Odisha State Board BSE Odisha Class 9 English Grammar Book Solutions Chapter 4 Auxiliaries Textbook Exercise Activity Questions and Answers.
BSE Odisha Class 9 English Grammar Solutions Chapter 4 Auxiliaries
We already know auxiliaries are of two types:
(i) Primary Auxiliaries
(ii) Modal Auxiliaries
|Primary Auxiliaries||Modal Auxiliaries|
|1. Pigs are eating everything.
2. The train is arriving at Cuttack at 7 p.m.
|1. Pigs will eat everything.
2. The train will arrive at CTC at 7 p.m.
The number of Modals in English is 13 (ଇଂରାଜୀରେ Vodal ସଂଖ୍ୟା ୧୩ ଅଟେ ।)
ଯଥା – can/could, may/ might, shall/ should, will/ would, used to, ought to, must, need, dare.
(i) Modals always go with the Zero or bare form of the infinitives:
[Modals ସର୍ବଦା ଅସମାପିକା କ୍ରିୟାଗୁଡ଼ିକର Zero ବା Bare form (go, take ଇତ୍ୟାଦି) ସହିତ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ ।
I can lift this box. (ମୁଁ ଏହି ବାକ୍ସ ଉଠାଇପାରିବି ।)
( ଏଠାରେ can = modal, lift = bare infinitive)
We ought to obey our betters. (ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଗୁରୁଜନମାନଙ୍କର ଆଦେଶ ପାଳନ କରିବା ଉଚିତ।)
[ଏଠାରେ ought = modal, ଏବଂ obey = bare / zero form of infinitive]
(ii) Modal + be + (ing’- form can be used to show action in progress:
[ ଏବେ ଚାଲୁଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟପାଇଁ Modal + be + ing form of Main Verb ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଇପାରେ ।
The children can be playing in the field.
[ପିଲାମାନେ ପଡ଼ିଆରେ ଖେଳୁଥାଇ ପାରନ୍ତି ।]
(ଏଠାରେ can = Modal, be = Primary Modal, playing – Main Verb)
It will be raining over there. [ଏବେ ସେଠାରେ ବର୍ଷା ହେଉଥିବ ।]
(ଏଠାରେ will = Modal, be = Primary, raining = Main Verb)
(iii) Modal + have + Past Participle form of Main Verb
Or, Modal + have been + Past Participle form ofMain Verb can be used to show the past action:
[ ଅତୀତର ସମାପ୍ତ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟପାଇଁ Modal + have + Past Participle ବା Modal + have been + Past Participle ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୋଇପାରେ ]
Father could have gone to the town. [ବାପା ସହରକୁ ଯାଇଥାଇପାରି’ଥାନ୍ତି ।
( ଏଠାରେ could = Modal, have = Primary, gone = Past Participle of Main Verb)
- The letter should/ought to have been posted.
ଚିଠିଟିକୁ ଡାକରେ ପଠାଇଦେବା ଉଚିତ ହୋଇଥା’ନ୍ତା I ଭଲ ହୋଇଥା’ନ୍ତା ।
( ଏଠାରେ should/ought to = Modal, have, been = Primary,
posted = Past Participle of Main Verb)
- The dog would have been fed. [କୁକୁରଟିକୁ ଖାଇବାକୁ ଦିଆଯାଇପାରିଥା’ନ୍ତା ।
( ଏଠାରେ would = Modal, have been = Primaries, fed = Past Participle of )
[Use of ‘Can’] We use ‘can’ :
(i) to say if someone has present ability to do something (ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନର ସାମର୍ଥ୍ୟ)
- The girl can speak English fluently ( ଅନର୍ଗଳ ଭାବରେ).
- He can run like a deer.
(ii) To give or seek permission (ଅନୁମତି ଦେବା ଓ ଚାହିଁବା ଅର୍ଥରେ)
- You can use my phone.
- Can 1 go there?
(iii) To say if something is possible/possibility (ସମ୍ଭାବନା ଅର୍ଥରେ )
- He can tell lies at any time.
- The thiefcan be hiding (ଲୁଚିଥାଇପାରେ) somewhere here.
(iv) To make a request (ଅନୁରୋଧ କରିବା ଅର୍ଥରେ)
- Can you pass the salt, please?
[Use of Could] We use ‘could’ for :
(i) Past ability (ଅତୀତର ସାମର୍ଥ୍ୟ)
- The girl could speak (ଇଂରାଜୀ କହିପାରୁଥିଲା) English at five.
- Father could do sums brilliantly in his college days.
(ii) Permission (ଅନୁମତି)
- Could I have a glass of cold water?
(iii) Polite request (ନମ୍ରସୂଚକ ଅନୁରୋଧ)
- Could you pass the information to him, please?
- Could you help me do this exercise?
(‘Can’ ଅପେକ୍ଷା ‘ could” ର ବ୍ୟବହାର ଅଧିକ ନମ୍ରତାକୁ ବୁଝାଏ ।)
(iv) Possibility ( ସମ୍ଭାବନା)
- Your answer could be wrong.
- The gardener could be in the garden.
[ Use of May/Might ] These modals are used :
(i) To give or ask permission (ଅନୁମତି ଦେବା ଓ ନେବା ଅର୍ଥରେ)
- You may come in. (More formal and polite)
- Might I ask your name ? (More courteous/ଅଧୂକ ଭଦ୍ରାମି )
(ii) To express possibility (ସମ୍ଭାବନା)
- What you say might be true.
- He may have come yesterday. (ସେ ଗତକାଲି ଆସିଥାଇପାରେ ।)
(iii) To express wishes (ଶୁଭେଚ୍ଛା) କେବଳ (May)
- May God bless you. (ଈଶ୍ବର ତୁମକୁ / ଆପଣଙ୍କୁ ଆଶୀର୍ବାଦ କରନ୍ତୁ ।)
- May you live long. (ତୁମେ ଦୀର୍ଘଜୀବୀ ହୁଅ ।)
(iv) ‘May’ in the ‘ so that’/‘ in order that’ clause for present purpose and ‘Might’ in the ‘so that’/‘in order that’ clause for past purpose.
(ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନର ଉଦ୍ଦେଶ୍ୟ ଅର୍ଥରେ so that /in order that ଖଣ୍ଡବାକ୍ୟରେ ‘May’ ଓ ଅତୀତର ଉଦ୍ଦେଶ୍ୟ ଅର୍ଥରେ Might ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ଅର୍ଥରେ ।)
so that /in order that ଖଣ୍ଡବାକ୍ୟରେ ‘May’ ଓ ଅତୀତର ଉଦ୍ଦେଶ୍ୟ ଅର୍ଥରେ Might ବ୍ୟବହୃତ
- Please allow me sometime so that I may finish the work. (Present purpose)
- The driver stopped the car so that the girl might be saved. (Past purpose)
[Use of Shall ] We use ‘shall’ for :
(i) Plain Future (ସାଧାରଣତଃ ଭାବରେ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ ଘଟୁଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ I ଓ We ସହିତ) :
- I shall be fifteen next year.
- We shall hold a meeting here.
(ii) Permission (ଅନୁମତି ଦେବା ଅର୍ଥରେ) (I ଓ We ସହିତ)
- Shall I open the door?
- Shall we go home now?
(iii) Suggestion (ପ୍ରସ୍ତାବ ଅର୍ଥରେ) ଯଦି Statement ‘Let’ ରୁ ଆରମ୍ଭ ହୋଇଥିଲେ :
- Let’s rest here, shall we ?
- Let me help you, shall I ?
(iv) Promise (ଶପଥ ଅର୍ଥରେ ‘T’ ସହିତ)
- I shall take you to Nandankanan.
(v) Prediction (ଭବିଷ୍ୟତବାଣୀ)
- I shall/will miss you.
(vi) Giving an order (ଆଦେଶ ଦେବା ଅର୍ଥରେ) (With second and third person)
- You shall not come here again.
- Nobody shall leave without my permission.
[Use of Will] We use ‘will’ for:
(i) Plain Future (ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ ହେବାକୁ ଥିବା ସାଧାରଣ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ)
- The school will open tomorrow.
- The bus will take you to Cuttack.
- Mr Mishra will reach here by Monday.
(ii) Willingness (ଇଚ୍ଛା)
- I will help you.
(iii) Making a request or giving an order (ଅନୁରୋଧ କରିବା ଓ ଆଦେଶ ଦେବା ଅର୍ଥରେ)
- Will you do me a favour?
- Will you shut up?
(iv) Present habit (ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନର ଅଭ୍ୟାସ)
- Father will go to his office at 10 a.m. (ଯାଆନ୍ତି) (goes)
- When the cat is away, the mice will play.
(v) Probability (ସମ୍ଭାବନା) :
- That will be the postman.(ହୋଇଥିବେ)
(vi) Prediction (ଭବିଷ୍ୟତବାଣୀ)
- It will rain tomorrow.
- The film will be a crowd-puller. (ଭିଡ଼ହେବ)
(vii) Questioning about the future (ଭବିଷ୍ୟତ ସମ୍ପର୍କରେ ପ୍ରଶ୍ନ କରିବା)
- Will your sister study English this year?
- Will this boy play cricket?
(viii) Promise(ଶପଥ) (I ଓ We ସହିତ)
- I will give you a bike this year.
- We will fight to the last.
(ix) General fact(ସାଧାରଣ ସତ୍ୟ)
- Oil will float on water. (ଭାସେ)
- Pigs will eat everything. (ଖାଇପକାନ୍ତି)
(x) Determination (ସଂକଳ୍ପ) (I ଓ We ସହିତ)
- I will help you in all circumstances.
Use of Should [This modal is used] :
(i) To give advice or opinion (ଉପଦେଶ ବା ମତ ଦେବା ଅର୍ଥରେ)
- You have diabetes. You should consult (ପରାମର୍ଶ କରିବା ଉଚିତ) a doctor.
- You should get up early in the morning.
(ii) To express a wish (କାମନା ଅର୍ଥରେ) (like ସହିତ) (I ଓ We)
- I should like to be a doctor.
- We should like to reach the circus.
(iii) To talk about a probability ( ସମ୍ଭାବନା ଅର୍ଥରେ )
- The cattle should be grazing (ଚରୁଥିବେ) now.
(iv) To express a duty/necessity (କର୍ତ୍ତବ୍ୟ/ଆବଶ୍ୟକତା ଅର୍ଥରେ)
(ଏ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ Modal ought to’ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ ।)
- A judge should/ought to be fare (ନିରପେକ୍ଷ) and square.
- You should/ought to take care of (ଯତ୍ନନେବା ଉଚିତ) your old parents.
[Use of ‘Would Used to’] We use ‘would / used’ to for:
(i) Past habit (ଅତୀତର ଅଭ୍ୟାସଗତ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ)
- He would/used to walk all through the night in his youth.
(ଯୁବକ ଥିବା ସମୟରେ ସେ ରାତିସାରା ବାହାରକୁ ଚାଲିଚାଲି ଯାଉଥିଲେ ।)
- Amitabh would/used to act in lead roles in a number ofHindi films.
(ଅତୀତରେ ଅମିତାଭ ଅନେକ ହିନ୍ଦୀ ଚଳଚ୍ଚିତ୍ରରେ ମୁଖ୍ୟ ଭୂମିକାରେ ଅଭିନୟ କରୁଥିଲେ ।)
- Gandhi used to be shy when he was in school.
( ସ୍କୁଲରେ ପଢ଼ୁଥିଲାବେଳେ ଗାନ୍ଧୀ ମୋହନଦାସ୍ ଲାଜକୁଳା ଥିଲେ ।)
Use of Would
(ii) Request (ଅନୁରୋଧ) (‘You’ ସହିତ)
- Would you mind posting this letter ? ( ଏହି ଚିଠିଟିକୁ ଡାକରେ ପଠାଇଦେବେ କି ?)
- Would you do me a favour ? (ମୋ ପ୍ରତି ଦୟା କରିବେ କି ?)
(iii) Probability ( ସମ୍ଭାବନା)
- Father would be at home now. (ବାପା ଏବେ ଘରେ ଥିବେ ଥାଇପାରନ୍ତି ।)
- Father will be at home now. (ବାପା ଏବେ ଘରେ ଥିବେ ଥାଇପାରନ୍ତି ।)
(‘will’ ର ବ୍ୟବହାର ଘରେ ଥିବାର ଅଧ୍ବକ ନିଶ୍ଚିତତାକୁ ସୂଚିତ କରୁଛି ।)
(iv) Polite suggestion/invitation (ନମ୍ରସୂଚକ ପ୍ରସ୍ତାବ/ନିମନ୍ତ୍ରଣ)
- Would you like to have a ticket for the show ?
- Would you like to watch TV ? (‘like’ ସହିତ)
(v) Willingness (ଇଚ୍ଛା)
- I would do that for you. (ମୁଁ ତାହା ତୁମପାଇଁ କରିବି ।) (ତୁମେ ଯଦି କହିବ)
- I will do that for you. (ମୁଁ ତାହା ତୁମପାଇଁ କରିବି ।) (ଦୃଢ଼ ଉଦ୍ଦେଶ୍ୟ ଅର୍ଥରେ ‘ will’ )
(vi) Refusal (ମନାକରିଦେବା ଅର୍ଥରେ ) (not ସହିତ)
- He wouldn ‘t accept my invitation. (ସେ ମୋର ନିମନ୍ତ୍ରଣ ଗ୍ରହଣ କଲେ ନାହିଁ ।)
- The doctor wouldn ’t operate the patient.
(ଡାକ୍ତର ରୋଗୀକୁ ଅପରେସନ୍ କଲେ ନାହିଁ ଅପେରସନ୍ କରିବାକୁ ମନାକରିଦେଲେ ।)
[Use of Must] It is used for :
(i) Obligation/necessity (strong) (ଦୃଢ଼ ଆବଶ୍ୟକତା ବା କୃତଜ୍ଞତା ଅର୍ଥରେ)
- We must defend our country.
(ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଆମ୍ଭମାନଙ୍କ ଦେଶକୁ ନିଶ୍ଚିତ ଭାବରେ ରକ୍ଷାକରିବା ଉଚିତ ।)
- A student must study hard.
Must ର ବିକଳ୍ପ modal ରୂପେ ‘ have to’ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ ।
→ I must go to the doctor now. (ମୁଁ ଏବେ (ନିଶ୍ଚୟ) ଡାକ୍ତରଙ୍କ ପାଖକୁ ଯିବି ।) (ଏହା ମୋର ନିଜସ୍ଵ ଇଚ୍ଛା / ନିଷ୍ପତ୍ତି ।)
→ I have to go to the doctor now. (ମୋତେ ଏବେ ଡାକ୍ତରଙ୍କ ପାଖକୁ ଯିବାକୁ ହେବ ।) (ଡାକ୍ତରଙ୍କ ପରାମର୍ଶ)
‘Must’ ବା ‘have to’ ର Past form ରୂପେ ‘had to’ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ ।
→ The girl had to do all the sums. (ଝିଅଟିକୁ ସବୁ ଅଙ୍କ କଷିବାକୁ ପଡ଼ିଲା ।)
(ii) To draw a conclusion (ଶେଷ ମତପ୍ରଦାନ ଅର୍ଥରେ)
- The teacher must be joking. (ଶିକ୍ଷକ ଥଟ୍ଟା (ନିଶ୍ଚୟ) କରୁଥାଇପାରନ୍ତି ।)
- Mamali is walking with drooping shoulders. She must be ill.
(ମାମାଲି କାନ୍ଧ ତଳକୁ ଝୁଙ୍କାଇ ଚାଲୁଛି । ସେ ଅସୁସ୍ଥ ଥିବ ।)
(iii) Inevitable truth (ଅବଶ୍ୟମ୍ଭାବୀ/ ଅଟଳ ସତ୍ୟ)
- Man must die one day. (ମଣିଷ ଦିନେ ନା ଦିନେ ମରିବ । (ଅଟଳ ସତ୍ୟ))
- A man affected with blood cancer must die.
(ରକ୍ତ କର୍କଟ ରୋଗରେ ଆକ୍ରାନ୍ତ ମଣିଷ ମରିଯାଏ ।) (ନିଶ୍ଚୟ)
(iv) Prohibition (ନିଷେଧ) (Mustn’t)
- You mustn ‘t read other people’s letters. (ଅନ୍ୟ ଲୋକମାନଙ୍କର ଚିଠି ପଢ଼ ନାହିଁ ।) (ନିଷେଧ)
- Your father has got diabetes. He mustn’t take sweet.
( ତୁମ ବାପାଙ୍କର ମଧୁମେହ ରୋଗ ଅଛି । ସେ ମିଠା ଜିନିଷ ଖାଇବା ଉଚିତ ନୁହେଁ ।) (ନିଷେଧ)
Dare ( (ସାହସ ଅର୍ଥରେ/ having courage)
Modal ରୂପେ Dare କୁ କେବଳ Negative (ନାସ୍ତିବାଚକ) ଓ Interrogative (ପ୍ରଶ୍ନସୂଚକ) ଅର୍ଥରେ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ ।
- He daren’t stand before his father.
(ସେ ତା’ ବାପାଙ୍କ ଆଗରେ ଠିଆହେବାକୁ ସାହସ କରୁ କଲା ନାହିଁ ।)
- How dare you insult me ? (ମୋତେ ଅପମାନିତ କରିବାକୁ କିଭଳି ତୁମେ ସାହସ କଲା କରୁଛ ?)
- Dare the girl do this ? ( ଝିଅଟି ଏହା କରିବାକୁ ସାହସ କରୁଛି/କଲା କି ?)
Use of Need (ଦରକାର / ଆବଶ୍ୟକତା ଅର୍ଥରେ)
Dare ଭଳି Need କୁ Negative ଓ Interrogative ଅର୍ଥରେ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ ।
- Father has come. You needn’t phone him.
( ବାପା ପହଞ୍ଚୁଲେଣି, ତୁମେ ତାଙ୍କୁ ଫୋନ୍ କରିବା ଦରକାର ନାହିଁ )
- Need you take my opinion ? (ତୁମୋ ମୋର ମତ ନେବା ଦରକାର କି ? )
- Need the teacher dismiss the class soon?
(ଶିକ୍ଷକ କ’ଣ ଏତେ ଶୀଘ୍ର ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କୁ ଘରକୁ ଛାଡ଼ିଦେବା ଦରକାର ?)
Textual Activities With Answers
(A) Fill in the blanks with theproper verbs chosen from those given in brackets and rewrite the paragraph. (Brackets ଭିତରୁ ଥିବା କ୍ରିୟାପଦଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ବାଛି ଶୂନ୍ୟସ୍ଥାନ ପୂରଣ କର ଏବଂ ଅନୁଚ୍ଛେଦଟିକୁ ପୁଣିଥରେ ଲେଖ ।)
Nilu _____________ (was/is) my classmate. She / He lives near our house on the same road. A few days ago they ______________ (have/had) a big garden in front of their house. But now they _____________ (have built/built) an office room in that garden. They _____________ (lost/have lost) their _______________ (isn’t / doesn’t) go to the road. A few days ago they beautiful garden. Nilu’s father ________________ (is/has) a lawyer. He office at ten o’clock everyday. ______________ (Do / Does) your father go to work at a fixed time everyday?
Nilu is (ଅଟେ) my classmate. She/He lives (ବାସକରେ) near our house on the same road. A few days ago they had (ଥ୍ଲା) a big garden in front of their house. But now they have built ( ନିର୍ମାଣ କରିଛନ୍ତି) an office room in that garden. They have lost (ହରାଇଛନ୍ତି ) their beautiful garden. Nilu’s father is (ଅଟନ୍ତି) a lawyer. He doesn’t go ( ଯାଆନ୍ତି ନାହିଁ) to the office at ten o’clock every day. Does your father go to work at a fixed time everyday?
(B) Underline the main verbs and circle the auxiliary verbs in the passage you have just written. (ଉପର ପ୍ରଦତ୍ତ paragraph ରେ ଥିବା ମୁଖ୍ୟ କ୍ରିୟାପଦଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ରେଖାଙ୍କିତ ଓ ସାହାଯ୍ୟକାରୀ କ୍ରିୟାଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ଗୋଲାକାର କର ।)
Nilu is (ଅଟେ) my classmate. She/He lives (ବାସକରେ) near our house on the same road. A few days ago they had (ଥ୍ଲା) a big garden in front of their house. But now they have built (ନିର୍ମାଣ କରିଛନ୍ତି) an office room in that garden. They have lost (ହରାଇଛନ୍ତି ) their beautiful garden. Nilu’s father is (ଅଟନ୍ତି) a lawyer. He doesn’t go (ଯାଆନ୍ତି ନାହିଁ) to the office at ten o’clock everyday. Does your father go to work at a fixed time everyday?
Fill in the blanks with shall/will/shan’t/won’t
Bakul wants to go to Nandankanan. He wants to persuade his father to take him there during the summer vacation.
Bakul: Daddy, __________ i ______________ we go to Nandankanan during the summer vacation?
Father: It is a good idea. But I think it __________ ii __________ be better if we go there in winter.
Bakul: But in winter the place gets crowded. We ___________ iii ___________ have to queue for hours to go on the boat ride. We __________ iv __________ get time to see everything.
Father : Yes, but the weather ____________ v ____________be so good in summer. The animals ________ vi __________ stay in their caves all the time.
Bakul: So, what __________ vii ____________ we do? viii we go there in December?
Father: No, let’s go there during the Puja vacation. It ___________ ix ___________be so crowded then. I am sure, the weather ____________ x ________________be better.
(i) shah, (ii) mil be better (ଭଲ ହେବ) (iii) will have to queue (ଘଣ୍ଟା ଘଣ୍ଟା ଧରି ଧାଡ଼ିରେ ଠିଆ ହେବାକୁ ପଡ଼ିବ), (iv) shalln’t get get ( ସମୟ ପାଇବା ପାଇଁ (ସମୟ ପଡ଼ିବ ନାହିଁ)), (v) won’t be (ଏତେ ଭଲ ରହିବ ନାହିଁ), (vi) shall stay (ରହିବେ) (ବାଧ୍ୟ ଅର୍ଥରେ), (vii) shall we do ? (କ’ଣ କରିବା ?) (viii) shall we go… ? (ଯିବାକି ?) (ix) won’t be so crowded (ଏତେ ଭିଡ଼ ହେବ ନାହିଁ) (x) will be (ଆହୁରି ଭଲ ହେବ)
Write the following sentences using (think/don V think should…. and a suitable expression from the box. One has been done for you. (ବାକ୍ସଭିତରୁ ସଠିକ୍ ବାକ୍ୟାଶଗୁଡ଼ିକ ବାହାର କରି I (think / don’t think)… should… ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ନିମ୍ନଲିଖତ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ଲେଖ ।)
|Go to the doctor||go home now||go to university||get married|
|Phone them now||have a holiday||go to work today||sell it.|
1. It is late. I think we should go home now.
It’s late (ଡେରି ହେଲାଣି). I think we should go home now.
2. It’s very late. I don’t think you should go to work today.
It’s very late, I don’t think you should go to work today.
3. Your bicycle is very old.
Your bicycle is very old. I think you should sell it. (ବିକ୍ରି କରିଦିଅ) (ଉପଦେଶ ଦେବା ଅର୍ଥରେ)
4. They need a change.
He doesn’t look well. I don’t think he should go to work today. (ସେ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକୁ ନ ଯାଉ)
5. He doesn’t look well.
She’s very intelligent. I think she should go to university. (ବିଶ୍ଵବିଦ୍ୟାଳୟକୁ ଯିବା ଭଲ)
6. You are not very well.
They need a change. I think they should have a holiday. (ଗୋଟିଏ ଛୁଟି କଟାଇବା ଦରକାର )
7. She’s very intelligent.
You aren’t very well. I think you should go to the doctor. (ଡାକ୍ତରଙ୍କୁ ଦେଖାକର)
8. They are too young.
They are too young. I don’t think they should get married. (ସେମାନେ ବିବାହ ନ କରନ୍ତୁ)
(ଉପରୋକ୍ତ ବାକ୍ୟ ସବୁ ଉପଦେଶ ଅର୍ଥରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୋଇଛି ।)
Activity – 4
Choose the correct form. (ଠିକ୍ ଉତ୍ତର ବାଛ।)
1. ‘Do you like / Would you like a banana ?’ – No, thank you.’
“Would you like a banana ?” “No, thank you.” (ଗୋଟିଏ କଦଳୀ ଦେବି ?)
2. ‘Do you like / Would you like bananas ?’ – ‘Yes, I love them.’
“Do you like bananas ?” “Yes I love them.” (ତୁମକୁ କଦଳୀ ଭଲ ଲାଗେ ?)
3. ‘What do you like / would you like to drink ?’ – ‘Water, please. ’
“What would you like to drink ?” “Water please.” (କ’ଣ ପିଇବେ ?)
4. ‘I like / I’d like ice cream but I don’t eat it very often.’
“I like ice-cream but I don’t eat it very often.”
5. ‘I’m tired. I like / I’d like to go to sleep.’
“I’m tired. I’d (would) like to go to sleep.”
6. ‘Do you like / Would you like something to eat ?’ – ‘No, thanks. I’m not hungry.’
“Would you like something to eat ?” “No, thanks. I’m not hungry.” ( କିଛି ଖାଇବେ ?)
(ଉପର ଲିଖତ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକ polite request ବା ନମ୍ରସୂଚକ ଅର୍ଥରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ।)
Activity – 5
Complete the following sentences using shall/should / will/ would + the words given in brackets.
(ପ୍ରଦତ୍ତ modals କୁ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ନିମ୍ନଲିଖତ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ସଂପୂର୍ଣ କର ।)
Lata: Jatin has stomach ache. He is in hospital.
Sumit: Really? (he / be) in hospital for long?
Lata : No, he (not be) there very long. Two days perhaps. The doctor has given him medicine.
Sumit: How long (he / have) those medicines?
Lata: I don’t know. Maybe he (have) to take them for three days.
Sumit: I hope he (be) all right soon. How (we / play) the football match without him?
Lata : Jatin has stomachache (ପେଟ ଯନ୍ତ୍ରଣା). He is in hospital.
Sumit : Really ? Will he be (ରହିବ କି ?) in hospital for long ?
Lata: No, he won’t be (ରହିବ ନାହିଁ) (will + not = won’t) there very long. Two days perhaps. The doctor has given him medicine.
Sumit: How long will he have (ଖାଇବ) those medicines?
Lata: I don’t know. Maybe he shall have to take (ଖାଇବାକୁ ହେବ) (ବାଧ୍ୟ ଅର୍ଥରେ) them for three days.
Sumit: I hope he will be ( ଭଲ ହୋଇଯିବ) all right soon. How shall we play (ଖେଳିବା) the football match without him?
B. My brother is lying awake on the bed. His books and notebooks are on the table. I want to ask him if I can switch off the lights. ___________I turn the light off?
Father has come back from the fields. He says, “I’m thirsty.” What do I say? “ ______________ I fetch you a glass of water ?”
Mother says, “I’m not feeling very well.” What do I say? “___________ the doctor ?”
Mother says she ____________ all right if she lies in bed for a few minutes. I offer to make the bed for her, ____________ for you?
My brother is lying awake (ଚେଇଁ ରହି ବସିଛି) on the bed. His books and notebooks are on the table. I want to ask him if I can switch off the lights. Shall I turn the lights off? ଲିଭାଇଦେବି କି ?)
Father has come back from the fields. He says, “I’m thirsty.” What do I say? “Shall I fetch ( ଯାଇ ଆଣିବି କି ?) you a glass of water ?”
Mother says, “I’m not feeling very well.” What do I say? “Shall I go and bring the doctor ?”
Mother says she will be all right (ପୂରାପୂରି ଭଲ ହୋଇଯିବେ) if she lies in bed for a few minutes.
Shall I make the bed for you ? ( ଶେଯ ପାରିଦେବି କି ?)
Remember : Shall + main verbverbର ବ୍ୟବହାର ଯାଚିବା ବା ପ୍ରସ୍ତାବ ଦେବା ଅର୍ଥରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ । (offer and proposal)
Activity – 6
Make five predictions about the year 2020 using will/ won’t. (2020ରେ ହେବାକୁ ଥିବା ଘଟଣାମାନ ବିଷୟରେ will / won’t ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ଭବିଷ୍ୟବାଣୀ ଲେଖ ।)
1. In 2020 there will be acute deficiency (ଉତ୍କଟ ଅଭାବ ଦେଖାଦେବ) of rainwater.
2. Global warming (ବିଶ୍ବ ଉତ୍ତାପ) will take a heavy toll of lives (ଅନେକ ଜୀବନ ନେବ).
3. The rapidly-increasing population won’t get food to survive. ( ବଞ୍ଚିବା ପାଇଁ ଖାଦ୍ୟ ପାଇବେ ନାହିଁ)
4. India will rule over the rest of the world.
5. Pakistan will be demolished from the (ଧ୍ୱଂସ ପାଇଯିବ) world map.
Activity – 7
Complete the following offers/invitations using Would you like ______________ ?/ Would you like ?/Would you like me to ______________?
I’ve just made some tea. ____________ some?
You haven’t got an umbrella, have you? _____________ borrow mine?
There is a teacher of English living on the first floor. ______________ know her?
We’re going to a party tomorrow night. ________________ come?
You don’t have enough money and you want to buy an interesting book. ________________ lend me some money?
I’ve just made some tea. Would vou like to have some?
You haven’t got an umbrella, have you? Would you like to borrow mine?
There is a teacher of English living on the first floor. Would you like to know her?
We’re going to a party tomorrow night. Would you like to come?
You don’t have enough money and you want to buy an interesting book. Would you like to lend me some money?
Activity – 8
Mr Das is 70. There area lot of things he can’t do now. He is talking about the things he used to/was able to do. Complete the sentences with could or couldn’t. (ଶ୍ରୀଯୁକ୍ତ ଦାସଙ୍କର ବୟସ ୭୦| ସେ ଏବେ ଅନେକ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କରିପାରୁ ନାହାଁନ୍ତି । କିନ୍ତୁ ଅତୀତରେ ସେ କରୁଥିବା କେତେକ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ବିଷୟରେ କହୁଛନ୍ତି । Could ବା Couldn’t ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ସଂପୂର୍ଣ କର ।)
My eyes aren’t very good now. Five years ago I ______________ I ________________ read the newspaper without wearing
glasses. A few years ago I ________ ii _____________ walk to the shops and was back in half an hour, but I prefer to get the rickshaw now. When I was a child, we ________________ iii _______________ watch television or a video in the evening. They didn’t exist. We played football or kabaddi in the evening but they __________ iv keep us amused for hours. When I was younger, I ______________ v ____________ play the flute very well. I tried to play the flute again the other day. I _____________ vi ___________ play it only for a few minutes. I _____________ vii _______________ play it at a high pitch. My memory is not brilliant either. I ___________ viii ___________ remember my telephone number this morning.
(i) could read ( ପଢ଼ିପାରୁଥିଲି), (ii) could / was able to walk (ଚାଲି ଚାଲି ଯାଇପାରୁଥୁଲି) (iii) could watch (ଦେଖିପାରୁଥିଲୁ), (iv) couldn’t keep (ଆମୋଦିତ ରଖିପାରୁ ନଥିଲା), (v) could play (ବଜାଇ ପାରୁଥୁଲି), (vi) could play, (vii) was able to play (ବଜାଇ ପାରୁଥୁଲି), (viii) couldn’t remember (ମନେରଖ୍ ପାରୁନଥୁଲି)
To express past ability, we can use could/was/ were able to (ଅତୀତର ସାମର୍ଥ୍ୟ ଥିବା ଅର୍ଥରେ could ବ୍/ was /were able to ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ)
Biju could (was able to) swim when he was five years old. (ପହଁରି ପାରୁଥୁଲା) For ‘past ability + past action’ we use ‘was /were able to’.
The children fell into the water, but luckily ( ସୌଭାଗ୍ୟରୁ) they were able to hold onto the boat. (not ‘could’)
Remember: With the verbs of perception such as see, hear, smell, taste, feel and with the verbs like remember, know, order and believe etc, could is used. ( ଇନ୍ଦ୍ରିୟାନୁଭୂତି- ଜନିତ କ୍ରିୟାପଦ; ଯଥା- see, hear, smell, taste, feel ଓ understand, remember, know ଆଦି ସହିତ ସର୍ବଦା ‘could’ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ)
- I could hear the sound of drums from a distance. (ଶୁଣି ପାରୁଥିଲି)
- He could remember his grandfather’s words. (ମନେରଖୂପାରୁଥିଲା)
A friend is asking you aboutyourplans. You have some ideas butyou aren’t sure. Use may/ might and complete the sentences. (ଜଣେ ବନ୍ଧୁ ତୁମକୁ ଯୋଜନା ବିଷୟରେ ପଚାରୁଛି । ତୁମ ପାଖରେ କେତେକ ସମାଧାନର ପନ୍ଥା ଅଛି; କିନ୍ତୁ ତୁମେ ନିଶ୍ଚିତ ନୁହେଁ । May ବା Might ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ସଂପୂର୍ଣ କର ।)
Remember: may / might / can / could express the mode of possibility. Father might come back this evening, (might come but hasn’t decided) (ଫେରିପାରନ୍ତି କିନ୍ତୁ ସ୍ଥିର କରିନାହାନ୍ତି)
- Father may come back this evening, (degree ofcertainty) (ସମ୍ଭାବନା ବା ନିଶ୍ଚିତତାର ମାତ୍ରା ଅଧ୍ବକ)
- Father could come back this evening, (the degree ofpossibility is veryless or almost nothing) (ଫେରିବାର ସମ୍ଭାବନା ବହୁତ କମ୍ ବା ପ୍ରାୟ ନାହିଁ).
Important things to be noted
(i) ‘Could’ denotes least possibility and‘may’ denotes higher degree of possibility. କମ୍ ସମ୍ଭାବନା ଅର୍ଥରେ could ର ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ । ସବୁଠାରୁ ଅଧିକ ସମ୍ଭାବନା ଅର୍ଥରେ may ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ । ‘(‘can’ is not used in these cases) (ଏସବୁ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ ‘can’ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ ନାହିଁ)
(ii) ‘May’ or ‘might’ isn’t used to denote possibility in interrogative sentences. (ପ୍ରଶ୍ନସୂଚକ ବାକ୍ୟରେ ଅର୍ଥରେ may ବା might ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ ନାହିଁ ।)
(iii) Could / may / might for present possibility which has higher degrees of possibility. (ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନର ସମ୍ଭାବନା, ଯାହାର ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ ଘଟିବାର ଯଥେଷ୍ଟ ସମ୍ଭାବନା ରହିଛି)
- Mr Das may / might / could be in the park now (ଥାଇପାରନ୍ତି).
- There is an accident. The road may / might / could be blocked ( ବନ୍ଦ ଥାଇପାରେ).
- Mr Mohanty’s only son is missing.
He may / might / could be at Bhubaneswar or Berhampur. (ଥାଇପାରେ). (‘Can’ isn’t used in this case) (ଏ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ ‘can’ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ ନାହିଁ।)
(iv) ‘Can’ is used to denote ‘common possibility’.
(ସାଧାରଣତଃ ସମ୍ଭାବ୍ୟ ଘଟଣା ପାଇଁ ‘can’ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ)
- Frequent smoking (ଅହରହ ଧୂମପାନ) can affect your health.
- Anyone can get lost (ହଜିଯାଇପାରେ) in this crowd.
- None can put down the truth. (ଦବାଇ ପାରିବ ନାହିଁ)
- Accidents can happen to anyone, anywhere and any time. (000160)
(i) Where are you going for your holidays after the examination?
I’m not sure yet, I ___________ go to Puri.
I’m not sure yet, I might go to Puri.
(ii) Where are you going to celebrate your birthday?
I don’t know yet. I ________________.
I may celebrate it in our town building.
(iii) When will you see your cousin again?
I’m not sure. I ________________.
I might see him in a couple of days. (ଦୁଇଦିନ ଭିତରେ)
(iv) What are you going to buy when you go shopping?
I haven’t decided yet. I ___________________.
I might buy a few books.
(v) What are you doing at the weekend?
I _______________. I _______________.
I haven’t decided. I might join mv friends in the plantation programme. (ବୃକ୍ଷରୋପଣ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକ୍ରମ)
(vi) When are you going to phone Nilu?
I________________. I ______________.
I am not sure. I may phone him tomorrow afternoon.
(vii) What are you going to have for dinner tonight?
I________________. I _______________.
I haven’t decided. I might prepare bread and mutton.
Fill in the blanks with may (not) /might (not) /could (not). (may (not) /might (not), could (not) ଆଦିକୁ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ଶୂନ୍ୟସ୍ଥାନ ପୂରଣ କର ।)
This is news at ten. All parts of the state will have rain tomorrow but the rain _____________ reach the south coast till the evening. It will be quite warm. Temperature ____________ reach 35°. Winds will increase from the east and ______________ reach the speed of 80 kilometers per hour in the coastal region but they ______________ be strong inland. And the forecast for the weekend. Well, it _________________ be better really. Dry, warm and sunny for both Saturday and Sunday.
This is news at ten. All parts of the state will have rain tomorrow but the rain mayn’t reach the south coast till the evening. It will be quite warm. Temperature may reach 35°. Winds will increase from the east and might reach the speed of 80 kilometers per hour in the coastal region but they may be strong in land. And the forecast for the weekend. Well, it could be better really. Dry, warm and sunny for both Saturday and Sunday.
Fill in the blanks with can /can’t/will/won’t/would/wouldn’t. (can/can’t/will/won’t/ would/wouldn’t ଆଦିକୁ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ଶୂନ୍ୟସ୍ଥାନ ପୂରଣ କର ।)
My brother ___________ speak three languages. At the moment he’s learning Bengali and by the end of this year he ___________ be able to speak four languages. He hopes to get a job in Kolkata. I _____________ like to speak two languages! I ____________ speak only Odia and I ______________ really speak English very well. I attend my English classes regularly but I haven’t been able to make much progress. Do you think I ______________ really be proficient in that language?
My brother can speak three languages. At the moment he is learning Bengali and by the end of this year, he will be able to (ସମର୍ଥ ହେବ) speak four languages. He hopes to get a job in Kolkata. I would like to speak two languages! I can speak only Odia and I can’t really speak English very well. I attend my English classes regularly but I haven’t been able to make much progress. Do you think I wifi really be proficient in that language?
Complete the responses to the statements as given in the examples.( ପ୍ରଦତ୍ତ ଉଦାହରଣ ଭଳି ଦିଆଯାଇଥିବା ଉକ୍ତିଗୁଡ଼ିକର ଉତ୍ତରରେ ବାକ୍ୟ ପୂରଣ କର ।)
You have slept all afternoon. You can’t be tired.
- He has a building in the village and another big one in the town. He must be rolling in money.
- None of the candidates passed the examination. The questions must have been difficult.
- There were a lot of mistakes in your writing. It can’t have been revised.
(i) I haven’t heard from him for years. He ____________ forgotten you.
I haven’t heard from him for years. He must have forgotten (ଭୁଲିଯାଇଥବ) you.
(ii) Can I have something to eat? You ___________ hungry. You have just had your dinner.
Can I have something to eat? You can’t be hungry (ଭୋକିଲା ନଥୁବୁ). You have just had your dinner.
(iii) I can’t find the key to my bicycle. You _____________ it in the classroom.
I can’t find the key to my bicycle. You must have left (ଛାଡ଼ିଦେଇଥବୁ) it in the classroom.
(iv) He has no idea what the book is about. He _______________ read it.
He has no idea what the book is about. He can’t have read it (ପଢ଼ି ନଥୁବ).
(v) The last bus hasn’t arrived yet. It ________________.There is no passenger at the bus stop.
The last bus hasn’t arrived yet. It must be out oforder (ଖରାପ ହୋଇଯାଇଥିବ).There is no passenger at the bus stop.
Note: ‘Can’t is the negative of‘must’, (must ର ନାସ୍ତିବାଚକ ଅର୍ଥ ରୂପେ can’t ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ ।)
(i) There is no reply from him despite my repeated rings (ବାରମ୍ବାର ଫୋନ୍ କରିବା ସତ୍ତ୍ବେ). He can’t be at home. (ଘରେ ନଥ୍ବ)
(ii) It is already six. Father can’t be working (କାମ କରୁ ନଥିବେ) in his office.
Complete the following sentences using mustn’t/ needn’t (mustn’t &/needn’t ଭିତରେ ଥିବା ମୁଖ୍ୟ କ୍ରିୟାଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ନେଇ ନିମ୍ନଲିଖତ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ପୂରଣ କର ।)
1. Your clothes aren’t dirty. You ______________ them.
Your clothes aren’t dirty. You needn’t wash them. (ସଫାକରିବା ଦରକାର ନାହିଁ)
2. I must hurry. I _____ ______ late.
I must hurry. I must not be late. (ନିଶ୍ଚିତ ଡେରି ହୋଇଯିବ)
3. (Mother to child) You __________ __________ your tongue out at people. It’s not decent.
(Mother to child) You mustn’t stick your tongue out at people. It’s not decent. ଉଚିତ ନୁହେଁ / ଭଦ୍ରାମି ନୁହେଁ)
4. We have enough time. You __________ ___________ while driving.
We have enough time. You needn’t hurry while driving.
5. You ____________ ___________ for me, I will meet you at the school.
You needn’t wait (ଅପେକ୍ଷା କରିବା ଦରକାର ନାହିଁ) for me, I will meet you at the school.
6.You ____________ ____________ an umbrella. It’s not going to rain.
You needn’t take (ନେବା ଦରକାର ନାହିଁ) an umbrella. It’s not going to rain.
7. This is a secret. You ______________ ____________ it to anybody
This is a secret. You mustn’t tell (କୁହନାହିଁ / ନିଷେଧ) it to anybody.
8. You __________ ___________ this book. You can borrow mine.
You needn’t buy (କିଣିବା ଦରକାର ନାହିଁ) this book. You can borrow mine.
9. This book is very important. You ____________ ______________ it.
This book is very important. You mustn’t lose (ହଜାଅ ନାହିଁ / ନିଷେଧ) it.
Note : ‘Mustn’t for – negative compulsion ( ନିଷେଧ। ନାସ୍ତିସୂଚକ ବାଧ୍ୟବାଧକତା ଅର୍ଥରେ mustn’t) ‘Needn’t for absence of compulsion or necessity (ବାଧ୍ୟବାଧକତାର/ ଆବଶ୍ୟକତାର ଅନୁପସ୍ଥିତି)
You are at somebody ’s housefor the first time. You are unknown to most of the members of the family. Politely ask them for what you want using may / could / would you mind if. ( ପ୍ରଥମଥର ପାଇଁ ତୁମେ ଜଣଙ୍କ ଘରେ ଅଛ । ପରିବାରର ଅନେକ ସଦସ୍ୟଙ୍କ ସହିତ ତୁମେ ଅଜଣା, ତୁମେ ସେମାନଙ୍କଠାରୁ କ’ଣ ଚାହୁଁଛ । may I could / would you mind if ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ବାକ୍ୟ ଲେଖ ।)
(Can /could /would)
Can you switch on the light please?
Can I have a cup of coffee please?
Note: ‘Could’ is less direct and more polite than ‘can’.
(‘can’ ଅପେକ୍ଷା ‘could’ କମ୍ ପ୍ରତ୍ୟକ୍ଷ ଓ ଅଧିକ ନମ୍ର ।)
Would + mind + ‘ing’ (dislike / object to) (ଅନିଚ୍ଛା ବା ପ୍ରତିବାଦ ଅର୍ଥରେ)
You’d like to switch on the TV.
You’d like to have a glass of water.
You’d like to have another piece of cake.
You’d like to have a piece of paper and a pen.
You’d like to borrow today’s newspaper for a few minutes.
You like to add some salt to your curry and you can’t reach the salt
May I switch on the TV, please?
Could you have a glass of water, please?
Would you mind if I could have another piece of cake?
Could I have a piece of paper and a pen, please?
May I borrow today’s newspaper for a few minutes please?
Would you mind if you could bring me the salt?
Auxiliaries Additional Questions With Answers
Fill in the gaps using suitable Modal Auxiliary Verbs.
1. I ____________ go to school in my village when I was a child.
2. ___________you mind helping me ?
3. A camel live without water for a week.
4. ____________ God bless you.
5. If wishes were horses, beggars ______________ ride them.
6. He ____________ be at home now.
7. You ___________ wash your hands before you eat.
8. Rima ______________be thirteen next week.
9. ___________ you like a cup of coffee?
10.I think you ___________ sell your old bicycle.
11. He died that others ______________ live.
12. ___________ I come in, sir?
13. I’m not deaf. You _________________ not speak so loudly.
14. What can not be cured ____________ be endured.
15. You ____________ not shout in the class.
16.I ________________ rather take your advice.
17. How ___________ you say this?
18. He _____________ do his homework regularly.
19. He has already come. You ______________ not phone him.
20. I don’t ________________ to go near the snake.
21. What you say ______________ be true.
22. _________________ I turn the light off?
23. I hope he ________________be alright soon.
24. Mother ______________ sing beautifully in her youth.
25. I _____________ get more exercise.
26. I ________________ help you as far as I can.
27. I think it _____________rain today.
28. I _____________ not face my father’s anger.
29. I __________________ be back in an hour’s time.
30. When I was a child. I _______________ spend hours playing with my toys.
31. ______________ you do me a favour?
32. My father ______________ speak three languages.
33. Mother ___________ be in the kitchen.
34. When my eyesight was good I ____________ read without glasses.
35. The weather ___________ be fine tomorrow.
36. Man _____________ die sooner or later.
37. If you come, I ___________ help you.
38. Had I the wings of a dove, I _____________ fly.
39. Deba locked his bicycle so that it __________ not get stolen.
40. There is plenty of time. You _____________ not hurry.
What do the modals used in the following sentences express?
1. Shall I go home now?
2. I used to study at a co-education school.
3. Will you do me a favor?
4. I shall take you out on Sunday.
5. It might be true.
6. I could run in my childhood days.
7. I must write the answer before I go.
8. You needn’t go to school on Sundays.
absence of compulsion
9. She would be at home now.
10. Would you like a cup of tea?
11. I will help you whatever may happen.
12. He will be fourteen tomorrow.
13. I hope it will be a sunny day.
14. I can write correct English.
15. A country ruled by corrupt ministers must be ruined.
16. Will you come to my place tomorrow?
17. Can I use your mobile phone?
18. Could I come in, Sir?
19. I should like to swim in the river.
20. If I were you, I would help others.