Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Approaches to English Book 1 Solutions Unit 4 Text B: What is Art? Textbook Activity Questions and Answers.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class Alternative English Solutions Unit 4 Text B: What is Art?
Getting The Main Idea Of The Paragraph
Find out a suitable title for each of the paragraphs in Text-B (Part one)
Paragraph -1 : Title – Defining Art.
Paragraph -2: Title – Relationship of Art.
Paragraph -3 : Title – Art Transmitting Human Thought.
Paragraph -4 : Title – Activity of Art.
Paragraph -5: Title – Man’s capacity of Receiving other’s Emotional Dimensions.
Paragraph -6 : Title – Infecting feelings.
Paragraph -7 : Title – Object of Joining Another.
After going through part two Text-B, read the whole of Text-B (That is, both the parts) and arrange the following items in the sequence in which they are presented in the Text.
a) Discussing what art is not.
b) Talking about defining art.
c) Speaking about the characteristics of art.
d) Citing examples that does not amount to art.
e) Comparing art with speech.
f) Arriving at a definition of art.
g) Speaking of the variety of feelings on which art is based.
a) Talking about defining art.
b) Comparing art with speech.
c) Speaking of the characteristics of art.
d) Speaking of the variety of feelings on which art is based.
e) Arriving at a definition of art.
f) Discussing what art is not.
g) Citing examples of what does not amount to art.
Reacting To The Ideas In The Text
- Art is superior to speech because it transmits feelings as well as thoughts because a man transmits his thoughts to another by words but by art, he transmits his feelings.
- Tolstoy speaks of the essential elements of art in paragraph 5 but seems to contradict himself in the next paragraph. The views presented in these two paragraphs can, however, be concealed.
- The analogy between the boy who encounters- a wolf and the artist who recreates his emotions in a work of art is now appropriate because the feelings and emotions are equally infected with one another.
- The writer begins his essay by saying that art should not be considered “as a means to pleasure” but should be considered “as one of the conditions of human life”. And he has proved this in his essay taking suggestive examples from various lores of life.
Activity – 8
a) A direct approach is chosen to define the term ‘renaissance’ in passage 1, but a descriptive technique is followed in passage 2 to define the term ‘elegance’.
b) An etymological analysis of the term ‘renaissance’ finds an outlet in passage 1 but the implied meaning of the term ‘elegance’ is given in passage 2.
c) A general meaning of the word ‘renaissance’ is reflected in passage 1 whereas the views and considerations of the word ‘elegance’ have been found in passage 2.
My town is an excellent place to live in, I think it is wonderful. It is an important town, because, it is the center of the district administration. It is also great because of the two very famous museums. The weather here is nice. It is hot in summer with occasional rains and is cool in winter. I like my home town very much.
What is Art? Summary in English
Section – B
Part – One
Read below the first paragraph of Leo Tolstoy’s “What is Art ?” and try to guess the writer’s purpose.
In order to define art correctly it is necessary first of all to cease to consider it as a means to pleasure and to consider it as one of the conditions of human life viewing it in this way, we can’t fail to observe that art is one of the means of intercourse between man and man. Now read part one of Text B and note how Tolstoy develops his idea of art across the paragraph.
Leo Tolstoy defines art to cease to consider it as a means to pleasure and to consider it as one of the conditions of human life. Art is an intercourse between man and man. The receiver of every work of art enters into a certain kind of relationship both with him who produced or is producing the art and with all those who simultaneously, previously or subsequently receive the same artistic impression, speech transmitting the thoughts and experiences of man serve as a means of union among them and art serves a similar purpose.
A man communicates himself with another by means of words and by it he transmits his feelings. A man shares his feelings by listening to another man. When one man laughs, another becomes merry to hear it. But when a man cries, another feels sorry. A man is excited or irritated and another man who sees him is brought to a similar state of mind by his movements or by the sounds of his voice. A man expresses courage and determination or sadness and calmness and this state of mind passes on to others.
A man suffers expressing his suffering through groans and spasms and this suffering transmits itself to other people. A man expresses his feelings of admiration, devotion, fear, respect, or love to certain objects, persons, or phenomena and others infected by the same feelings of administration, devotion, fear, respect or love to some objects, persons or phenomena. Art begins when one person expresses his feelings by certain external indications in order to join others or others.
For instance, a boy having experienced fear of encountering a wolf relates the encounters, and in order to evoke in others the feelings he has experienced describes his conditions before the encounter, the surrounding of the world, his own lightheartedness, and then, the wolf’s appearance, its movements, the distance between himself and the wolf and so forth. If only the boy when telling the story again experiences the feelings he has lived through and infects the heart and compels them to feel that he had experienced is art.
It is also art if a man having experienced either the fear of suffering or the attraction of enjoyment expresses these feelings on canvas or in marble so that others are infected by them. It is again art of a man who feels or imagines to himself feelings of delight gladness, sorrow, despair, courage or despondency and the transition by sounds from me to another of those feelings and expresses them by sounds so that the hearers are inflected by them and experience them as they were experienced by the composer.
Analytical outlines of the text:
- According to Leo Tolstoy, art is a means to provide pleasure.
- He also considers it as one of the conditions of human life.
- Art is an intercourse between man and man.
- The receiver of every work of art enters into a certain kind of relationship both with him.
- It is a relationship with him who produced or is producing the art.
- It relates to those who simultaneously, previously or subsequently receive the same artistic impression.
- Speeches transmitting the thoughts and experiences .of men serve as a means of union, among them and art serves a similar purpose.
- A man communicates himself with another by means of words and by it he transmits his feelings.
- A man shares his feelings by listening to another.
- One man laughs, and another becomes merry to hear it.
- One man cries and another becomes feel sorry.
- A man as excited or irritated.
- Another is brought to the same state by seeing it.
- He acquires it by his movements or the sounds of his voice.
- A man expresses his courage or determination.
- This state of mind passes to another.
- A man expresses his sadness or calmness.
- This state of mind passes to another.
- A man expresses his suffering through groans or spasms.
- It transmits itself to other people.
- A man expresses his admiration, devotion, fear, respect, and love to certain objects, persons or phenomena.
- Others are infected by the same feelings.
- Art begins when one joins others with the same feelings.
- For instance, a boy experiences of fear by encountering a wolf.
- He expresses this fear in order to evoke a feeling in others.
- He provides an elaborate description of it.
- He expresses the conditions before the encounter.
- He also expresses the surrounding of the words.
- He also expresses his distance from the wolf.
- On the other hand, he also expresses the wolf’s appearance, its movement, distance from him, etc.
- When he compels others to feel his experiences, it is called art.
- Hence, to be an art, the feelings of suffering and enjoyment should be infected by them.
- When a man feels or imagines those feelings of delight, gladness, sorrow, despair, etc. it is called art.
- Therefore, art refers to the transmission of the sounds of those feelings from one man to other so that one must be infected by them and also experiences them by themselves.
Meaning of difficult words:
simultaneously – happening at the same time.
previously – formerly.
subsequently – followingly.
intercourse – deal with, interact, and communicate.
transmit – sends, communicates.
groan – moan, lamentation.
spasms – muscular contraction, stiffness of muscles.
encountering – facing, confronting, meeting
despondency – misery, sorrow, unhappiness.
transition – change, transformation, movement.
Part – Two
The feelings which the artist transmits to others are varied and many. Some are very strong and some are very weak, some significant and others insignificant, some very bad, and others very good. Patriotic love, self-devotion and yielding to fate or to God in drama, raptures of lovers in. a novel, voluptuousness in a picture, courage in triumphal marches, merriment in a dance, and humor in a funny story are all different forms of art. If the feelings of the author are transmitted to the spectators, they are deemed to be rightly infected.
Art is certainly a human activity that consists of external signs hands-on to other’s feelings he had lived through and that others are infected by these feelings and also experience them. The metaphysicians state that art is not the manifestation of some, mysterious idea of the beauty of God. Physiologists view a game in which man lets off his excess stored-up energy, is not man s expression of emotion by external signs. It is neither pleasure nor the production of pleasing objects.
Analytical outlines of Part Two.
- The artist’s transmission of feelings to others is varied and many.
- Some are very strong and others are very weak.
- Some are significant and others are insignificant.
- Even some are very good and others are very bad.
- There are different forms of art.
- Patriotic love and self-devotion are the same.
- Raptures of lovers in a novel, and voluptuousness in a picture are others.
- Also, courage in a triumphal march, merriment in a dance, and humor in a tunny spry are still others.
- If the feelings of the writer are transmitted to the audience, they are deemed to be rightly infected.
- Art is, certainly, a human activity.
- It consists of external signs hands-on to other’s feelings.
- Others are infected by these feelings.
- They also experience these feelings.
- The metaphysicians opine that art is not the manifestation of some mysterious idea of the beauty of God.
- Physiologists view it is a game in which man gets off his excess stored up energy.
- It is not the expression of man’s emotion by external signs.
- It is neither pleasure nor the production of pleasing objects.
- It is a means of union among men joining them together in the same feelings.