Small landlords and the rural poor supported and led the movement. Statutory rights of occupancy were secured in 1921. The movement marked a phase of retreat from landlordism.
The Champaran movement (1917-18):
It is a part of over national independence struggle. Thus the movement was led by Mahatma Gandhi in Champaran (Bihar). Thus the movement was considered a reformist movement. Its objective was to create an awakening among the peasants against the European planters. These planters resorted to illegal and inhuman methods of indigo cultivation. The peasants opposed the European planters as well as the Zamindars. Gandhi visited Champaran and became displeased by the abject poverty of the peasants.
What is Tribal movement? Discuss its Characteristics.
The British policies disturbed the traditional tribal systems. The tribal land system was marked by outs conspiratorial ownership of land and the absence of landlords. But the British changed the land system of the tribals. They created the hitherto class of Zamindars (Landlords) in the tribal areas. Brahmins and Rajputs were brought in the tribal area of Chotanagpur to perform military and religious services.
Further roles, they were assigned the Zamindari rights on the land. The Zamindars were considered outsiders by the tribes. The tribals were reduced to the position of tenants. The clan councils of the tribals were replaced by the councils of Rajus consisting of their followers. The traditional land system of the British was turned into many systems.
The British also introduced contractors (Thikadars) in the tribal areas. The Zamindars and Thikadars introduced land to rent in the tribal areas. Following the introduction of the market economy a class of traders also developed in the tribal areas. The tribal tenants had to pay the rent in cash. As they did not have cash with them, they had to borrow from the money- lenders Hence, a class of moneylenders also came into being in the tribal area.
Salient Features of the Tribal movements:
The tribals responded to their exploitation and oppression in the form of revolts and movements. They identified their enemies in the outsider’s landlords, money lenders, theaters and mission arrive, and European Government officials. They launched movements against their oppressors in their respective regions. Their agitation against the outsiders could be called anticolonial.
They revolted against them because of their exploitation in the form of encroachment on their land, eviction from the land annulment of their traditional legal and social rights and customs against enhancement of rent, and for transfer of land to the filter abolition of the feudal and semifeudal form of land ownership on the while, these movements had social religious overtones.
But they were directed against the issues related to their existence. These movements were launched under the leadership of their respective chiefs. Although the movements initially began on social and religious issues and against the oppression of outsiders, in course of time, they merged with the national movement and with the no-tax campaign.
The tribals fought against their enemies with their traditional weapons i.e. bows, arrives, lathis and axes. Their movement often took a violent turn resulting in the murder of oppressors and the burning of their houses. Most of the movements were ruthlessly suppressed by the government.
The tribals had to comply with British policies which were detrimental to their interests. The government introduced protective administration in tribal areas. The Government thought that the normal laws could not be applied in the tribal areas. The Government passed the Scheduled District Act (1874) and categorized the tribal areas as excluded areas on the Govt of India Act of 1935.
Discuss major Tribal movements in India.
The first stirrings of the tribal revolt were manifest in the later half of the 19th century. The tribals participated in 1857. the revolt which spread all over the tribal areas. The people found themselves involved in out. Some of the main tribal movements which were essentially anti-colonial in character are discussed in the following.
Tamar Revolts (1789 -1832) :
The tribals of Tamar revolted over 7 times between 1789-1832 against the British. They were joined in the revolt by the tribals of the adjoining area- Midnapur, Koelpur, Dhadha, Chatshila, Jada, and Silli. They revolted against the faulty alignment system of the government. The Tamar revolts were led by BholaNath Sahany of Tamar.
In 1832 the arrows of war circulated throughout the region, orations, and mandates, Honor Kols who had distinct social and cultural identities Joined the insurgents under the leadership of Ganga Narain Singh a member of the Banbhum Raj family. The tribals murdered the dikes in each village of the areas.
The Khervv ar movement of the Santhals (1833):
Their movement was motivated by the desire to return to an idealized past of tribal independence. The word Kherwar is said to be an ancient name of Santhals and in their opinion, It is linked to the Golden age of their history. At that time the Santhals (Kherwars) were supposed to have enjoyed absolute independence. They had to pay tribute to their chief for the protection that the provided to them.
Their movement started under the charismatic leadership of Bhagirath Majhi. He assumed the title of Babaji. He announced that he would restore the Golden age of Santhals if they returned to the worship of God and cleaned themselves from their sons. He vowed to liberate them from the oppression of officials, landlords, and moneylenders. He exhorted them to worship the Hindi God Ram. identifying him with Santhal Gaudo’.
Santhal Revolt of 1855:
Thus movements of the Santhals were against the exploitation of oppression by landlords who had unjust ownership of the land of the Santhals. Thus the movement was also directed against the village moneylenders and officials. The movement was led by two brothers, Sidhu and Kandu. They held a meeting at Bhagnadih and made the announcement that their oppression could be ended by taking back their land from their oppressors. Around 35,000 Santhals acted as their bodyguards at the meeting.
Boka Rising Sardari Larai or Mukti Larai movement of 1858-95:
Thus movement took place in various parts of Chotanagpur. It aimed at regaining the tribal’s ancient right on land by expelling the hated landlords. According to Kr. Suresh Singh thus movement evolved through three phases-
- In the Agrian phase,
- the Revivalistic phase and
- the political phase.
The first two phases were marked by the clashes between the landlords and tribal tenants. The tribal tenants revolted against the rise in rent eviction from land and harassment of the tenants by the landlords and the tenants.
Birsa Munda Revolt (1895 – 1901):
The movement of Birsa Munda is the most popular movement of the Munda tribes of Singhbhum and Ranchi directs of the Chotanagpur region of Bihar. Like the movements discussed earlier this movement was also directed against the outsider’s dikes- landlords – traders merchants and government officers.
These classes were created by the British. Before the British policies on the areas inhabited by Ron and Munda, their traditional land and social systems existed. Their land system was known as the Khimkari system. The tribals enjoyed customary rights over their land. The system was marked by the absence of the class of landlords.
The tribals worked on their land and paid tributes to their chiefs. By 1874 the British replaced the traditional Khuntkari system with the Zamindars landlords the ryots (tenants). The tribals now had to pay to the landlords and failure to do so resulted in their eviction from the land.
The exact date of Birsa Munda’s birth is not certain. According to Kr. Suresh Singh, the years 1874 or 1875 might be regarded as the year of this birth. He was bom in a poor Munda tribal family in a house built of bamboo strips without mud plaster or secure roots. Having passed the lower primary examination from the German mission of Buzru, he was sent to Chanibasa for further studies.
His long stay at Chanibasa from 1886 to 1890 constituted the formative period of his life. He was expelled from the school of his life. Impact of the movement: The Birsa Munda movement had its impact on the government’s attitude towards their problems. The authorities felt the need to prepare the land records so that they could safeguard the tribal interests.
The Government conducted surveys and settlement operations for the tribals between 1902 and 1910 for achieving this purpose.lt decided to abolish the tenancy Act of 1903 which recognized the Mundari Khunkati, System the Government also passed the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act in 1908. Birsa became a legend for the coming generations.
His movement inspired the future social, religious, and political movements of tribals. This movement contributed to the growth of consciousness among tribals. The Birsa of it is school and Thana Bhajans played an important role during the national movement in the 1920s. They fought against the British. They prayed of their explosion in the following way.
Further Tana pulls out the enemies on the border. Pull out the whiches and spirits pull out the British Government. Birsa’s name was evoked by the Indian National Congress and Forward Block to enlist the support of Sirsasthan in the national movement. Both Congress and Forward Block observed Birsa day in 1940.