Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 Alternative English Solutions Grammar Prepositions Exercise Questions and Answers.
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Alternative English Grammar Prepositions
A preposition is a world that is put before a noun or pronoun in order to show more relation between them.
1. The lamp is on the table
Here, the preposition ‘on’ shows the relation of the noun (the lamp) with another noun (the table)
2. She fell into the well.
Here, the preposition ‘into’ shows the relation of the pronoun (she) with the noun (well).
3. Akash gives respect to me.
Here, the preposition ‘to’ shows the relation of the noun (Akash) with the pronoun (me).
4. She is hot under me.
Here, the preposition ‘under’ shows the relation of the pronoun (she) with another pronoun (me).
Kinds Of Prepositions
Prepositions can be classified as the following five types: such as:
- Simple prepositions: as
At, after, by, to, in, up, with, over, etc.
- Compound prepositions: as
about, across, against, before, beside, into, until, within, etc.
- Participle prepositions: as
Accepting, during, etc.
- Phrasal prepositions: as
Along with, by virtue of instead of on account of by way of on behalf of according to, etc.
- Double prepositions: as
from among, from beneath, from under, out of, etc.
Usage Of Prepositions
Prepositions are generally used before a noun phrase. But sometimes, they are used at the end of a sentence.
A. Before the noun phrase:
- Don’t sit on that broken chair.
- That by writes with his left hand.
B. At the end of a sentence:
- Used in a wh-question sentence.
(i) What is that animal like?
(ii) What are you looking for?
- Used in a sentence with a relative clause.
(i) Is this the book you were looking for?
(ii) I know the may you are talking about
PREPOSITION OF POSITION
Use of ‘AT’
‘At’ is used in
(a) Public places:
1. There are no buses at the bus stop now.
2. She will be at the cinema now.
1. Mr. Patra is living at 24, Mahatma Gandhi Road, BBSR.
2. You can find him at plot no, 5, Basanti Colony, Rourkela.
(c) A point in space:
1. The watchman is standing at the gate.
2. The child is sitting at his desk.
3. He is at home today.
4. The temple is at the end of the village.
(d) With events:
1. I met the girl at my sister’s wedding.
2. They are busy at the meeting.
3. There was a big crowd at the match.
4. They were at the party at that time.
(e) A place on the journey:
1. We got down at Puri
2. This train doesn’t stop at Ballikuda.
3. You have changed the bus at Bhubaneswar.
Use Of ‘In’
‘In’ is used with:
(a) Large areas:
1. Jagannath temple is in Odisha.
2. He lives in a town.
(b) Enclosed places:
1. They bathed in a pond.
2. My mother is in the kitchen.
3. Keep your money in the box.
(c) Roads or starts:
1. My uncle lives in Kedar Gouri Road.
(d) Places of work:
1. My mother works in a hospital.
2. Mahesh works in a factory.
3. I work in an office.
4. He works in a hotel.
5. My brother works in a bank.
When it refers to an open place, ‘on’ is used instead of ‘in’.
1. My father works on a firm.
2. Siba works on the railway.
3. Ajit works on a tea plantation.
In the case of indefinite office, ‘in’ is used, as
1. Kunal works in a bank.
2. Puspa works in a library.
In the case of a definite office, ‘at’ is used.
1. He works at the main branch of the Bank of India, Bhubaneswar.
2. Pinki works at the University library.
Use Of ‘On’
‘On’ is used with:
1. The books is on the table.
2. The clock is on the walk.
3. The children are playing on the beach.
4. A man is standing on the roof of the house.
5. There is a beautiful picture of Nehru at page 5.
1. We line on a small river that flows into Chilika.
2. This house stands on the main road.
But ‘in’ and ‘at’ with buildings:
1. I left my umbrella in school.
2. My youngest daughter is at school and the eldest one is at college.
3. I spent the whole evening at the public library.
4. There is a big hall in the library.
‘In’, ‘on’, ‘all’ with streets or roads:
1. Kuni got a job in Netajee Road.
2. My house is in Netajee Road.
3. You will find meat 65, Netajee Road.
Position And Movement:
Some prepositions relate to both position and movements. Others relate to either position or movement.
1. Use of ‘to’ and ‘at’:
1. The boy went to the blackboard.
2. He stood at the blackboard.
3. He threw the ball at me.
At is used for both position and movement, but ‘to’ is used for only movement.
2. Use of ‘above’ and ‘over’
1. The clock is over/above the door.
2. There is a temple above my house.
3. A kite is flying over our house (Not above)
Hence, over is used for both position and movement, but above is used only for the position.
3. Use of ‘below’ and ‘under’:
1. I stood at the door under/below the clock.
2. The children are playing under the tree. (Not below)
4. Use of ‘between’and‘morning’:
1. Divide the cake between Kuni and Muni.
2. There is a beautiful garden between the house and the road.
3. The teacher is standing among the pupils.
4. Divide the sweets between the four children.
5. Use of ‘In front oF and behind:
1. The car is in front of the bus.
2. The bus is behind the car.
6. Use of ‘into’:
1. We jumped into the pond.
2. The teacher walked into the classroom.
3. Pour the milk into the cup.
7. Use of ‘out oF and ‘outside’:
1. He is out of town.
2. When the class finished the children rushed out of the classroom
3. He asked me to sit on a bench outside the closed door.
4. Some people are shouting outside the office.
8. Use of ‘onto’:
The cat jumped onto the table.
9. Use of ‘up’ and ‘down’:
Mantu is going up the stairs, but Puspa is coming down the stairs.
10. Use of ‘along’, ‘across’ and ‘through’:
1. There are trees all along the road.
2. The car is running along the road.
3. There is a bridge across the stream.
4. He swam across the river.
5. A road goes through the village.
6. The train went through the tunnel.
11. Use of ‘round’:
The earth moves round the sun.
12. Use of ‘against’:
He placed the ladder against the wall.
13. Use of ‘near’:
The supermarket is very near the library.
14. Use of ‘try’:
Come and sit by me.
15. Use of ‘beside’:
Sit beside your sister.
Exercise For Practice:
1. Fill in the blanks choosing ‘in’, ‘on’, or ‘at’.
1. I will meet you __________ the bus stand.
2. We live __________ a bit building.
3. My village is __________ a river bank.
4. My family lives __________ 24, Gandhi Road.
5. You will find a very tall building __________ the main road.
6. Sunita lives __________ Park Street.
7. There is a beautiful picture __________ this page.
8. You will find him __________ the garden now.
9. He is not __________ home now.
10. Someone has drawn a picture the door.
11. He will be in two years more __________ school before the goes to any college.
12. The temple is __________ the top of the hill.
13. She is a teacher __________ a village school.
14. We walked for a long time __________ the beach.
15. Do not walk __________ the middle of the road.
16. Many laborers are working __________ my firm.
17. I last saw you __________ this theatre.
18. Sushanta left his bag __________ the college.
2. Fill in the blanks by choosing the appropriate prepositions:
1. He walked __________ my room to see me. (into/to)
2. A river flows __________ the hill. (under / below)
3. We will need about to get __________ the river. (across / through)
4. A fan is moving __________ my head (over / above)
5. He threw the book __________ the table. (to/into)
6. I felt __________ in my pocket and took out a coin (into / in)
7. The cat jumped __________ the mouse (on/into)
8. I thought someone was standing __________ me (in front of / behind)
9. We drove __________ the road for fifty miles (on/along)
10. Water flows __________the pipe (along / through)
11. The car turned __________ the comer of the road. (on / round)
12. He falls __________ the horse (down/ off)
13. All the five brothers were quarreling __________ themselves. (between/among)
14. The bird flew __________ the nest (from/out of)
15. The squirrel hid __________ a bush. (blow / under)
16. I came __________ the stairs to welcome my friend. (below / down)
Preposition of Time:
When the duration of time of a happening is expressed we use the preposition life for, during, from, to, till, until by, etc. These are called prepositions of time.
1. Use of ‘At’
‘At’ is used with:
(a) Clock time:
1. The train left at 7.30.
2. He reached at half past nine.
(b) Exact moment of day or night:
1. It is hot at noon.
at sunrise, at sunset, at midnight, at dawn, at dusk, at midday, etc.
(c) Lunch time:
1. He will be here at lunchtime, at breakfast, at dinner, etc.
(d) Festival, short holidays:
1. He goes home at Dusserah every year, at Christmas, at Id, at Holi, etc.
1. He was admitted to our school at the age of five.
1. The villain was killed at the end. at the moment etc.
Use of ‘On’
‘On’ is used with:
(a) Day of the week:
1. Offices and schools are closed on Sundays.
1. Mahatma Gandhi was bom on 2nd October 1869.
2. My friend usually visits us on my birthday.
(c) Day + part of day:
1. I will go home on Sunday morning in the night of the 25th, on a came after-noon, etc.
(d) Special days:
1. My father gave me gifts on my birthday on New Year’s Day on Republic Day etc.
Use of ‘In’
‘In’ us used with:
1. He was absent from college in the first week.
2. The First World War began in 1914.
3. We are now in the 21 st century.
(b) The time something takes to be completed:
1. The chief guest finished his speech in five minutes.
2. The clerk typed the report in half an hour.
(c) Part of day/night:
1. I get up in the morning every day.
2. The doctor is free in the afternoon.
Use of ‘on time’ and ‘in time’:
1. We reached the station in time to buy the tickets.
2. The train reached on time.
Use of at night and in the night:
1. I cannot sleep at night.
2. I woke up on night.
Use of During:
(a) We use during with a period of time in which something took place for a comparatively short period of time.
1. During the summer vacation, I was ill for ten days.
2. I had slept only for two hours during the last night.
(b) We use during with an event:
1. He broke his leg during the match.
2. Somebody shouted during the meeting.
3. The woman wept during her speech.
Use of ‘For’:
We use for to say how long something continued.
1. We lived there for thirty years.
2. My father works in the factory for eight hours.
3. She is staying only for a week.
4. Pintu was at college for three years.
5. I have been waiting for two hours.
Use of ‘From… To’:
When it implies ‘for’, we use from… to.
1. My father works in the factory from 10 am to 6 pm. every day:
Use of Since And From:
We use (a) since and (b) from with the starting point of a period of time.
1. I have not seen you since June last.
2. The baby has been crying since morning.
1. Books will be on sale from tomorrow.
2. I hope they will be friends from now.
3. She was deaf from birth.
4. I worked from 7 o’clock.
Use of Until, Till, Upto / By, Before:
We use until, till, upto, by, and before with terminal points of a period of time. Examples:
1. You can keep the book until /till Friday.
2. We didn’t get up until/till morning.
3. They worked up to 3 pm.
N.B: Both until and till are used in positive and negative sentences, but up to is not used in negative sentences.
We can’t write:
They didn’t work upto 3 pm
Use of By:
It is used for ‘on’ or ‘before’ but not for later than Examples:
1. You should return home by the evening.
(= not later than the evening)
2. Can you send the book by Friday?
(= on or before Friday)
Use of Before:
It is used for earlier than:
1. You must see me before Friday.
Prepositions are also used for:
1. The patient died of cholera.
2. Smita was lined for the offense.
3. The man died from a wound.
4. She helped me out of kindness.
5. The student is sick with a cold.
1. My uncle came by bus.
3. He broke the lock with a hammer.
4. The village was destroyed by fire.
1. The child is playing with his friends.
2. Mr. Patra came without his wife.
4. Support and Opposition:
1. I stand for my brother.
2. She is against me.
3. We are with you all the time.
5. Having, possession:
1. She is a girl with long hair.
1. We went out in spite of the heavy rain.
Change of State
1. The road is under repair.
2. Translate the passage into English.
8. Aim / Goal / Purpose / Target Example:
1. I bought a pen for Raju.
1. This road runs from Bhubaneswar to Puri.
2. I borrowed a hundred rupees from my friend.
1. The rich man was robbed of his money.
2. The cat jumped off the chair.
1. He is a friend of mine.
2. What is the name of your village.
12. Material / Ingredient:
1. The chair is made of wood.
2. Flour is made from wheat.
1. This is the door of this house.
1. She is like her mother.
2. He treated me with kindness.
15. Subject matter:
1. She is reading a book in English grammar.
2. I told him about my institution.
Exercise For Practice
1. Use in, on or at where necessary.
1. We go to the cinema usually __________ Sundays.
2. Rajat will return __________ the evening.
3. Where were you last Saturday?
4. The train arrived __________ 7 o ’ clock __________ the morning.
5. Tikun was born __________ the month of September.
6. The sun sets __________ 5 pm __________December.
7. My sister’s wedding will take place __________ 15th May.
8. He is busy __________ the moment.
9. Can you come __________ this evening?
10. My mother goes to the temple __________ Monday morning.
11. I will finish my breakfast __________ two minutes.
12. The bus left __________ time.
13. I heard a loud noise __________ night.
14. We reached station __________ time to catch the train.
15. Our college will close __________ two weeks time.
16. What are you doing __________ tomorrow morning.
17. I was born __________ 1985.
18. We visit Puri __________every summer.
19. Don’t move out __________ noon. It is very hot.
20. I will see you __________ next Friday.
2. Choose the correct prepositions and fill in the blanks.
1. I have known Smita __________ two years. (for/since).
2. They have been at college __________ 2005. (from/since)
3. You must finish the work __________ tomorrow. (by/until)
4. We visited many places __________ the holidays. (between/during)
5. They kept working __________ evening? (until / by)
6. My friend will be here any day __________ Monday and Wednesday. (by/between)
7. He will wait for me __________ 5 o’clock. (until/ by)
8. What have you been doing __________ morning? (from/since)
Preposition With Verbs, Adjectives & Nouns
Verb + Preposition
- accuse of – The police accused him of stealing a radio.
- add to – If you add 3 to 4, you get 7.
- admit to – Ajit is admitted to +2 Arts of our college.
- agree about – We agree about most things.
- agree to – I don’t agree to his suggestion.
- agree on – I agree on a date to start our journey.
- agree with – I agree with my friends to go on a picnic.
- aim at – The hunter aimed at the bird.
- apologize to/for – I apologize to you for not replying to your letter.
- appeal to, for – I apologize to you for not replying to your letter
- apply to for – The poor man applied to the bank for a loan.
- approve of – A approve of your decision.
- argue for – The workers argued for a rise in their pay.
- arrive at – We arrived at the station on time.
- arrive in – We arrived in Bhubaneswar to attend to the meeting.
- ask for – The workers asked for a higher wage.
- attend on – The queen had a good doctor attending to her.
- attend to – Attend to what your teacher is saying.
- avail of – You should avail yourself of the opportunity.
- believe in – I believe in God.
- belong to – This cost belongs to my father.
- beware of – Beware of the dog.
- blame for – Ramesh blamed his teacher for his failure.
- blame on – He blamed his failure on his teacher.
- boast of – A wise man never boasts of his knowledge.
- care about – I care a lot about my reputation.
- care for – She cared for his father all through his long illness.
- charge with – The police charged the man with murder.
- compare to/with – The poet compares her face to/with the moon.
- complain about – The old man never complains about/of/ against his
- of/against – suffering.
- compete with /against – Ranjit is competing with Ajit for the first position.
- confide to – I confide my troubles to my friend.
- confide in – I confide in his honesty.
- congratulate on – We congratulate him on his success.
- consent on – The parents consented to their daughter’s marriage.
- consist of – The committee consists often of members.
- consist in – Happiness consists in contentment.
- cure of – The doctor can cure you of your illness.
- consult with – The head minister consulted with other teachers about the development of the school.
- deal in – The shop deals in dress materials only.
- deal with – Itisveryhardtodealwithhim.
- deprive of – A prisoner is deprived of his rights of freedom in jail.
- die from – The poor man died from hunger / a wound.
- die off – Many people died of Malaria.
- differs from – French differs from English.
- differ with on – I am sorry to differ with you on that question.
- dream about/of – Soldiers often dream of/ about their homes.
- escape from – The thief escaped from the jail.
- exempt from – Textbooks are exempted from tax.
- gaze at – We gazed at the stars.
- hope for – Let us hope for the best.
- impose on – We should not impose more opinions on others.
- inform about/of Inform the police about/of the theft.
- insist on/upon – The children insisted on/upon visiting the park.
- Interfere in – It is not good to interfere in other ‘s private life.
- interfere with – Don’t interfere with this machine.
- knock at/on – The visitor knocked at/on the door.
- listen to – I often listen to good music.
- made of – The chair is made of wood.
- made from – Cheese is made from milk.
- mock at – They mocked my shyness.
- object to – I object to your smoking in this room.
- part with – Little children don’t want to part with their toys.
- pick up – The mother picked up the baby.
- pick out – She was picked out from thousands of applicants for the job.
- point to – Both the hour hand and minute hand pointed to twelve.
- point at – The hunter pointed a gun at the bird.
- point at – Point out the spelling mistakes.
- protect out – An umbrella protects us from the sun and the rain.
- preside of – The Prime Minister presides at the meetings of the cabinet.
- preside over – The City Council is presided over by the Mayor.
- protest against – People protested against the government’s new food policy.
- remind about – Please remind me about my promise.
- remind of – The photo reminds me of many school days.
- recover from – I have recovered from my illness.
- repent of – The man repented of his misdeeds.
- restrain from – Restrain the child from mischief
- result from – The loss resulted from his negligence.
- result in – Fifty percent of road accidents result in heat injuries.
- retire from – My other retired from service last year.
- shout at – The traffic police shouted at the car driver.
- succeed in – He succeeded in his attempt.
- suffer from – The child is suffering from fever.
- supply with – The cyclone-affected people were supplied with relief materials.
- suspect of – The whole class suspended Biju for stealing the wall clock.
- sympathize with – We all sympathized with the unfortunate man.
- wait for – I am waiting for my friend.
- worry about – He is worried about his daughter’s marriage.
- worry over – The mother is worried about the health of her sick child.
- wonder at – The village boy wondered at the tall buildings of the city.
Adjective + Preposition
- absent from – I was absent from college yesterday as I had a headache.
- accustomed to – I am not accustomed to such work.
- afraid of – Who is not afraid of snakes?
- angry with – My other was angry with me for my rude behavior.
- angry about – He was angry about his own foolishness.
- anxious about – I am always anxious about my father’s health.
- anxious for – I am anxious for my examination results.
- ashamed of – Kunal is ashamed of his bad conduct.
- astonished at – All were astonished at his unexpected behavior.
- aware of – I was quite aware of this before I joined this party.
- blind to – Mothers are usually blind to the faults of their children.
- busy with – Pravakar is now busy with his friends.
- capable of – This child is capable of handling computers.
- careful about/with – The rich man is very careful about I money.
- careful of – Be careful of the ice on the road.
- careful with – You should be careful with that man, he is dangerous.
- confident of – Our soldiers are confident of winning the war.
- conscious of – The boy is very conscious of his manners when he is among the elders.
- different from – Your habits are different from mine.
- delighted with – The teacher was delighted with my success.
- disappointed with- I am disappointed with your examination rescue.
- disappointed at – I was disappointed at not finding her at home.
- eligible for – Only graduates are eligible for this job.
- envious of – We should not be envious of others’ happiness.
- equal to – A pound is roughly equal to 500 grains.
- essential to – Vitamins are essential to good health.
- essential for – Land is essential for food.
- familiar with – I am familiar with this city.
- familiar to – This city is familiar to me.
- famous for – Alexandar was famous for his bravery.
- fit for – He is fit for the job.
- fond of – Children are fond of sweets I playing.
- good at /bad at hopeless at – The boy is very good at / bad at mathematics.
- free with – He is free with his money.
- free of – They are happy to give their services free of change.
- free from – He is now free from disease.
- grateful to for – The blind man was gratefûlto the child for his help.
- glad of – I am glad of your success.
- good / kind / nice of- I was kind of you to help me.
- guilty of – He was found guilty of murder.
- ignorant of – They were ignorant of any events outside.
- ill with – The baby is ill with influenza.
- innocent of – The young man pleaded that he was innocent of the charges made against him.
- interested in – Some students are not interested in mathematics.
- jealous of – My neighbors are jealous of me for my fortune.
- keen on – I am keen on buying a house.
- proud of – We are proud of our brave soldiers.
- pleased with – Are you pleased with your new car?
- responsible for – Who is responsible for this tembleness?
- responsible to – The cabinet is directly responsible to Parliament.
- satisfied with / pleased with – The boy is satisfied with his performance.
- similar to – Your face is similar to your mother’s.
- sorry for / about – We are sorry for/about all our mistakes.
- successful in – The Indian soldiers were successful in defeating the Pakistanis.
- superior to – Man is superior to animals.
- sure of – Are you sure of his honesty?
- surprised/shocked at – We were surprised at the news.
- suspicious of – I am suspicious of the man’s intentions.
- tired of – He was tired to walk. He wanted to rest.
- useful for – Soap is useful for removing dirt.
- useful to – This book is very useful to me.
- weak in – I am weak in mathematics.
- worthy of – You are worthy of all my praise.
- worried about – The government is very worried about the defènce of the country.
Noun + Preposition
- admiration for – I have a lot of admiration for my teachers.
- affection for – He felt a great affection for the old man.
- agreement with – I have an agreement with my friend to exchange books between us.
- belief in – She has lost her belief in God.
- a consequence of – You have lost your job as a consequence of your laziness and rudeness.
- love for – A mother’s love for her children is genuine.
- love of – A soldier’s love of his country can’t be questioned.
- objection to – I have an objection to your going out at night.
- proof of – Gifts of nature are proof of God’s love for man.
- reaction to – My reaction to his proposal was favorable.
- demand for – There is a lot of demand for sugar during festival times.
- difficulty in – I face difficulty in teaching the child.
- difficulty with – IamhavingdifficultywithmyneigJbour.
- discussion on about of – We had a discussion on the discipline of the college.
- effect on – The medicine has no effect on him.
- influence on – Teachers have a great influence on their students.
- example of – Lal Bahadur was an example of patriotism and honesty.
- knowledge of – Our teacher has a good knowledge of English.
- reason for – You must give reasons for beating that boy.
- relief from – A heavy shower gave us great relief from the unbearable heat.
- remedy for – There is no remedy for cancer.
- reply to – I will reply to this letter tomorrow.
- restriction on – There is a restriction on people entering this building.
- solution to/for – Can you suggest a solution to/for this problem?
- sympathy for – I feel sympathy for this helpless child.
- need for – There is no need for you to come here again.
- congratulation – Congratulation on your excellent performance.
- a rise / an increase in – There has been a rise / an increase in the price of sugar recently.
- a fall/decrease in – There has been a fall/decrease in the supply of wheat to our state.
- cause of – What is the cause of Malaria?
Exercise For Practice.
1. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate prepositions.
1. Most people believe __________ God.
2. You can’t depend __________ a selfish person.
3. We laughed __________ his silly jokes.
4. Our class consists __________ forty students.
5. The baby is suffering __________ fever.
6. Every year many people die __________ hunger.
7. Children should care __________ their old parents.
8. Do not throw stones __________ others.
9. I agree __________ you on this proposal.
10. The people accused the old man __________ murder.
11. This shop deals __________ food items.
12. The two brothers diffèr __________ each other in many ways.
13. I succeeded __________ solving the problems.
14. Children should not be deprived __________ the joy of playing.
15. The students are going __________ a picnic.
16. Our house is built __________ bricks.
17. The property was divided __________ four parts.
18. I am looking __________ a furnished house.
2. Put in the correct prepositions.
1. I am not afraid __________ snakes.
2. You should be sorry __________ your misbehavior.
3. We are all angry __________ his carelessness.
4. Latamangeshkar is famous __________ her singing.
5. Ranjit is good __________ mathematics.
6. Smoking is bad __________ health.
7. I am aware __________ your difficulties.
8. The young dancer was satisfied __________ her performance.
9. The child was keen __________ having chocolate.
1o. The oldman is worried __________ his poor health.
11. It was very clever __________ you to avoid that boy.
12. My problems are similar __________ yours.
13. I am not used __________ bad language.
14. You are late __________ college.
15. I am weak __________ English.
16. He is blind __________ one eye.
17. He is busy __________ his office work.
18. I can’t rely __________ you in this matter.
3. Fill in the blanks with appropriate prepositions.
1. There has been an increase __________ the price of sugar.
2. He developed an interest __________ music in his childhood.
3. I have a lot of differences __________ you.
4. What is the difference __________ a car and a bus?
5. I have got an invitation __________ the dinner party
6. My method __________ working is different from yours.
7. She is an expert __________ dogs.
8. What is the cause __________ your worry?
9. We made a request __________ more money.
10. An accident caused damage __________ the car.
11. I don’t have sympathy __________ people like you.
12. My advice has no effect __________ him.
What are fixed prepositions?
The prepositions ofthe prepositional phrases which are fixed expressions in order to express a definite meaning in a sentence are called fixed prepositions. Their forms remain unchanged.
1. I was attached by a dog.
2. The news was sent by telegram.
3. I go to school by bicycle.
Here, in the above sentences, the prepositional phrases; by a dog, by telegram, by bicycle remain unchanged. Because the sentence nos. can’t be written as:-
The news was sent by telegram.
Similarly, the third sentence can’t be written as:
1. I go to school by bicycle.
2. Rather we can write like this I go to school on my / bicycle.
3. We can only write, by bicycle.
Examples of Fixed Expressions
Use of ‘At’:
‘At’ as a fixed preposition is used when it denotes the following meanings.
1. at ease: comfortably
Ex:-1 am sitting at ease in this armchair.
2. at heart: deep inside
Ex:- At heart, he is very kind.
3. at length: in great detail or for a long time
Ex:- The matter was discussed at length in the meeting.
4. at war / at peace: in a state of war/peace
Ex:- The two countries are not at war now, they are at peace.
5. at rest: not doing anything active, not worrying about anything.
Ex:- you should see him when he is at rest.
6. at first: at the beginning
Ex:- I did not like him at first, but not I do.
7. at last: It has happened after he has been waiting for it for a long time.
Ex:- At last, he found a girl for his son to merry.
8. at play: playing
Ex:- There was a noise of children at play.
9. at short notice: to be done very soon without very much warning.
Ex:- He had to live his previous quarters at short notice.
10. at work : Ex:- He had to live his previous quarters at short notice, busy doing a particular activity.
Ex:- He had been at work on a book.
11. at sight: as soon as one saw.
Ex:- The police were ordered to shoot at sight.
12. at hand: near
Ex:- Is there a doctor at hand?
13. at least: the number or amount mentioned is a minimum, and the actual number or quantity is much greater.
Ex:- Lend me at least 50 rupees.
14. at once: immediately
Ex:- He received a telegram and left for home at once.
15. at present: at the time of speaking
Ex:- He is not doing anything at present.
16. at the end: Towards the last part of something.
Ex:- There was a test at the end of the lesson.
17. at times: occasionally
Ex:- My friend visits me at times.
18. at best: taking the most hopeful view.
Ex:- I can give you 500 rupees at best.
19. at all times: doing something always.
Ex: – He remains busy in his business at all times.
20. at full speed: the highest speed, but no increase of further speed is possible. Ex:- He drove his car at full speed.
21. at a profit: at least some income is possible.
Ex:- Today, he is at a profit in his business.
22. at a loss: no income is possible.
Ex:- I am at a loss in my business this year.
Use of ‘By’:
1. by oneself – alone, without help from anybody.
Ex:- One can’t play tennis by oneself
2. by name – using the name of somebody.
Ex:- The teacher knows all his students by name.
3. by accident/chance – meet someone or something accidentally.
Ex:- I only found it by accident/chance.
4. by heart: remember something entirely.
Ex:- Learn this poem by heart.
5. by mistake: as the result of carelessness and forgetfulness.
Ex:- I took your bag instead of mine by mistake.
6. by sight: know by appearance only, not as an acquaintance.
Ex:- I only know her by sight.
7. by surprise: unexpectedly
Ex:- The Cuttack was made by surprise.
8. by letter/telephone: to intimate news.
Ex:- The news was sent to him by letter.
9. by means of: doing something by its help.
Ex:- He stood first by means of hard labor.
10. by no means: no way of doing something.
Ex:- It is not possible to do by no means.
11. by din’t of: doing something through it.
Ex:- He passed the examination by didn’t of hard labor.
12. by all means: certainly
Ex:- A graduate can complete all the tests by all means.
13. by hook or by crook: by fair means or foul
Ex:- The cunning people gain their ends by hook or by crook.
14. by and by gradually
Ex:- This medicine will show its effect by and by.
15. by way of: in the shape of
Ex:- He passed a silly remark on his beloved by way of a joke.
16. by force of: by virtue of
Ex:- The Indian team wins the hockey match by force of their superior game.
Use of ‘In’:
1. in brief: in a few words
Ex:- Tell me the whole story in brief.
you can’t make it happens quicker, it will happen when the time is
2. in due course: right font.
Ex:- Every home will have a computer in due course.
3. in general: in most cases, usually
Ex:- Many think that in general men are more hard-working than women.
4. in pieces: broken
Ex:- The mirror is in pieces.
5. in tears: is crying
Ex:- She was in tears when she heard about her sister’s death.
6. in case: fit so happens
Ex:- In case I forget, please remind me about my promise.
7. In fact: really, actually
Ex:- I do not like him, in fact, I hate him.
8. in public / in private: You say or do something when a group of people you do not know are present.
Ex:- He repeated in public what he said in private.
9. in order: the condition on which everything is carefully arranged.
Ex:- Please keep your things in order.
Everything in the room is in order.
10. in common: having the same interests, characteristics features to make friends with.
Ex:- Both India and Pakistan have many things in common.
11. inflame: formally
Ex:- In the Koraput district some schools are rarely open, they exist in the name on.
12. in turn: In succession, one after the other.
Ex:- The patients saw the doctor in turn.
in-hospital/bed/prison/jail in all
in the sun/rain in the air
in trouble/danger/debt/difficulty in theory/practice in fun
Use of ‘Out of’:
1. out of print: not in print
Ex:- This book is out of print.
2. out of work: has no job
Ex:- He has been out of work for 10 years.
3. out of fashion: not fashionable
Ex:- Tight jeans are out of fashion now.
4. out of danger: not in danger
Ex:- The patient is now out of danger.
5. out of reach: Can’t be reached / not within reach.
Ex:- The picture on the wall is out of reach.
6. out of place: not suitable for a particular situation or occasion.
Ex:- I felt completely out of piece among all those smart rich people.
out of the question: not allowed, not possible
Ex:- You can’t go to the wedding in that old shirt, it is quite out of the question.
8. out of stock: no stock
Ex:- We haven’t any more wheat, we’re out of stock.
9. out of turn: before or after the permitted time.
Ex:- You must not speak out of turn.
10. out of doors: not inside a building but in the open air.
Ex:- Farmers spend most of their time out of doors.
1. on the radio: relayed through radio
Ex:- I heard this news on the radio.
2. on television: news telecast on TV.
Ex:- You should have watched the 7.30 p.m. news on television today.
3. on fire: something is burning
Ex:- The house is on fire.
4. on sale: about to be sold
Ex:- These old books are on sale.
5. on duty: in the working hour
Ex:- The policeman is on duty.
6. on time: the reference of the perfect moment.
Ex:- The train arrived on time.
Exercise For Practice
1. Fill in the blanks with the correct prepositions.
1. The whole house was _________ fire (in/on/under)
2. I have got this book _________ loan from the library (by/on / under)
3. The patient is _________ treatment in hospital (under/ in, an)
4. I sold my old bike _________ a profit (at /on/with)
5. Mary is a Christian _________ birth. (in/with / by)
6. She has made this toy _________ hand (with/by/ through)
7. Minu’s father is a doctor _________ profession (in/by/ at)
8. We could not solve the problem _________ first, but we were able to do _________ it the end. (in/at/before)
9. The porter earns fifty rupees a day _________ an average. (on/by/with)
10. Father goes to his office _________ his car (with/in / by)
11. The policeman is _________ duty now (with/on / by)
12. The man sitting _________ my right is an engineer (to/on/ towards)
13. Please keep you things _________ order. (in/on/at).
14. Don’t disturb him, he is _________ work. (in/at/on)
15. I have a lot of work _________ on hand. (at/out/of)
16. Rice is _________ stock in the market. (with/out / of)
17. The thief is _________ prison now (in/inside/within)
18. My eldest daughter is _________ university now (in/at/inside)
19. Please send the letter_________ post (in/by/with)
20. You must keep your knowledge _________ date (out of! upto)
21. The crirninalis _________ arrest. (in/under at)
22. He is worthy _________ my praise. (to/of/for)
23. He is cure _________ his success. (fon in/of)
24. He is weak _________ mathematics (in/by/to)