Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 Foundations of Education Solutions Unit 1 Contribution of Educators Short Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 12th Class Foundations of Education Unit 1 Contribution of Educators Short Answer Questions
Very Short-Answer Type Questions
Mention the aims of Satyabadi System of Education.
Satyabadi system of education aims at:
i) To inclulcate nationalism and patriotism
i) To eradicate social evils.
What two similarities of the Philosophy of Education of Satyabadi System and Basic Education?
Basic Education and Satyabadi System of education are similar in respect their objectives and ideals in the sense that both of the system are experiments with the field of education for renaissance and plain living and high thinking was the ideals. Both emphasis on mother tongue as the medium of instruction.
Give three causes of the failure of Basic Education?
(i) The Basic Education was a mechanical education and so the concept was
(ii) More emphasis on craft education and no creativity.
(iii) English less matriculation courses.
Explain the aims of Gandhian Education?
To Gandhi “Education means an all round drawing out of the best in child and man with body, mind and spirit which means the all round development for the innate powers of the child, moral and character building aim, the knowledge of truth in life.
What is about ‘Wardha Scheme’?
In 1937, All India National Education Conference was convened at Wardha on 22nd and 23rd October under the Chairmanship of Gandhi. A scheme called the Basic Education Scheme was drawn up which named as Wardha Scheme. Jakir Hussain, Committee prepared a curriculum for Basic Education. Such scheme of education is known as “Nai- Talim”.
Give the elements of Rousseau’s negative Education?
(i) Nothing against the interest of the child be taught.
(ii) Education should be based on natural tendencies.
(iii) Child should be protected from outside environment.
(iv) Emphasis on sense training and nature endowment.
Explain any three reasons for the defunctioning of Gopabandhu’s scheme of Vana Vidyalaya?
The main reason for the defunctioning of Gopabandhu’s scheme of Vana Vidyalaya are:
- Satyabadi School was a classless society education which was strongly opposed by conservatives.
- There was a lack of finance and no govt, grant was received.
- Gopbandhu invested all time and energy in the freedom movement and school was neglected.
- After Gopabandhu’s death the next generation failed to manage the school.
Give three main features of Basic Education?
- Education should be free, compulsory up to the age of 14 years.
- Mother tongue should be the medium of instruction up to matriculation.
- Education should be craft centred.
- 2/3 of the time was invested in craft work and other aspects of education were neglected.
Give the methods of teaching of Rousseau’s Education?
- Activity and play way method to be follower with learning by doing.
- Learning through natural objects.
- Learning by self experiences.
Explain: Rousseau’s curriculum?
The child should be educated through activities. Provision of providing physical education through gymnastics and exercises, training of senses, intellect is to be trained through teaching good physical senses, language, mathematics, manual work, music and drawing. To develop morality the adults to be given moral and religious education.
What is ‘Self Education’ to Rousseau?
By self education to Rousseau means –
- Opposition ideals and morals into the mind of the child from outside.
- Through physical exercises and self study is to be practised.
- Special emphasis on physical development of the child.
12. Give the subjects of curriculum in Basic Education.
The curriculum of Basic Education laid much stress on the subjects like the craft, the mother tongue as the medium of instruction, mathematics, social sences, music and drawing. The medium of education was mother tongue for self-expression clarity of thought and develop nationalism patriotism.
Short-Answer Type Questions
Explain the main features of Basic Education?
The main measures of Basic Education are as follows:
- Education should be free and compulsory upto the age of 14.
- Education should be craft centred with crafts like spinning, weaving, tailoring, woodwork and earthen pot building etc.
- Education should aim at developing moral values and character building.
- Mother tongue should be the medium of instruction.
- Labour centred education and self supporting education should be emphasized.
- It should aimed at ideal citizenship.
- Education should be child centred based on non-violence.
Why is Basic Education called Basic?
Basic Education called so because of the following:
- It attempts to give minimum of learning to be acquired by an average child.
- It is linked with the Basic urges of human life.
- It is corelated with the basic needs of the child like food, clothing, shelter, clean and healthy living etc.
- The cultivation of aesthetic, cultural and social qualities are best fulfilled through the medium.
- It makes use of the native potentialities of the child.
- It is intimately related to the basic occupation of the community.
Mention the five reasons for the failure of Basic Education Scheme.
The causes of Basic Education Scheme are as follows:
- The unclear concept – As it was a mechanical education the people were not clear up the new concept of the scheme of education.
- Emphasis on idealistic approach was not accepted by the British and intellectuals. The educated people do not appreciate their children could do any manual labour. So they sent their children to English Medium Schools.
- The scheme of education put emphasis on economic aspect craft centred education, learning by doing which was strongly opposed.
- The Basic Schools opened in rural areas but not in town areas. The compact area approach helped in the failure.
- There was no text books and craft training was emphasized.
- Lack of qualified trained and skilled teachers the scheme failed to continue.
- The equipments were costly. There was no funds to buy such equipments.
- English was matriculation courses was opposed by the people.
Briefly explain the Satyabadi System of Education.
Gopabandhu developed a new system of education which was named as Satyabadi System of Education or Open Air Schooling. He set up it at Sakhigopal in Puri district in 1909 with 19 students at first enrolment. The school was called Van Vidyalaya, in a dense grove of Chhuriana. It was a residential school grew in ancient Gurukula System. The students shared a common life, simple living and high thinking. It was a class less society education system where different communities and economic sections were admitted. The school hostel was having common dinner system Students fee were not collected. Ideal teachers were working as dedicated teachers. Besides the class room teaching the students were assigned to moral instructions, practices of good health and community senses.
Write down the educational philosophy of Sri Aurovindo.
The educational philosophy of Sri Aurobindo known as Kamayogin. The aim of education is to help the growing soul to drew out that in itself. Every new bom infant has some divine powers and education is the manifestation of such divine powers.
Sri Aurobindo recommended botany, astronomy, geology, technology, zoology and all other branches of humanities as curriculum He was in favour of moral and spiritual education. The method of teaching was the sensory training of sense organs as the gateway of knowledge. In such a learning centre the teacher is just like friend, guide and helper on the teaching learning process. The first duty ofthe teacher is to develop in the child the right use of the. six senses. The teacher is not an instructor taskmaster. He can train the pupil’s mind.
What do you mean by Basic Education? What are the merits?
Basic Education as conceived and explained by Mahatma Gandhi is essential for life and an education through life. It aims at creating a social order free from exploitation and violence. That is why productive, creative, and socially useful work in which all boys and girls may participate, irrespective of any distinction of caste, creed or class is placed at the very centre of basic education. It makes a powerful contribution to the development of personality and character and instils respect and love for all socially useful work.
The merits of basic education may be viewed as follows:
- Basic education was in favour of free and compulsory education.
- The medium of instruction of this scheme is mother tongue.
- It is a child centred programme.
- The children can develop the feeling of national integration.
- The scheme has intimate relationship with practical situation to fulfil the basic needs and self employment.
- The scheme is productivity and labour centred followed the principles of learning by doing.
Explain the Hostel Life in Satyabadi School System.
The life of Satyabadi School hostel begins with a prayer Assembly for making the pupils spiritual. In this school the pupils remain busy from morning till they go to their bed. The timetable is fixed and continues like the study hour dining time and the school provides the games and sports discussion hour and other co-curricular activities. During the leisure period a lesson of Brahmacharya was given to them. The boarders in the hostel learn many things, many human qualities through the programmes like debate, music evening indoor games, paper reading and cultural programmes etc. The hostel life is compared to the ancient Gurukul Ashram life.
Explain the Satyabadi System of Education. What was Gandhiji’s views on work education?
Gopabandhu developed a new system of education which was so named as Grove School. The school was called Vana Vidyalaya which was locate in a dense grove of Chhurianas. Vana Vidyalaya was developed as a residential school in which the students had shared common life. Simple living and high thinking was the ideal which all of them followed. It was a class less society education system. Students of different castes, communities and economic sections were admitted here and all of them lived together in school hostel and look their food with common men. As a secondary school, besides classroom teaching students were assigned to moral instructions, practices for good health.
According to Gandhiji’s work education, implies that work or craft should be the starting point of all other subjects. Stress was given on the principle of cooperative activity, planning, accuracy, initiative and individual responsibility in learning work was the centre of the entire teaching learning process. In other words, works life spinning, weaving and agriculture should be centres round of all educational activities in the school.
Explain Rousseau’s principles of education.
Rousseau followed a new principles in his education which are as follows:
(i) Learning by doing.
(ii) Learning through natural objects.
(iii) Learning by self experiences.
(iv) In learning by doing activity and play way method is adopted. The child should be allowed to play and explore the environment.
(v) The child should be given knowledge through natural objects rather than books.
(vi) He advocated complete freedom, left free to the environment the self-discipline is learnt in the process of experiences.
Explain Rousseau’s Negative Education.
Jean Jacques Rousseau proposed Negative Education. By this education he means not teaching truths or virtues to a child but shielding his heart from evils and mind from errors. The feature of his Negative Education are:
(i) Nothing against the interest of the child to be taught.
(ii) The education of a child should be based on his natural tendencies and nature of endowments.
(iii) Nature is the source of all. The child should be given full freedom and he should learn everything from nature. He should read the pages of nature one by one.
(iv) The child should not taught from books.
(v) Emphasis will be given on training of senses.
The child will derive pleasure by using his sense organs and by applying his strength. So the aim of education is to develop his various powers by helping him in his natural activities.
What is Rousseau’s Self Education? Explain.
Rousseau emphasizes self education. The tenants of self-education are:
- He opposes strongly to the imposition of ideals and morals into the mind of child from outside. Children should learn those things through activities. It is because the children are more interested in activities rather than sitting idle and hearing lecture. At this stage, helps enough power of to assimilate between construction and destruction It is only concern is to boring about charge will from through any acitivity.
- Body can become strong through physical exercises and mind also becomes strong through self study. In self education the child can proceed further according to his own physical and mutual capacities.
- Only that knowledge gets retained for a longer period of time which is leamt from self experiences we should accept the experiences of others only after using our own wisdom.
- Blind fellowship is not accepted at all. A child should not learn a thing because he has been asked to do so but he should not leam only it in the process of his self study.
- Special emphasis is to be given on physical development of the child.
Explain the Curriculum of Rousseau’s Education.
Rousseau was against the fixed curriculum. The child should be educated through activities and first-hand experiences. During infancy positive instructions to be imparted with good health training of senses and cultivation of natural habits.
At the stage of childhood provision of imparting physical education through a set of gymnastics and the exercise training of senses.
At the stage of boyhood the child’s intellect is to be trained through teaching of good physical sciences, languages, mathematics, manual works, social relations, music and drawing.
At the adolescence morality of the individual is to be trained through moral and religious education. Moral education is to be imparted though activity method and occupation. Moral education subjects are: history, religions, physical culture, and sek education etc. are included in the curriculum at Adolescence stage.
Discuss the main features of Groove School?
The main basic principles in which the groove school grew up includes:
Open Air Schooling without school building, and required furniture.
- Free education in which the child should be free to give school fee. Full freedom is to be given.
- Ideal teachers with ideal methods of teaching.
- All round development of personality by providing social virtues of good citizenships.
- Teaching craft skills.
- New method of teaching.
- Community dinner and cultural programme.
- Emphasis on co-curricular activities.
- Importance on mother tongue.
Explain curriculum of Basic Education.
Gandhiji criticised the existing system curriculum of the country, which is outdated, bookish and not related to life of the individual and needs and problems of the country. He recommended a good scheme of curriculum of the curricular programme for the all-round development of individual.
1) Mother tongue will be the medium of instruction.
2) Craft is the centre of education. Importance should be given to agricultures, gardening, carpentry, weaving and spinning.
3) Education as per the need of the child and the society and the country.
4) Mathematics to solve day today problems.
5) Social studies i. .e. History, Geography, Civics, Economics, Political Science and General Science including Astronomic.
6) Co-curricular activities like art, music, drawing for developing creative talent.
7) Domestic Science for girls to lead a good domestic life.
Explain John Dewey’s Curriculum.
Curriculum according to John Dewey should reflect the child’s social life and social activities. It should be flexible, and changeable and it should take into consideration the child’s interests and experiments. As for example, the curriculum in primary stages should be based in conservation and communication, interests in inquiry, interests in making things or construction and interest in artistic expression. Subjects like writing, counting, hand work and drawing etc. are to be included at this stage.
The curriculum at the higher stage of education must have provision for the enrichment of past experiences. It must stimulate the learner to acquire new experiences and new ideas to the learned one’s. John Dewey has put emphasis on correlation in by curriculum which means each subject looked with each other and each should also be related to the day-to-day life of the child.
Explain – Rousseau and aims of Education.
Education should aim at the development of the child’s innate power and abilities. Education should make the child a man, education should enable the child to live his life. Rousseau has suggested that each stage of education has contain specific aims. The infancy period is a period of habit formation the child should be educated in an atmosphere of freedom. The infant is to be trained to have control over emotions. At this stage education should aim at the physical growth of the infant.
Education during boyhood (12 to 15 years of age) should aim at training the intellect of boy. At this stage, stress is to be laid on the acquisition of knowledge that comes from nature and is related to the natural desires of the individual. Education during later adolescence period, should aim at training the heart of the individual At this stage stress should be laid on the development of the morality of the individual