Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Political Science Solutions Unit 2 Basic Concept Long Answer Questions Part 1.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class Political Science Unit 2 Basic Concept Long Answer Questions Part 1
Long Answer Type Questions
Define liberty and discuss various kinds of liberty. Or
Make a classification of liberty.
Liberty is a democratic concept that has been existing since the state of nature. Liberty is essential for the development of individual personality. An individual cannot lead a restricted life. Liberty is abstract and hypothetical in nature. It is difficult to give a comprehensive definition of liberty.
The word ‘Liberty’ has been derived from the Latin word ‘Liber’ which means ‘freedom’ But, liberty does not mean the absence of restraint. No individual in the modem society can be given the freedom to do whatever he likes. This is regarded as negative liberty. J.S. Mill, Locke, Spencer, and Friedman, etc.
supported this view of liberty. But negative liberty is founded on the postulate for an atomized and unsocial individual. So, Laski, Barker and Macpherson, etc. have talked of the positive aspects of liberty. Laski says, “Liberty is the eager maintenance of an atmosphere in which mean have the opportunity to be their best selves.” This means that individuals should be at free to avail opportunities to develop his personality but such freedom cannot be enjoyed in the absence of restraints.
Liberty is a product of rights. The. state through a grant of rights creates an atmosphere of self-realization. Thus, positive liberty looks upon the state as a positive agency to promote social welfare. Liberty in this sense means the removal of hindrances from the path of the good life and the creation of opportunity for all.
Classification of Liberty:
Liberty can be classified into natural, civil, political, economic, national and international liberty. It can be classified in the following manner.
Natural Liberty :
The idea of natural liberty has its origin from the state of nature and Rousseau is the principal exponent of this liberty. He said men in the state of nature enjoyed natural liberty or unrestricted freedom. But, with the emergence of civil society, the concept has lost its significance. Modern political thinkers consider natural liberty as vague and abstract. They say, there can be no liberty in the absence of the state.
Civil Liberty :
It is the liberty that man enjoys in a civil society. Civil liberty is considered useful, as it provides facilities of good life to the citizen. Civil liberty is available to an individual in the capacity of a person and it consists of the rights and privileges that the state creates and enforces such as freedom of thought and expression, freedom of religion, freedom of life, liberty and property, equality before law etc. It enables an individual the opportunity of self-expression and self-expansion.
Political Liberty :
Every democratic country grants political liberty to its citizens. It refers to the right to take part in the management of the state. Political liberty constitutes the right of the citizen to form and exercise control over the government. It includes the right to vote, the right to contest an election, to hold public office, to criticize Govt, or to form a political party etc. It can be enjoyed by educated citizens with adequate means of information.
This kind of liberty enables an individual to earn his livelihood. It is available in the capacity of the worker. This means freedom of profession, occupation, trade or business. Economic liberty lies in the absence of exploitation, unemployment inequality, unfair wage and substandard living and it grants each person the security and opportunity to earn his daily bread. Economic liberty consists of the right to work, the right to a decent wage, right to leisure. It is the foundation of civil and political liberty.
National Liberty :
National liberty envisages that every nation must be free from foreign domination. It implies the right of the people to rule over themselves. It is opposed to colonialism and imperialism. National liberty means that the nation is free to exercise control over citizens and subjects residing within the territory of the state.
International liberty :
International liberty is a modem concept that means the renounciation of war, limitations on production and use of ornaments, giving up of the use of force, peaceful settlement of disputes etc. In the co-existence of nation-states, international cooperation and creation of a peaceful world order.
It means the freedom of the person to act according to one’s conscience to sense of justice.lt refers to the freedom to act according to one’s real self. Moral liberty has meaning only in the context of the common good and it gives every individual the scope to develop his personality.
Describe the safeguard, of liberty. Or
Examine the various safeguards of liberty. Or
How liberty of an individual can be safeguard?
Liberty is the product of rights available to the citizen in a democracy. Every democratic country grants certain rights to individuals and thereby enables him to seek the best possible development of his personality. Thus, there can be no liberty without rights and as the stage grants rights, without the state there can be no liberty for individuals.
Safeguards of Liberty: Liberty is a socially useful concept that every individual requires in his social life. It is guaranteed by a democratic state through the constitutional character of liberty. It is to be safeguarded from possible encroachments of the state and the legal system. The conditions essential for safeguarding liberty can be discussed below.
Rule of Law:
Law is the best safeguard of liberty. The state creates conditions of liberty through laws. Law treats each person equally and prevents discrimination on artificial grounds. Thus, law safeguards liberty from the arbitrary interference of the state.
Fundamental Rights :
The Constitutional guarantee of fundamental right also act as a safeguard of liberty. These rights restrict the scope of government activity and neither the legislature nor the executive can interfere in the affairs of the liberty of the individual.
Democratic System :
A democratic form of government is the best safeguard of liberty. Because in a democracy the people have ample opportunity to protect their right from all types of threats.
Separation of Powers :
It is another safeguard of liberty Concentration of powers in few hands endangers the liberty of the people. Unless the three branches, the executive, the legislature and the judiciary are separated from each other. There will be no mis-utilisation of public authority and the liberty of every individual shall be safeguarded. The separation will check every branch of government from encroaching upon individual liberty.
Independent Judiciary :
Individual liberty and rights cannot be safeguarded unless the judiciary is impartial and independent. If the Judges remain sub-servant to the executive or legislature, individual liberty is threatened. If the Judges remain free from the undue influences of the executive and legislature they can maintain the integrity of the Judiciary and the liberty of the citizens.
Absence of Special Privileges:
Liberty is the possession of every individual and it must be enjoyed by all equally. A society where special privileges are given to any class or group individual liberty and freedom s threatened.
Decentralization of Power:
It is another safeguard of liberty. The concentration of power in a few hands is inimical to liberty for which every democratic system, functional and territorial decentralization of authority is made. Devolution of powers to the democratic local bodies is considered to be a safeguard of individual liberty.
It is said that, eternal vigilance is the price of liberty. This statement of Laski suggests that unless the people of a country are vigilant and conscious of their liberty and rights cannot be safeguarded. The people themselves must be conscious of defending their liberty against all sorts of encroachments. Laski says, “Liberty is never real unless the government is called to account when it invades the rights of the people”.
Organized Public Opinion:
Strong and effective public opinion is another safeguard of individual liberty. Where-the public opinion is vigorous and organized the Govt, cannot venture to invade individual rights, has the liberty of the individual remains safe.
Free Press and Well-organised Party-System:
Freedom of the press is another essential condition for the safeguarding of individual liberty. Press supplies useful information to the people and helps in the organization of public opinion. Free press criticizes the loops of the ruling party and opposition and that prevents the Govt, from endangering individual liberty. An organized party system and the presence of an organized opposition is other safeguards of individual liberty. Whether the people are courageous to oppose and resist the tyranny of the government they can enjoy liberty safely in that country.
Describe the relationship between law and liberty. Or
Explain how law is related to liberty. Or
Law is a Condition of liberty. Comment.
The relationship between law and liberty is controversial. One cannot exactly point out what is the point of the relationship between law and liberty in concrete terms. A few political philosophers hold that law is detrimental for the realization of liberty. Law hinders the enjoyment of liberty. But there are others who point out that law does not go against liberty rather law creates conditions for the realization of liberty and without law there would be no liberty. It is law alone that safeguards and protects liberty from encroachments.
Whatever may be the differences among political scientists with regard to the exact relationship between law and liberty, whether law creates conditions for liberty or law destroys liberty can be discussed below.
- First view :
According to some people, the law is the very opposite of liberty. The more there is law, the less there would be liberty. The Sophists in ancient Greece on the basis of the principles of laissez fairs theory advocated that the enactment of laws means the curtailment of liberty. The anarchists even went to the extent of advocating for the abolition of the state in order to ensure complete liberty for all individuals.
- Second view:
But on the order hand, some people advocated that law is regarded as a condition of liberty. One must not consider liberty as a license. One should obey the laws of the state to enjoy liberty. From the above description of the two antagonistic views, it is very much clear that both schools have sufficient grounds for their argument. So what is the actual relationship between law and liberty? The true answer to this question lies in the reconciliation of the two views.
One can definitely say that a law supported by public opinion is undoubtedly a condition of liberty. Such type of law does not necessarily encroach upon liberty but such a law paves the way for the successful realization of liberty. In welfare countries where various welfare laws are passed by the state, i.e., fixation of wages for laborers, prohibition of child labor, legislation to stop economic exploitation etc. must be regarded as the conditions of liberty. The fixation of such laws guarantees the liberty of the workers against encroachment by selfish employers. But all laws are not welfare in nature. There are also laws that are passed with a view to meeting the callous and self-interest of the ruler. When such laws are passed in complete disregard of public opinion.
Liberty is being hampered and the disregard of such law does not go against the justice or the interest of the state. In conclusion, it can be told that all laws supported by public opinion are the conditions of liberty. Because good laws impose restrictions on individuals retaining them from doing harm to others. Laws which are protected and supported by public opinion are not detrimental to liberty. Thus, laws and liberty are both complementary and supplementary to each other and there is no contradiction between them.
Define equality and discuss various kinds of equality.
In common parlance, equality refers to giving equal opportunities to all and the elimination of privileges for any particular section of society or the group of people living in the society. Equality implies a leveling process in which chances are given to all for the development of their potentialities. There should be no discrimination on the ground of sex, caste, color or creed and the state should provide equal and adequate opportunities to all for developing their abilities to their full stature. arouse out of two main incidents like the French and American Revolutions.
The American Declaration of Independence proclaims that, all men are created equal and the French Declaration proclaims that men are born and always continue free and equal in respect of their rights.” Whatever may be the opinions about the conception of equality but the term equality has no definite meaning. Perfect equality is an impossible task. When nature has created inequality among men, it is different to have perfect equality in society.
Equality is a leveling process that insists that all men are politically equal and entitled to take part in political life equally. According to Professor Laski, “Equality means that no man shall be placed in the society that he can overreach his neighbor to the extent which constitutes a denial of the latter’s citizenship. Another political philosopher Lipson defines, “Equality as the absence of man-made and socially fostered discriminations in the avenues of advancement.
So, from the above viewpoints, it is very much clear that equality has been derived from the supreme value of the development of personality in each alike and equally. Equally implies that all persons should be treated under any circumstances. It amounts to equal distribution of rights by the state.
Various kinds of Equality: There are various kinds of equality found in different societies and political systems which are discussed below.
Civil equality implies that all citizens be treated equally and alike in the matter of possession of their rights other than political rights. Civil equality in a slate refers to that all persons are subject to the same law in enjoyment of their various rights and duties, Particularly, in the context of the democratic setup of government, civil equality is highly honored.
Political Equality :
Political equality implies that all men should have an equal right to select their representatives for the management of the State or the opportunity to be elected to any public office without any discrimination Political right further spells that everybody should have equal access to all public offices of authority. Political equality refers to that everybody should have the right top form political parties, to contest the election and to form the government and for that there should not be any discrimination. All the above-mentioned political rights are normally seen in a democratic form of government.
Economic equality refers to the wealth that should be enjoyed by all. According to Lord Bryce, economic equality “is an attempt to expunge all differences in wealth allotting to every man and woman an equal share in worldly goods,” Economic equality in welfare states further implies that poverty should be abolished and basic amenities should be provided to all. Political equality or political democracy is meaningless without economic equality. The importance on economic equality is immense in all the communist countries which oppose the accumulation of wealth in the hands of a few people. But perfect economic equality seems to be an impossible phenomenon in complex economic situations.
Social Equality :
Social equality refers to that each and every member of society should be treated alike and there should be no such social barriers like caste, color or untouchability etc. Every member of society must enjoy equal opportunity and there should be the absence of privileges. So equality condemns any sort of inequality to the enjoyment of privileges by a particular caste or class of people in the social setup. It is not possible to do away with the social loopholes existing in society. Though there are legal provisions in India against social inequality, it has not been completely eliminated from society.
Natural equality means that all men are born free and equal and they are gifted with equal talents and abilities. It is a primitive notion that demands that the state should always try to reduce inequality or man¬made discrimination based on race, sex, color or caste. It is based On the feeling that
- all men are ruled by the law of nature.
- all men are the children of God, and
- the desires of all men are identical But, the idea of natural equality is an unattainable phenomenon.
It refers to the equality prevailing among sovereign nation-states. It means equality among the nation-states in the international community of nations. It prevents interference in the internal affairs of a nation. It believes in the settlement of inter-nation disputes through peaceful means, abandonment of use of force, eradication of distribution of scientific and technological knowledge among nations etc. Thus, equality can be classified into different forms, but perfect equality is an impossible disposition.
Examine the relationship between liberty and Equality. Or
“Liberty and Equality are antithetic,” Comment. Or
“Equality and Liberty are complementary to each other” Discuss. Or
“Both Liberty and Equality matter, but equality matters more than Liberty.” Discuss
Liberty and equality are two different democratic concepts that an ordinary individual cannot understand. Both of them are not contradictory but related to each other in such a way that, one while enjoying liberty must be conscious of the liberty of others as it is the equal possession of all. Absolute liberty is inimical to the enjoyment of equality hence liberty is to be enjoyed under restraint. So far as, the relationship between liberty and equality is concerned two opposite views have been expressed.
- Liberty and equality are antithetical and
- Liberty and equality are complementary to each other.
Liberty and equality are antithetical:
- Lord Action, Alex De Tocqueville, Lecky, Bagehot Hume, May, Cartland etc. hold that liberty and equality are opposed to each other. Lord Acton regards equality as opposed to being endowed with unequal capacities and powers, freedom of action would enable those with better talents to make better use of their opportunities and rise higher than the rest. Thus, equality destroys individual liberty. Absolute equality is neither possible nor desirable because man by birth is unequal. Some are physically strong while others are weak. Some are intelligent, and sharply minded while others are dull. Therefore, liberty gives rise to inequality. If an attempt is made to ensure equality then liberty is to be retained.
- De Tocqueville says, the rise of equality implies the decline of liberty. Liberty believes in the absence of restraints while equality presupposes some restraints. Thus, the desire for equality1 results in limitations of liberty.
- Equality is unfair to the honest and intelligent but liberty has no, meaning for the poor and distressed.
- Equality demands positive state action which curtails individual liberty.
Liberty and equality are complementary to each other:
The second proposition is given by scholars like Harrington, Maitland, Laski, Barker, Pollard, etc. who say that liberty far from inimical to equality is necessary for it. Liberty would be hollow without equality and equality will be meaningless without liberty. Equality in no way hampers liberty.
- They say that the first group of thinkers: have defined liberty in the negative sense, as the absence of restraints, such a conception of liberty would amount to liberty for the privileged few and the absence of liberty for the vast majority. Liberty in order to be enjoyed by all should be qualified by equality.
- Equality does not mean mechanical uniformity in society and liberty is to be interpreted in a positive sense. Equality by securing legal capacity to all leads to the university of liberty.
- Democracy is meaningless without equality and liberty cannot be enjoyed outside a democratic policy. Hence, Liberty is related to equality.
- According to Pollard, liberty lies in inequality. Liberty without equality degenerates into license and equality in the absence of liberty lapses into uniformity.
- Liberty and equality both have a common goal, i.e, the development of human personality. A large measure of liberty is essential for equality. Thus, liberty and equality are complementary. Equality is the true basis of liberty. But, liberty is more useful for equality and equality serves the requirement of liberty.
Discuss, the detail about various civil rights of a citizen.
The following are some of the civil rights of an individual.
Right of life:
The right of life is one of the be£ important civil rights of an individual. The individual must have after all the security to life and the state must provide adequate provision for the personal safety of an individual. The right to life may otherwise the termed as the right to self-defense and the prevention of suicide.
Right to Liberty :
The right to liberty would otherwise be termed as the right, to free movement in his own country. According to this right, the individual might tint he is detained ordinarily and if he happens to be detained there must be an adequate reason behind his detention. There must be adequate constitutional provisions for the right to liberty constitutionally.
Right to Property :
The right to property in almost all democratic countries has been guaranteed either in the form of a fundamental right or a legal right. Right to property is regarded as one of the best conditions for the enhancement of individual initiative. In socialistic countries there is provision for the abolition of the private property yet without the right to the property there is a very poor possibility of profit and adequate production.
Freedom of Press :
In a democratic country, the press has been democratically accepted as the fourth estate of democracy. The right to press ordinarily refers to the right of the individual to public opinion which is done lawfully. Freedom of the press in an essential requirement to moral public opinion and which is also necessary top have a check and balance on the working to democracy.
Right to Freedom of Speech :
Right to speech refers to the free expression of an individual to express his views without any restraint. Citizens must have a free opinion to raise their voice against injustice and unlawful acts of authority. So in the modern age right to freedom strives for the development of the individual.
Right to Contract :
Right to contract is one of the important civil rights of the life of the modem age in numerous manage to maintain his life. The individual must freely for work life, work and earn. The contract is the mutual agreement among the parties imposing some obligations on each other. The contract is also the basis of society.
Right to Association :
The civil right, the right to an association means to provide a free Option to the individual to act freely for the development of his inner dignity. Unlike the best, the human being cannot manage to live in isolation and he must collaborate with others for the satisfaction of his multifarious needs culminating in the formation of associations. It is only through mutual cooperation and association that human being would be able to develop his individuality.
Right to Religion and Conscience :
Man cannot manage to refrain from his inner urge to think about the ethical and spiritual aspects of life. The man’s salvation its inheritance, the migration of some, etc. for which there are different ways and means for the choice of which should n6t be any external barrier of a hindrance. Accordingly, it has been guaranteed through various civil laws of the land.
Right to Language and Culture :
Unlike beasts or any other creatures, human being cannot remain indifferent towards the long-established and long-existing values, beliefs, customs, traditions, etc. which are different to different sections of people. So the law provides that no culture should be hindered which does not go against the principles of humanity. Other than, the above-mentioned civil rights there are also other civil rights. The right to equality and the right to family are of such standard.