CHSE Odisha Class 12 Sociology Unit 5 Change and Development in India Long Answer Questions

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 Sociology Solutions Unit 5 Change and Development in India Long Answer Questions.

CHSE Odisha 12th Class Sociology Unit 5 Change and Development in India Long Answer Questions

Long Questions With Answers

Question 1.
What is Globalisation ? Discuss the different impacts of globalisation on society?
Globalisation is a vast, complex and multi- faceted term, hence it is difficult to give a comprehensive definition A prominent development is marked in the international marketing environment. Today is the trend towards increasing economic interdependence and globalisation of markets. Besides, as we know globalisation is not a new term. Though the term was not used there has always been a trend for business transcending national boundaries.

Globalisation refers to a trend towards international business which gives stresses international competition. It refers to the greatest use of markets and the forces of competition to coordinate economic activities. It also means opening up the economy to foreign competition. Globalisation means being able to manufacture in the most cost-effective way possible anywhere in the world.

At the same time, it also refers to being able to prepare raw materials and drawing management resources from the cheapest source anywhere in the world. It considered the entire world as its market. Hence, globalisation refers to a process of increasing economic integration and growing economic inter-dependence between countries in the world economy.

It is associated not only with increasing cross-border movements of goods and services, capital technology, information and people but also with an organisation of economic activities which cross national boundaries. Thus, globalisation is a kind of new world order and reduction of states or demise of the state system. In short, globalisation means thinking globally, producing and making globally.

Impact of Globalisation on Indian Society:
Before stepping to analyse the impact of globalisation on Indian society it will be pertinent to know when India, adopts the principle of globalisation. Under the pressure from International Monetary Fund and the World Bank and due to the increasing realisation of Indian planners, leaders and administrators that globalisation is a panacea for Indian poverty.

the Indian economy has been opening up to globalisation since the 1980s. Restricting the policy framework and industrial production, inflow of capital goods and technology, and growing foreign collaboration and foreign credit have to a great extent turned the economy of global developments. However, the following are the impacts of globalization.

Free market economy:
One of the immediate impacts of globalisation is that market became free and open to competition to all. There is an increasing realisation that a free market is better for the growth of the economy.

Encourages foreign investment:
Globalisation encourages foreign investment in different sectors of the Indian economy. Different sectors of the Indian economy are made open to different multinational or foreign companies. These companies enter India and invest a number of foreign capital because of which the Indian economy gets a boost.

More employment opportunities:
Because of globalisation a large number of foreign and multi-national companies have entered India and settled in different industries within India. This resulted in the creation of large-scale- employment in Indian society. Both direct and indirect employment is created.

Privatisation :
Globalisation also encourages privatisation in India. Because of globalisation disinvestment process set in. Privatisation refers to process whereby public operations are transferred to the private sector. Privatisation as a tool of public policy and as a concept has emerged only in recent times.

Another impact of globalisation is liberalisation. It aims to free the Indian industrial economy from the cobwebs of unnecessary bureaucratic control. It was introduced in Indian society to integrate the Indian economy with the world economy. It also aims at to remove restrictions on direct foreign investment as also to free domestic entrepreneurs from the restrictions of MRTP.

The decline of small and cottage industries:
Another impact of globalisation is the fall or decline of small and cottage industries. Being unable to face the competitions posed by the large scale and multinational companies the small and cottage industries wither away. They cannot insist on facing cutthroat competition from these industries.

Development of global culture:
Another important impact of globalisation is the development of a global culture. The whole world is a village in miniature.

The demise of the nation-state:
Globalisation resulted in the Denise of nation-states or states. It creates a new world order in which the state has little role to play. Thus, these are different impacts of globalisation.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Sociology Unit 5 Change and Development in India Long Answer Questions

Question 2.
Write a short note on urbanisation?
Urbanisation refers to the process of growth in cities it terms of their social structure, population, physical outlay and cultural organisations. The physical and social structure of society to a large extent governs the nature of urbanisation. No doubt the nature of urbanism differs from security to society depending upon its cultural historicity and transition.

In the abstract, urbanisation is universally associated with a wide living that farmers privacy, anonymity with physic or unity to quickly adapt to new ideas or innovations and greater industrialism or sense of identity. It promotes plurality of the styles of a high degree of elitism in cultural life and dominates literally traditional learnings and skills in economic and cultural domains.

Socially it is not characterised by a predominance of conjugal families, or a faster pace of work pattern. Urbanism promotes the emergence of overlapping cultural and social enclaves based on principles of kinship, religion, language and religion etc. In which people interact different levels of social and cultural contexts.

The problem of studying neighbourhoods in cities and towns is a part of the tradition of urban community studies which is relatively new in India. While some socialists have studied small towns as communities, others have studied words or neighbourhoods in parts traditional cities revealing homogeneity in terms of casts and religious- groups. The community organisation in such neighbourhoods differed from that in neighbourhoods or in namely established housing estates.

A large percentage of the sector’s population felt that they are not bound by common interests and problems. This suggests that planned neighbourhoods need necessarily be communities. More intensive studies of both traditional neighbourhoods and new housing estates would be essential to understand the processes of continuity and change in traditional urbanism.

Question 3.
Explain globalization and discuss its merits and demerits?
Some of the positive impacts, advantages or merits of the process of globalization are discussed below:
Improves efficiency:
Globalization brings efficiency in production and increases the efficiency of labourers. Free trade and the opening up of the economy are the main basis of globalization. This leads to specialization of production which is possible only due to the increase of efficiency of technology, labourers and management production of specialised products leads to export.

Eliminates poverty:
Globalization eliminates poverty and a higher growth rate. It gives a boost to the stagnant economy and eliminates poverty. Globalization creates more employment opportunities which means less poverty.

Promotes healthy competition:
Globalization creates or promotes healthy competition
among producers. Because it has given birth to the world market and a producer has to produce qualitative products or goods for the global market one could not produce qualitative products of the world-class standard has existence will be at stake, its motto is to compete perish. All this promotes healthy competition among producers.

Creates global village:
Globalization helps in the development of a global village. It increases interdependence among nation-states by breaking up national boundaries. It also aims at the establishment of one world and one government.

Improves financial situation:
Adequate finance is a precondition for development. A poor or developing country needs more finances to establish industrial ventures under globalization, and more financial help or assistance is available from different financial institutions like the IMF world bank. Bank Insurance and multinational corporations.

Multinational Corporations make direct investments and provide technical know-how, market management skill and many other associated benefits. All this helps to improve the financial situation of a developing country at the initial stage.

Encourages migration:
Globalization encourages cross-border migration of workers which makes up the deficiency of workers in developed countries. Knowledge, workers IT and computer engineers have a chance to move freely searching for good salary and better service conditions. migration reduces pressure on land and brought more foreign currencies to the country. At the same time, it also solves the problem of unemployment. This globalization by encouraging migration creates many benefits.

Strengthens democracy:
Globalization provides economic freedom to many. Because of better economic freedom more and more people actively, participate in the democratic process of the country. Thus, globalization has strengthened democracy.

Encourages international cooperation:
Encouraging cross-border migration and breaking up national boundaries and creating world market globalization increases international cooperation in different spheres which works towards world peace. Globalization has many benefits for its credit. But it is not an unmixed blessing.

Cities have criticised globalization due to its following disadvantages.
Increases inequality:
Globalization increases inequality both between rich and poor people as well as between developed and undeveloped nations. Under the process of globalization, the rich become richer and the poor become poorer. Similarly developed or rich countries enjoy all the benefits from the process of globalization and become richer or developed day by day whereas developing or poor countries suffer from misery and poverty They can’t compete with them in the market and become losers.

Closer of Industries:
Globalization encourages free trade which may lead to the closure of many domestic or small-scale industries. These industries fail to compete with the multinationals and become sick. Due to the process of globalization a large number of small-scale industries have been closed down. This leads to a decrease in production and creates unemployment.

Divides the world:
As a divisive process globalization divides the world into rich and poor nations or into underdeveloped, developing and developed nations. This division creates many problems and intensifies conflicts and tensions.

Creates uncertainties:
Globalization creates many uncertainties among workers industrialists among financial institutions. Workers fear retrenchment, industrialists fear the closure of their industries, and financial institutions fear a recession. All these uncertainties affect production and upset the economy of underdeveloped or developing countries.

Degenerates Human values:
Globalization degenerates human values, and progress or development is always viewed in terms of economic growth. Achievement of high economic growth is the only. Human values have little importance.

It seems as if exploitation is the main objective of globalization. Under the process of globalization, multinational companies exploit poor workers as well as poor underdeveloped and developing nations. They take advantage of cheap labour and resources. Maternity of the poor lost their occupation.

Negative impacts on agriculture:
Globalization has several negative impacts on agriculture. Increasing emphasis on intensive irrigation more use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides abandoning traditional practices and increasing productivity have proved to be dangerous. Too much stress on the modernization of agriculture strongly affects agriculture as well as the environment.

Cultural erosion:
Globalisation led to the erosion of culture. Due to the impact of western culture, people become alien to their own culture. People become stronger in their own land.

Weakening of states:
Under the process of globalization power of state weakened state act as an agent of multinational protects their interest and neglects the weaker sections. Multinational companies interfere with policies and their course.

Globalization created lot of economic insecurities like cutthroat competition, retrenchment, unemployment etc. Globalization led to an increase of crimes which threatens the existence of mankind. Control of the state on the domestic economy diminishes. Globalization causes Brain Drain which harms poor nations. Frequent and unnecessary interference multinational companies in the domestic affairs of developing countries acts as a threat to the unity and sovereignty of these countries.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Sociology Unit 5 Change and Development in India Long Answer Questions

Question 4.
What do you mean by liberalization? discuss its merits and demerits?
Liberalization is another process of social change in India. lt is considered one of constituent parts of economic reforms. As an important economic concept liberalization is becoming more popular day by day. Liberalization is mainly a western economic theory. This process has entered India due to the process of modernization and western impact on Indian society.

However, the process of Liberalization began in India during the mid-seventies due to the crisis in the Indian economy. In order to save India from the acute financial crises the then prime minister Narsimha Rao and his finance minister Dr Manmohan Singh introduced liberalization in India, by accepting liberalization as the economic policy of the government of India.

As a result, liberalization became one of the aspects of the new economic policy gives stressing on reduction of governmental control on trade, business and industry. It abolished industrial licensing for all projects except a few like security strategic concerns. Liberalization refers to the reduction of governmental control to the minimum in matters of trade, business, investment and industry.

It aims at the abolition of licenses and permits raj and opening up of the national economy to the world economy. It means the government must shame private entrepreneurs while taking economic aims to set trade, business and industry free and to enable it to run on commercial lines.

The main idea behind the process of liberalization is that as trade and commerce are global subject hence it should not be confined to a particular boundary. Hence governmental restrictions over economic and commercial activities should be minimised to the maximum.

Merits of Liberalizations:

  • Liberalization provides better opportunities for competition
  • Liberalization helps to increase the export of the country.
  • It helps in the free movement of goods and services.
  • It has led to the production of Eqailitative products.
  • It has led to rapid industrialization.
  • It has provided maximum liberty to private enterprises.
  • It helps to reduce unnecessary governmental control.

Demerits of Liberalization:

  • Liberalization has negative impacts on small-scale industries.
  • It has seriously damaged the power of the state.
  • It has seriously affected our agriculture and environment.
  • Under liberalization, the rich become richer and the poor become poorer which is not a good bend.
  • It also creates unemployment and poverty.
  • Conditions of unskilled labour is very pitiable under liberalization.

Thus, from the above, it is concluded that liberalization itself is neither good nor bad. It is a double-edged weapon. It can provide many benefits to mankind and can also be harmful and can spell disaster. Hence, much depends on its use and its own attitude towards it. But we should be conscious while following this economic principle.

Question 5.
Explain urbanization and discuss its causes and consequences?
Urbanization is one of the most important processes of social change in India Because of the tremendous increase in urban population all over the world including India the importance of the process of urbanization has increased manifold. The term urbanization perhaps comes from the urban. The term urban is very ancient in nature.

Ordinarily, by urban area, we mean an area with a high-density of population. It also refers to a way of life. According to the 1981 census, an urban area refers to all places municipality corporation, cantoment board etc or an area which has a minimum population of5000 and at least 75 per cent of the male working population is engaged in non-agricultural activities and a density of population at least 400 persons per sq. KM. Urban centuries or cities are very ancient in nature.

There were cities of urban centres in ancient civilization. 5000 years ago there was a city civilization in India. There was the existence of chief cities like Harappa and Mohenjodaro, Vatsayana, Meghasthenese and Kautilya in their books mention the existence of cities during ancient times. The Muslim rulers built great cities like Agra and Delhi.

Then Britishers built many cities, but the exact origin of the city is last in the obscurity of the past. However, the first cities seem to have appeared in between 6000 and 5000 B.C. these cities were small and hard to distinguish from towns. But the city in its real sense came into existence by 3000 B.C. After that, there was a fall for more than 2000 years.

Then cities came into existence in Greece, Rome, India, Egypt etc. but in spite of the growth of cities, most of the population of India live in villages which is true even today. Though India has been a land of villages but has also had an urban tradition since time immemorial. Though. there were cities in ancient civilization as well as in Indian society, it is only in the last two centuries that urbanization has become a characteristic form of human life.

Causes of Urbanization :
Urbanization is a worldwide phenomenon. The percentage of urban population and growth of urban centres has increased rapidly At about 30 per cent of India’s total population lives in urban areas. Thus rapid growth of Urbanization is caused by several factors. Some of the factors which cause urbanization are as follows:

The national increase in population:
The population of the world increases naturally This provides employment to the increasing population and meets the increasing demand of products of this population. Industries are set up and urban centres grow revolving around these industries. Besides more and more people migrate from rural areas to urban areas.

In search of employment, better health facilities and better living a result of urbanization spreads. Besides now- a- days there is a growing trend to live in urban areas which resulted in the growth of new urban centres and the spread of urbanization.

Migration is another important cause of urbanization. Migration means the movement of people from one place to another. It refers to a kind of geographical mobility. normally from rural areas to better opportunities. Sometimes urban people also migrate to rural areas to live in a natural and pollution-free environment. Migration helps in the spread of urbanization.

Expansion of urban areas:
The expansion of urban areas resulted in urbanization. Due to the expansion of urban areas the outlying rural areas become urban areas and the process of urbanization spreads over.

Rapid industrialization is also another important cause of urbanization, Urban areas develop around industrial centres. Due to the installation of more industries, new urban centres grow which resulted in the spread of urbanization. Besides people migrate from villages to industrial towns to work there which helps in the spread of urbanization.

Impact or consequences of urbanization :
Urbanization is not an unmixed blessing. It has many negative impacts on human living and social relationships. It has resulted in the breakdown of traditional social institutions and brought a number of changes in society. However, some of the impacts or consequences of urbanization are discussed below.

Impact on family:
Urbanization has a number of impacts on families. It leads to a decline in family size. It leads to the breaking up of a joint family and the creation of a nuclear family. Similarly, it also affects family lies and led to the decline of family control. Urban family loses their control over children It also weakens family bonds.

Impact on marriage:
Urbanization greatly affects our marriage system. Parental control over marriages gradually declines. Marriage ceases to be religious and becomes secular. Rites and rituals in marriage decline day by day. Due to the free mixing of boys and girls the number of love marriages increases. It also affects mortal bonds and marriage ceases to be permanent. The number of divorces is increased. The age of marriage also increases, and many people even remain unmarried.

The decline in fellow and sympathy:
Urbanization leads to a decline in fellow feelings and sympathy. Due to rapid population growth and overcrowding nature, fellow feeling and sympathy sharply is declined among urban people. Urban people remain so busy that they have little time to take part in others’ jobs and sorrows. Even urban people do not know their next-door neighbours. Everyone is concerned only about himself and has little concern for others.

The decline in family control:
Urbanization leads to a decline in family control. In an urban area, we found a nuclear family and it has little control over its members Besides urban people have no time to spend with their family and to know what their children are doing. Loss of family ties resulted in the decline of family control.

The decline in the influence of Religion:
Religion has lost its control over the minds of urban people. Urban people are more materialistic in nature and is self- centred. Different religious rites, rituals and practices lose their importance in urban areas.

Impact on the role and status of women:
Urbanization considerably affects the role and status of women. It has led to the increasing role of women in different spehers of society. They are now enjoying economic freedom and are at par with their male counterpart. A large number of women are working in industries, offices and business houses. All this has led to a change in the status of women. The increasing role and status of women considerably affect family life and husband-wife relations.

Impact on caste :
Urbanization deeply affects our traditional caste system. Many caste rules are under change and the caste system has lost its earlier rigidities and become more flexible. People are no more following their caste occupations and not obeying caste rules even during marriage. More and more intercaste marriages are taking place and some caste associations are emerging caste is now playing a major role in politics.

Development of slums:
One of the important consequences of urbanization is the development of slums. Due to the rapid growth of population and shortage of land area in urban areas most of people are living in slums. Their slums are the breeding ground for criminal activities and the spread of diseases.

The decline in moral values:
Another evil impact of urbanization is the degeneration of the moral values of urban dwellers. Due to the spread of education, economic independence, the decline of religion, and the growth of materialism, there is a great deal of change in the moral values of people which causes many social problems.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Sociology Unit 5 Change and Development in India Long Answer Questions

Question 6.
Define globalization and discuss its aims and features?
The term globalization comes from the word global means covering or relating to the whole world. In other words, global means looking at everything from the whole world’s point of view not an individual point of view. It means borderless development internationalization of all aspects of human life. It also means thinking, doing and producing globally. Globalization is mainly economic in character.

now- a – days globalization is active in the economic field means economic globalization. It refers process of increasing economic integration and growing economic interdependence among countries. Because of globalization whole world inter linked and inter-connected through economic social, political and cultural relations.

Globalization means manufacturing things or products in the most effective way anywhere in the world it aims at procuring raw materials and management personnel from anywhere in the world. Globalization considers the entire world as a market. Globalization also refers to the process of opening up national markets to the global market.

According to Anita, “Globalization is a process through which an increasingly free flow of ideas, people, goods and capital leads to the integration of economies and societies. According to D.N. Dhanagare “globalization refers to the growing economic integration international level based significantly or activities of multinational corporations”.

According to the European Commission, “ globalization is the process by which markets the productions in different countries are becoming increasingly interdependent dynamic of trade in goods and services and flows of capital technology”. Anthony Gidden, Globalization can be defined as the intensification of worldwide social relations, which link distant localities.

such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice-versa”. According to MC Grew, “Globalization refers to those processes operating at a global scale which cut across national boundaries integrating of connecting communities and organizations in space-time combinations making the world in reality and in experience more interconnected” Aims of Globalization:

  • Opening up national economics and developing a single economic system.
  • Reduction of trade barriers and free movement of products.
  • The disintegration of geographic boundaries.
  • Free flow of international trade.
  • Integration of local economy with the worked economy.

Features of Globalization:
Globalization has the following features.

A complex process:
Globalization is a complex process. Increasing interdependence among nations, free flow of products, labour and trade and increasing socio-cultural contacts among nations makes it more complex and complicated.

A composite process:
Globalization is a composite process. Because a combination of a series of developments in the world led to its emergence. Development, in science and technology, development in die field of communication, increased social mobility and a number of other developments led to the development of globalization. A single cause factor or development is not responsible for globalization. Hence, it is a composite process.

A historical process :
Globalization is a historical process because erosion of the process goes to the period of the industrial revolution of the 16th century, but the trend for business transcending national boundaries is very old Hence, globalization is not a new concept but rather very ancient in nature.

An integrating process:
Globalization is a process of increasing economic integration. In this process markets, finance and technology are well integrated.

A multi-dimensional process:
Globalization is a multi-dimensional process because it has many faces. It can be understood from different angles. From an economic angle, it refers to the integration of the national economy with the world economy.

From a political angle, globalization refers to the emergence of a world state with the erosion of the sovereignty of the state. From a cultural angle, it refers to increased socio-cultural contact among nations all over the world. From an ideological angle, it refers to the victory of liberalization and capitalism over socialism. Globalization is associated with new technology like computers, the internet, electronic media, television and many others.

Globalization envisions the development of the world community. Globalization is also characterized by the development of multinational business corporations. Globalization is a self-contradictory process as. it contains the existence of contradictory forces like integration versus fragmentation, universalization versus particularization, and homogeneity versus heterogeneity.

Globalization is a dynamic process The process of globalization started in India in 1990. India opened its economy to the world economy then, but in the beginning, it follows a protective policy to safeguard its own industries. But now things have changed.

Question 7.
What is industrialization changing life and its positive effects on the Industrial Revolution?
The Industrial Revolution affected every part of life in Great Britain but proved to be a mixed blessing. Eventually, industrialization led to a better quality of life for most people. the change in machine production initially caused human suffering Rapid industrialization brought plentiful Jobs but out also caused unhealthy working conditions air and water pollution and the illness of child labour.

It also led to rising class tensions, especially between the working class and the middle class. The pace of industrialization accelerated rapidly in Britain. By the 1800 people could earn higher wages in factors than a form. With this money, more people could offer to heat their homes with coal from walls and dine on Scottish beef. They were better clothing too, woven on power looms on England’s Industrial cities swelled with waves of job seekers.

Positive Effects of the Industrial Revolution Despite the problems followed industrialization the industrial Revolution had a number of positive effects. It created jobs for workers. It contributed to the wealth of the nation. It fastened technological progress and invention. It greatly increased the production of goods and raised the standard of living, perhaps.

most important it provided the hope of improvement in people’s lives. industrial Revolution produced a number of other benefits as well. These included healthier diets, better housing the cheaper, mass-produced clothing. Because the Industrial Revolution created a demand for engineers as well as clerical and professional workers, it expanded educational opportunities.

The middle and upper classes prospered immediately from the Industrial Revolution for the workers it took longer but their lives gradually improved during the 1800s Labourers eventually won higher wages shorter horns, and better working conditions after they joined together to form labour unions. The long-term effects of the Industrial Revolution are still evident most people today in industrialized countries can be offered consumer goods that would have been considered luxuries 60 or 60 years ago.

In addition, their living and working conditions are much improved over those of workers in the 19th century. Also, profits derived from industrialization produced tax revenues. These funds have allowed local state and federal governments to invest in urban improvements and the standard of living of most city dwellers.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Sociology Unit 5 Change and Development in India Long Answer Questions

Question 8.
Defining Modernization and politicians’ modernization?
Modernization originally referred to the contrast and transition between a traditional agrarian society and the kind of modem society that is based on trade and industry, For example, traditional and modern would describe the difference between medieval England and late-Victorian Britain. A traditional society is vertically organized by hierarchical division by class or caste – a specialization of prestige.

But a modem society is horizontally organized by function, and the major social systems include the political system public administration (social service) the armed forces the legal system the economy religion, education the health service and the mass media. while a traditional society is like a pyramid of top-down authority a modem society is more like a mosaic held together the cement of mutual interdependence.

A further contrast is that traditional societies consist of a single, unified system with a single centre of power, while a modem society is composed of a plurality of autonomous systems each other do not absorb each other. Modem societies are fundamentally hetero- generous with multiple centres of power and thus is no accident but intrinsic to their nature.

Indeed the continued process of modernization tends to break down any remaining vestiges of hierarchy and centralized domination of social functions. Modernization is a product of the selection process. This means that not all political initiatives that are self-described as modernization can be considered genuine modernization.

Many such modernizing reforms actually diminish the selection processes that tend to be generally complex functionally. Thus mismatch between theoric and reality arises from a terminological ambiguity which modernization means different things different contexts. In this book, we follow humans in arguing that true modernization is the increase in the functional specialization of societies.

that the functionality of a social system is defined by its having prevailed over other social system variants during a historical competition. In other words, functionality is relative and the most functional system is one that has displaced other system variants a competitive, Selection processes are therefore intrinsic to modernization.

But another use of modernization is as a synonym for rationalization. Rationalization usually entails the reform of a social system by central government along the lines of making out more of a rational bureaucracy involving standardization of exploit procedures hierarchical command system The confusion is across from the fact that (as weber famously noted).

the emergence of rational bureaucracies characterized many modem states such as the nineteenth century. Germany later thus ideal of rational bureaucracy as being the most efficient mode of the organization was to dominate the social system of the USSR and outs satellites.

Modernisation and Its Impact on Indian society:
The term’Modemisation’ is a broader and more complex term. According to S.H. Alatas, “Modernisation is a process by which modem scientific knowledge is introduced in the society with the ultimate purpose of achieving a better and more satisfactory life in the broadest sense of the term accepted by the society concerned”.

Prof Yogendra Singh says, “Modernisation symbolizes a rational attitude towards issues and their evaluation but not from a particularistic point of view. He also says modernization is rooted in scientific knowledge, technological skill. Prof S.Ci Dube says “Modernisation refers to a common behavioural pattern characterised by A rational and scientific worldview.

Growth and ever-increasing application of science and technology. Adaptation of new institutions emerged in society to cope with the new situation dominated by science and technology. C.E. Black in his writing, “Dynamics Modernisation” modernisation as “Modernisation is a process by which historically evolved institutions are adopted.

the rapidly changing functions that reflect the unprecedented increase in man’s knowledge permitting control over environment, accompany the scientific revolution”. Here, Black has given prime importance to the institutions and their roles the process of modernisation. W.E. Moore (1961) suggested that a modem society has specific economic, political and cultural characteristics.

In the economic sphere, modern society is characterised by:
Development in technology. Specialization the economic role. Scope for saving and investment. Expansion of market(from local international).

In the political sphere modernization of society expects:
Declining of traditional rulers. Formulation of ideology for the rulers to handle the power. Decentralization of power among the members of the society. The scope must be provided to all to participate in the decision-making process.

In the cultural sphere, a modernizing society is characterised by:
Growing differential among major elements of culture like religion, philosophy and science. Spread of literacy, secular education. Introduction of a complex institutional system for the advancement of specialized roles. Expansion of media communication.

Development of new cultural elements based on:
Progress and improvement Expression of ability Emphasis on the dignity of the individual and his efficiency, Modernisation is a process of adaptation of new values, cultural elements and technology in the various fields of life. It is indeed the ability of a society of confronting, overcome and prepare itself to meet new challenges.

While doing so society adopts two methods:
By rearranging its social structure. By modifying the traditional norms and values. The learner emphasized mobility high-level participation. A modem man is more mobile in the sense that he can more frequently move from one place to another and from one occupational another, from one status to another. A high degree of participation indicates a strong sense of participation in common affairs of the state and community.

Characteristics of Modernisation:

  • It is a revolutionary process.
  • It is a multidimensional process.
  • It is a universal process.
  • It is a complex process.
  • It is a global process.
  • It is an irreversible process.
  • It is a continuous and lengthy process.
  • It is a systematic process
  • It indicates scientific temper, rationality and secular attitude.
  • It is a phased process.
  • Modernized society is an open society
  • It is a progressive society.
  • It is a critical process because it requires not only a relatively stable new structure but is also capable of adopting continuously changing conditions and problems.
  • It is a centralized process.

Eisenstadt (1965) in his article, Transformation of Social, Political and Cultural Orders in Modernisation” has given his opinion modernisation requires three structural characteristics of a society. Firstly, a high level of structural differentiation. Secondly, high level of social mobilization and thirdly relatively centralized and autonomous institutional frameworks.

Modernisation is critical in the sense that it requires not only a relatively stable new structure in society but also expects that the society acquires the capability to adapt to continuously changing conditions and problems. Its success depends on the ability of society to respond to the elements. But all societies don’t respond to modernisation uniformly.

Herbert Blunter in his writing. Industrialisation and the Traditional Order” has mentioned five different ways through which a traditional society can respond to the process of modernisation.

Rejective response:
A traditional society may not like the elements of modernisation and the society may reject it. Mainly two factors come to the forefront to reject modernization. Human factors included powerful groups, zamindars/ landlords, middlemen etc. protect their vested interests. Values system of the society which includes traditional values, customs, belief systems etc. Both factors try to maintain traditional order and reject the process of modernisation.

Disjunctive Response:
In this type of response, modernisation as a process operates as a detached development. The old elements and new elements co-exist but without any interference. People do not face any type of conflicting situation due to modernisation. They could lead their traditional life.

Assimilative Response:
Society, in this case, accepts elements of modernisation without affecting it. organisation and way of life. It assimilates the elements within its system without disruption. For example, in Indian rural society, the farmers use fertilizer and other modem machinery like tractors without affecting their pattern of life.

Supportive Response :
In a supportive response, society accepts modem elements to strengthen the conditional order. Traditional groups and institutions want to take advantage of the use of modem elements. Here modernisation acts as the supportive source of the traditional pattern. For example, the introduction of science and technology in the educational system.

Disruptive Response:
This type of response takes place when the traditional order is underestimated at many points. It occurs when society tries to accommodate modem elements in the traditional order. For example, the situation of the Odia language in Odia. Considering these five responses two types of situations may occur in society.

In one situation society may respond to all these at different points or periods and in another situation, society may express all these responses with different combinations. In India, response to modernisation depends on three factors as it constitutes a multi-dimensional process. Firstly, the nature of the choice that our society has made on the preference of the people in accepting modem elements.

Secondly, the interest of the people in using modem elements also counts much for that expresses the nature of our response to the changes due to modernisation. Thirdly, the role of the cultural tradition based on history is important as a value system controls our behaviour in using and interpreting modem elements.

Modernsation in India:
Due to modernisation, so many changes are founded in India:

  • Introduction of new institutions like banking, mass media communication etc.
  • Introduction of new value systems such as equality, justice, individualism, secularism etc.
  • Acceptance of scientific innovation.
  • Increase in the standard of living.
  • Introduction of large-scale industries.
  • Restructuring of the political system, i.e. introduction of democracy.
  • Introduction of structural changes in social institutions like marriage, family, caste, etc.
  • The emergence of the middle class.
  • There are some eliminative changes like the disappearance of cultural traits, behaviour patterns, values etc. For example, the abolition of feudal power.
  • There is shifting of attitude from sacred to secular.
  • The emergence of new forms is because of the synthesis of old and new elements. For example,- the nuclear family in structured but functioning as a joint.
  • Adoption of new cultural traits as a new election system.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Sociology Unit 5 Change and Development in India Long Answer Questions

Question 9.
What is Industrialization? Discuss its Impact?
Industrialization is the process by which an economy is transformed from primarily agricultural to one based on the manufacturing of goods. Individual manual labour as often. replaced by mechanized mass production and craftsmen are replaced by assembly lines characteristic of industrialization include economic growth, more efficient division of labour and the use of technological innovation to solve problems as opposed to dependency on conditions outside human control.

Industrialization is most commonly associated with the European Industrial Revolution of the 18th and early centuries. The inset of the second world war also led to a great deal of industrialization which resulted in the growth and development of large urban centres and submits outs effects on society are still undetermined to some extent, however, it has resulted in a lower birthrate and a higher average income.

Impact on Indian Society: The Industrial Revolution traces its roots to the late 19th century in Britain. The growth of the metals and textiles industries allowed for the mass production of basic personal and commercial goods. As manufacturing activities grew transportation, finance and communications industries expanded to support the new production capacities.

The Industrial Revolution led to improved ented expansion in wealth and financial well-being for some. It also led to increased labour specialization and allowed cities to support a larger population motivating a rapid demographic shift, people left rural areas in large numbers seeking potential fortunes in budding industries.

The revolution quickly spread beyond Britain with manufacturing centres being established in continental Europe and the United States. World War II created unprecedented demand for certain manufactured goods, leading to the building of production capacity. After the war reconstruction in Europe occurred alongside a massive population expansion in North America.

There provided further catalysts that kept capacity utilization high and stimulated future growth of industrial activity. Innovation specialization and wealth creations were the causes and effects of industrialization in this period. The late 20th century was noteworthy for rigid industrialization in other parts of the worked notably East Asia. The Asian Tigers of their own industrial revolution after moving towards a merely mixed economy and away from heavy central planning.

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