Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 Foundations of Education Solutions Unit 2 Learning and Motivation Short Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 12th Class Foundations of Education Unit 2 Learning and Motivation Short Answer Questions
Very Short Type Questions With Answers
Give two factors that affect learning.
The factors that affect learning are :
a) Physiological factors – physical health, physical comfort, physical maturation.
b) Psychological factors – mental health, motivation and interest etc.
What is intrinsic motivation?
The type of motivation that is directly linked with the natural instincts urges and impulses of the organism is intrinsic motivation. The individual who is naturally motivated performs an act. Examples are – food, test, sleep etc.
What is extrinsic motivation?
In extrinsic motivation, the source of motivation is outside like external reward, praise, prizes or blame and punishment. When the child is externally motivated to perform a work by incentives.
Give the classification of motivation.
Motivations are classified into – physiological and psychological motivation. Physiological motivations are primary motivation and psychological motivations are the strong habits, emotions, values of objects, peace, happiness, recognition and power etc. Physiological motivations are primary motivation such as hunger, thirst, rest and sex. But psychological motivations are secondary motivations such as prizes, rewards, certificates, praises etc.
What is the environmental factors that affect learning?
The environmental factors like atmosphere, such as light, temperature, humidity and ventilation, noise, overcrowding, uncomfortable sitting arrangement etc.
What are the two factors that affect learning?
Physical and psychological factors always affect learning.
The physiological factors include physical health, nutrition, age, physical comfort, defects in senses, organs, and mal-functioning of glands that directly influence learning. Psychological factors like mental health, motivation interest, attention etc. influence learning.
Give the two classroom application of the law of exercise.
- Oral exercise leads to learning.
- Handwriting, pronunciation, and mathematical computation can be improved through the law of exercise.
- Skills like music, typing etc. can be improved through the law of practice.
Give two educational implications of the law of conditioning.
- By the application of classical conditioning we can develop good habits like punctuality and cleanliness.
- We can train animals by the principle of classical conditioning.
- A child can develop a higher attitude towards a teacher or a thing.
- Emotional fear can be reduced.
What is methodology of instruction that affects learning?
Learning can be facilitated by proper organisation and presentation of learning material learning by doing or experience and timely testing etc. affect learning.
What is law of effect?
The law of effect is the sub-law of the Trial and Error theory of learning. It means the effective result of an activity. The activity ends in pleasure and leads to success and is repeated. The law emphasizes the reward praises, prizes and punishments in the process of learning. Secondly, punishment may promote learning or creates an indifference attitude toward learning.
Give the nature of learning.
The nature of learning includes:
- Learning affects the style of learning.
- It modifies one’s behaviour, helps in reaching the goal.
- It creates, and arouses, interest to know new things.
- Learning experiences bring a difference in activities, because of learning to animals like tiger and monkey show tricks.
- Learning creates individual differences.
Learning is the acquisition of knowledge, to Gates Teaming is the modification of behaviour with experience and training. A man or animal has some experiences because the environment puts some sensory information into one of its senses. The result guides him in his behaviour. It modifies this behaviour in light of his past experiences and responds correctly of the environment. So learning modifies one’s behaviour.
Short Type Questions With Answers
Write the educational implication of the law of Readiness.
The educational implication of the law of readiness are as follows :
i) Teaching methods are to be improved to meet the requirement of the pupils to the varying degree of readiness.
ii) The law enables the teacher to build up readiness to these pupils who are not disciplined in classroom learning situations.
Write the educational implication of the law of effect.
The law of effect has the following educational implications:
- Classroom instructions should be pleasant and satisfactory which will enable the children to read more.
- The classroom activities are to be arranged properly so that the pupils may develop confidence in learning.
- Classroom learning provides novelty.
- The school activities should be arranged orderly so that the children will progress in life.
- Pleasure and encouragement to be provided so that they would develop a positive attitude towards learning.
What is conditioning learning ? Give its educational implications.
Evan Pavlov was the exponent of classical conditioning. For natural stimulus, there is a natural response. For example, food is a natural stimulus and fear is the natural response. But it has been found that, if another artificial stimulus is presented along with the natural stimulus a number of times artificial stimulus can elicit the natural response. So natural response is transferred to the artificial stimulus. When this is done the organism is said to be conditioned. So conditioning is the linking between the original response with a secondary stimulus.
Educational implications: Development of good habits removal of superstitions, love and hatred and attitude formation etc. Emotional fears of mental patients can be treated by the help of conditioning.
Write down the educational implication of the learning by insight.
The educational implication of learning by insight is as follows:
- Proceeding from whole to part – We must always proceed from the whole to part, so as to give a complete insight into an object. While teaching geography, begin from the globe and then come to the country, state and then district.In science teaching, the teaching flower, the teacher should start with the whole flower, then the parts of the flower.
- Creating motivation – In Kohler’s experiment, enough motivation was created by keeping the chimpanzee hungry. So the teacher should arouse motivation among the pupils by using aids while teaching.
- Emphasis on understanding – Learning by insight involves understanding a situation and saves time and energy.
Mention the factors that influence learning.
There are a number of factors that influence learning as follows:
i) Physiological factors – Physical health, nutrition, age, physical comforts, defects in sense organs like eye and ear, and malfunctioning of glands, directly influence the learning of individuals.
ii) Psychological factors – Mental health, motivation, interest, attention, motives and drives etc. influence learning in varying degrees.
iii) Environmental factors include a conducive atmosphere, high temperature, over-crowding, location of the school, crowdy area, sanitary conditions etc. affect learning.
iv) Methods of instruction – Learning can be facilitated by proper organisation and presentation of learning materials, learning by doing etc.
Give the educational implication of classical conditioning.
The educational effects of classical conditioning are:
- Removal of superstitions.
- Development of good habits.
- Love and hatred.
- Attitude formation.
- Language learning.
- Rewards and punishments.
- Praises and blames.
What is learning by insight?
The theory of insight was developed by Gestalt. Psychologist Kohler, KofFaka, Weirthomer and Lewin. This theory is in opposition to the Trial and Error and conditioning theory of learning. Gestalt psychologists believed that Gestalt or the whole is more important than the parts. Learning takes place as a whole, not by parts. This is perceptual learning because the teacher perceives the situation as a whole.
German psychologist Kohler conducted a number of experiments on monkeys and came to the conclusion that learning takes place through insight but no by Trial and Error. Insight is a sudden perception which gives learning.
Explain the nature of learning.
The nature of learning includes:
- Learning is a continuous process.
- Learning affects the modes of behaviour,
- Learning is a change in behaviour.
- Learning is a process, not a product.
- Learning is purposive.
- Learning is transferable.
- Learning creative.
- Learning is an adjustment to changing situations.
- Learning is training.
Mention factors that influence learning.
The factors that affect and influence learning are as follows:
1) Physiological factors – Physical health, nutrition, age, physical comforts, defects in sense organs, like eyes and ears, malfunctioning of glands that directly influence the learning of the individuals.
2) Psychological factors – Mental health, nutrition, motivation, interest, attention, motives and drives, etc. influence learning in varying degrees.
3) Methods of instruction – Learning can be facilitated by proper organisation and presentation of learning materials, learning by doing, etc.
4) Environmental factors – Learning is also affected by environmental factors like hot, humidity, and unsanitary conditions. Industrially polluted areas and crowdy places. Lack of fresh air, ventilation, good light, and noise learning is greatly affected.