Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Political Science Solutions Unit 2 Basic Concept Long Answer Questions Part 2.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class Political Science Unit 2 Basic Concept Long Answer Questions Part-2
Long Answer Type Questions
Give a detail discussion of the various political rights guaranteed to individuals.
Political right is one of the important rights of citizen without which human beings cannot manage to lead a civil life. Political rights are essential for the management of government. Various political rights of the citizens are discussed below.
Right to vote:
In a democratic government, normally free option is provided to share in the selection of the political party in whose hand the power of administration would be vested. It implies that every adult citizen should be provided the right of casting vote at the time of election which is restricted for aliens or the culprits. In modem days, democracy, right to vote is the only important way for the working of democracy. The right to vote of citizens provides the means and ways to be an active participant of the citizens.
Right to be Elected:
Right to be elected is the next important stage of popular participation in politics. The right to be elected refers that the law should not forbid any citizen from holding any public office, of course, there might be some sort of legal provisions for holding such public office on the basis of popular election. .
Right to Criticise the Government :
The dialogue was the basis of the ancient democracy existing in Greek city-states Accordingly, the present nation says that every policy and formulation of government should be subject to public scrutiny and criticism. Without right of criticizing the government, there must be an authoritarian trend in politics.
Right to Public Officers :
No citizen should be prohibited from holding public offices on the ground of religion, caste or color. Democracy believes that every human should be provided equal opportunities, None should be neglected on the discriminatory ground which would destroy the very principles of humanity and moral order.
Right to Petition :
Democratic legislature constituted on the basis of popular will is the best illustration of the forum for the ventilation of public grievances. So in a democracy, it has been provided constitutionally that every individual has free option to send a petition individually or collectively to the competent authority.
Right to Residence :
The Individual also enjoys the political right or the right to a residence which in other words would be termed as a permanent member of the state. This permanent membership or residence of an individual is exclusively reserved for citizens and is restricted for aliens who do not enjoy any political rights.
Right to Protection while Staying Abroad:
A citizen can seek the protection of his own life from the home state while staying abroad. Here the case of the repatriation of Indians. The Gulf countries during the tenure of V.P. Singh is a glaring example of the political staying abroad.
Right to Public Meeting:
Every citizen also possesses the right to public meetings and to form associations. A citizen should have a free option to express his opinion freely either may be through public meetings or by forming an association. Normally, the above-mentioned political rights are used to the best possible extent in a democratic setup of government. But in authoritarian states, those political rights are being misused and confused with duties and the collective interest of the society.
Define Human Rights and discuss the various kinds of human rights.
Human rights are today considered to be a symbol of a civilized community. These are natural rights, inherent in every individual. These rights are essential for human welfare and prosperity. These rights help man to meet his basic needs of life and to lead a dignified life. They enhance the status of individuals in society and provide him with safeguards that are necessary for the protection of individuals against the arbitrary authority of state.
Every individual, irrespective of social discrimination, enjoys this right. It is a moral right that belongs to individuals, not to any country. Therefore, after the establishment of the UN, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted and it requested all the nations to secure the guarantee of these rights.
- These rights are universal in character and valuable for all nations, communities and cultural groups.
- The individual is the centre of human rights.
- Human rights are safer in a democracy
- These are related to development and welfare.
Kinds of Human Rights :
The human rights mentioned in the Universal Declaration can be classified into, civil political, economic and cultural human rights.
Civil Human Rights: Civil human rights include
- the rights to life, liberty and personal security.
- the rights to freedom from slavery and servitude.
- the right to freedom from torture and cruel; inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
- the right to equality before law.
- the rights to an effective judicial remedy.
- the right to a fair trial and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal.
- the rights to be treated as innocent until proven guilty.
- the right to freedom from arbitrary interference with one’s privacy, family, home 6r correspondence.
- the rights to free movement, and
- the right to property and family etc.
Political Human Rights: These political rights are available only in a democracy. These rights are
- the right to asylum and nationality.
- the right to freedom of speech and expression
- the right to form associations and peaceful assembly
- the right to take part in Govt, and
- the rights to vote and equal access to public service etc.
Economic Hump Rights: Economic human rights include
- the rights to work and reasonable payment.
- the right to rest and leisure,
- the right to a standard of living adequate for health and well-being and
- the right to social security etc.
Cultural Human Rights: Cultural human rights help an individual to preserve and conserve his culture amidst cultural diversities. These rights include.
- the rights to education and cultural protection,
- the rights to participate in the cultural life of the community.
- the right to enjoy the arts and share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
- the right to protection of moral and material interests resulting from scientific literacy or artistic production and
- the right to a social and inter-nation order in which these freedoms can be enjoyed. All these rights are to be enjoyed in conformity with the principles and purposes of the United Nations.
Describe the modes of violation and redressal of human rights.
Or, How human rights are violated? Suggest remedies.
There is no one to enforce or safeguard these rights which are useful not only for individuals but also for society as a whole. Human rights are natural in origin, but it was only after the establishment of the United Nations that efforts are made to protect and safeguard them against violation.
Modes of Violation :
Violations of human rights are frequent in various parts of the world. No society or state can claim to be free from such a violation. The various modes of violation of human rights can be discussed below.
- When one nation attacks another or invades another nation and forcefully occupies the territory of the other human rights are violated. The recent military action of the USA on Iraq is a bright example of human rights violation.
- It can be violated by terrorism, aggressive nationalism and regionalism when people of one region or country try to disrupt normal life and peace in another. Pakistan supported terrorism in Kashmir, Al-Quai-da’s activities in Europe and USA, etc. are examples of human rights violations.
- Establishment of military rule.
- Colonial and imperial domination over backward people
- Racial determinations practiced in South Africa
- Conflicts between religious groups, racial groups and communal factions, tribal conflict and ethnic violence, etc. also lead to violation of human rights.
- Slavery arid forced labor, inhuman treatment to women and backward classes
- Child labor
- Ill-treatment of prisoners of war and criminals in jail.
- War, military expeditions, and use of atomic and chemic weapons, and
- Social evils, customs, and orthodoxy also lead to human rights violations.
These are two different modes of remedies for the violation of human rights.
Those violating human rights must be punished severely and this fear of punishment will act as a safeguard to human rights.
Preventive Remedy :
- A worldwide awareness program may be launched to generate consciousness among ordinary people about human rights, their value and the dangers of violation. The mass media, educational institutions and non Government organizations may be engaged in this type of activity.
- There is a need of a law to make it obligatory on the part of individuals and institutions not to violate human rights.
- The woman, children and backward classes must be given moral strength and encouragement to face the situation.
- The Govt, officials responsible for such violations may be severely punished and the Govt must be accountable for such acts.
- The human rights commission set up at different levels must work sincerely in that direction. These are Useful arid valuable both for individuals and society so they must be protected with care.
Define citizens and discuss the methods of Acquisition of citizenship.
Citizens are the residents of democracy. They are permanent residents of a state and they discharge their responsibilities properly. They enjoy all rights and privileges granted by the state and discharge obligations towards the state and other associations.
‘Citizenships’ refers to the qualities of citizens in a democratic society. A citizen is a person who resides in a state owes allegiance to the state and is protected by the state. He discharges his duties to the state and society and always gives priority to common internals over personal ones. All civil, political, and economic rights are available to a citizen.
Acquisition of Citizenship:
Citizenship can be acquired in two ways
- Natural Process and
In the natural process, citizenship is acquired by birth. It is governed by two principles. Jus Soli and Jus Sanguinis.
Jus Soli (Rule of Place of Birth):
According to this principle, citizenship can be acquired as per one’s place of birth. That means a child born in a state becomes a citizen of that state, if he or she is born in a foreign country he or she will become a citizen of that country irrespective of his or her parental citizenship. This principle is followed in Japan and Argentina.
Jus Sanguinis (Rule of Blood Relationship):
As per this principle, the citizenship of a child is determined on the basis of the citizenship of his parents irrespective of the place of birth. France, Italy, Germany and India follow this principle.
Naturalization means a formal process of bestowing citizenship on noncitizens. In this process, one has to apply to the Head of State on certain specific grounds and with the approval of the government, he or she can be conferred with citizenship. This process differs from state to state. In naturalization, there are certain conditions and an alien applying for citizenship must satisfy at least one such condition or else he will not be granted with citizenship. These conditions are as follows.
According to Plato “Justice consists in allocating to each individual functions for which he is best fitted in accordance with his natural fitness and training”. Aristotle interpreted justice in the sense of fairness and equality. According to Benn and Peters, “Justice is to treat all men alike except where there are relevant differences between them. Charles Merriam defines justice as, “Consisting of a system of understanding and procedures through which each is accorded what is agreed upon as fair. Barker treats justice as the synthesis of Political values.”
Thus, justice can be explained from a broad and narrow point of view, Broadly, speaking justice is eternal and absolute which is infallible and unchangeable. It is determined according to social needs and circumstances. But from a narrow point of view justice is associated with the legal system and legal process in society. It is concerned with the protection and maintenance of the rights and obligations of individuals by an independent and impartial juridical system.
Types of justice: Justice can be classified into legal, social, economic and political, etc.
Legal justice :
Legal justice means lawyers’ conception of justice. It is associated with the legal system and the judicial process. This type of justice can be realized through the instrumentality of laws. Justice of this nature demands that, the laws of the state should be reasonably fair and proper and every individual should get justice according to the rule of law as opposed to the arbitrary will of men, legal justice stressed upon independent and impartial judiciary and equality before law. Legal justice demands that the laws, the judges and the judiciary must be free from corruption and outside pressures.
Social Justice :
Social justice implies the absence of discrimination among individuals on artificial grounds social justice is related to the general welfare of the community and the state should take steps to promote the interests of the weaker sections of society. Social justice is a balance between individual rights and social control ensuring the fulfillment of the legitimate expectations of the individual under the existing laws and assuring benefits consistent with the unity of the nation and the needs of the society. Again social justice implies that, in case of conflict between social and individual interests, the common interest must prevail. Allen criticized social justice as vague and confusing. Sometimes, it implies the distribution of wealth and equality of opportunity.
Political justice :
Political justice implies that, the people should be given a chance of fair and free participation in the political life of the country. By the provision of universal adult franchise, people are able to participate in the election of their representatives. Grant of equal Political rights and opportunities to influence the policies of the government is a condition of Political justice.
Political Justice further demands that :
- Elections must be free, fair, and regular
- There must be a rule of law as opposed to the rule of men.
- Freedom of speech, expression, assembly, petition, and criticism must be given to all.
- The judiciary must be independent and deliver impartial justice guaranteeing individual rights.
- The press must be free to organize public opinion.
- And the state of Govt must be free from the external pressures of foreign countries.
Economic justice :
Economic justice is the foundation of all other kinds of justice. It seeks to eliminate economic exploitation of the rich to tire poor by providing the basic minimum needs of every individual in society. National every one is treated equally the economy should be so shaped that the benefits are shared by the maximum number of people. Lask defining economic justice has said, no ma I can be entitled to a house of twenty-one rooms until all people are adequately housed. One man even in that environment is not entitled, to a house of twenty rooms because his father is an advocate or an industrial. Economic justice aims at the reduction of the gap between rich and poor and the principle of equal pay for equal work must prevail.
Economic justice further demands that :
- Every citizen shall get a right to adequate means of livelihood.
- Distribution of ownership and control of wealth to achieve the common good.
- The state shall take steps toward social security.
- The state must take care to promote the socio-economic and educational interests of the weaker sections.
- And equality in matters of employment, etc.
- Thus justice can prevail in a society where there is social, economic, political, and legal justice.
Write an essay on Social Justice.
The concept of social justice is an essential element of the welfare state. The term is used to denote the organization of society on the basis of ideas of equality and fairness. Social justice seeks to erect a social order in which Social justice is closely related to social equality. It believes in the elimination of inequality and privileges based on birth, wealth, status, religion, sex or color. According to G.D. H. cole, social justice is a way of life ensuring equality in status and opportunities in all aspects of the social life of individuals.
Social justice is related to social equality and social rights. In a liberal democracy, social justice seeks to remove exploitation, oppression, and discrimination.
- Social justice reduces inequality and removes special privileges by positive state action.
- It creates a just and fair social order.
- It gives special protection to the weaker sections and backward classes like, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes women and children.
- It makes a balance between individual rights and social control.
- Social justice enjoins upon the state to undertake far-reaching welfare measures to improve a lot of the lower classes.
A welfare state in order to maintain social justice introduces social security measures providing unemployment & sickness allowance- old age pensions, maternity benefits, and accident insurance etc. It allowances equitable distribution of goods and commodities and equal opportunity is given for all aspects of life irrespective of social classes or distinctions.
Social justice in India:
The Indian constitution has introduced a series of measures to ensure social justice.
- The Fundamental Rights and the Directives seek to ensure social justice.
- The Constitution has abolished discrimination on grounds of religion caste, sex or place of birth.
- Untouchability is abolished under Art 14.
- Art 23 prohibits forced labor. The exploitation of backward classes illegal use of women and child labor.
- The interests of minorities are protected under Art. 29.
- Art. 42 directs the state to provide just and humane conditions of work and . maternity relief. The Govt takes special care for the education and economic interests of the children of the backward classes, and to save them from exploitation and justice.
- The Govt provides for the reservation of seats for S.C. and S.T. in order to promote social justice.
- The Govt has introduced economic planning and given the backward classes social status economic security, and a share in political power.
Define secularism and discuss the western and Indian approaches to secularism
Or, Distinguish between western and Indian aspects of secularism.
The term secularism was used for the first time in 185.1 by Holyoke in its Latin
form speculum, this means that the activities of the state must be free from the influence of religion. In the ordinary sense, secularism implies equal treatment to religion and being tolerant towards any religion. As far as the interpretation of the term is concerned the word secularism is interpreted in the west in a different way from that of India. The difference in this approach may be explained below.
Secularism in India:
Indian secularism contains the following features:
- Secularism in India is commonly used to mean equal treatment to religions.
- It believes in the coexistence Of all religions and tolerance towards all religious faith.
- In India the” majority religious communities exercise their superiority over minority communities.
- It does not give scope for religious discrimination, or inequality of exploitation. The exploitation of women & backward classes is strongly resented by secular forces.
- Secularism allows everybody to accept any religion of his own choice and to reject it at will. Every religious community is given full freedom to practice and propagate its religious values and ideas, and to perform religious rights and ceremonies.
- The state has no religion of its own, but it can initiate religious reforms for the abolition of child marriage or untouchability.
- The state never tolerates religious atrocities. Every religious community shall have the liberty in India to preserve its culture by establishing its own educational institution. But, the state is nor completely from religious pulls and pressures.
The basic features of western secularism may be discussed below:
- In the western world, there is no state religion nor the state patronize any religion.
- The state remains completely free from religious influence. It neither interferes in the freedom of religion of the people nor allows religious principles to guide state activities.
- No state policy or program violates the religious freedom of the people.
- The state does not provide any grant to any religious institution nor does it obstruct the activities of any religious institutions.
- Religion is considered purely a private affair. No religious community enjoys special status in the west. The state does not tolerate religious exploitation or oppression. However, the basic difference between the two approaches is that while in the western state and religion remain completely detached in our country it is only in pen and paper. In India, there are enough examples of appeasement to religious communities by the government for securing political support. Further, in our country, secularism is used mostly as a vote-catching slogan but that never happens in the west.
Define development and discuss the various models of development.
Or, Write an essay on the models of development.
Development is a continuous process of growth. It is a progression from a simpler to a more advanced or complex form of society. It includes all aspects of human growth like, including physical, mental, intellectual, social, and economic development.
The process of development started in the post world war era. It was first of set in Europe and western countries and the process thereafter followed in other parts of the world. Depending on the process of development the western states were called developed nations and the states of Asia and Africa developed.
Models of development :
There are three models 6f development, such as
- Capitalist model
- Socialist model and
- A sustainable model of development
Capitalist model of development:
This model of development is working today in the USA, UK, Australia, Canada, and other European countries. It is otherwise known as individual-centric or market-based development.
- In this model economic development is considered to be a condition for political development.
- The capitalist model pleads for the round development of individuals.
- Rapid industrialization, technological development, modernization, employment generation, etc. are the ingredients of the capitalist model of development.
- It further believes in the Liberalisation of the social, political, and economic systems.
- The capitalist model further relies on free market economy and economic competition for growth.
This capitalist model widens the gap between rich and poor countries and here the underdeveloped states are the worst sufferers.
Socialist model of development:
The Socialist model is also known as the Marxist model of development. It is just the opposite of the capitalist model. It is now found in China. Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Cuba and North Korea.
- It believes in a state-controlled economy, production and means of distribution.
- This model emphasizes on socioeconomic rights Of individuals, equality and social justice.
- It looks after the well-being of the poor working class and depressed classes.
- The state here, exercises control over industry, health, education, communication and transport and distribution system.
- The state can sacrifice the interests of an individual or a group for the greater interests of society. This model was popular from 1920 to1980 but with the downfall of the Soviet Union, this model is losing ground.
Sustainable model of development:
In view of the rapid growth of population, industrialization, urbanization and modern lifestyle energy and natural resources are depleting first. Unplanned social and economic development has led to increasing in environmental pollution. Therefore, a new model of sustainable development has been introduced in place of the capitalist and socialist models.
- The sustainable model believes in socio-economic development with due concern for environmental safety.
- It insists on the limited use of natural resources like water, air, soil and mineral resources and fossil fuels. Resources must be used with utmost care so that the future generation will not be deprived of those resources.
- It focuses on ensuring a healthy and enduring balance between human needs natural resources and the economic system.
- The development shall meet the needs of the present without keeping the future generation of risk.
- There must be plans to ensure population control. Poverty alleviation, socio-economic justice protection of the environment, biodiversity, and conservation of natural resources.
- This model emphasizes more on creating awareness among people for a secured future life with due importance toward environmental safety.