Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 Foundations of Education Solutions Unit 2 Learning and Motivation Long Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 12th Class Foundations of Education Unit 2 Learning and Motivation Long Answer Questions
Long Type Questions With Answers
What is learning? What is learning process? Give the definition of learning and its nature.
Learning is not confined to the four walls of classroom. Learning as life long process continues till death. In broader sense learning is the modification of behaviour and as a result of experience learning is the process by which the individual responses to his environment. Learning is also adjustment.
According to Gates: ‘Learning is the modification of behaviour with experience and training’.
To Skinner: ‘Learning is the modification of behaviour adaptation’.
In the sense, learning is the modification of behaviour which involves some changes of behaviour in a desirable direction and the behaviour enables to adjust to the environment. So the process of change that takes place during learning is called learning process.Any situation that brings about desirable change in behaviour is called learning materials.
Definition of Learning
To Kingsley: “Learning is a process which an organism is motivated and adapts to the new situation to modify the behaviour to over come all the obstacles”.
To Gates: “Learning is the modification of behaviour of the individual interaction with its environment”.
To Murphy: “Learning is the change in behaviour and the way of perceiving”.
To Cronback: “Learning is the change in behaviour as a result of experience”.
Nature of Learning
Man tames and trains the animals. In a circus party wild animals like tiger, elephant, bear etc. act according to the direction of ring master and show tricks. Pigeon is trained to carry letter from place to place.
The trained dog can identify a thief and the Chimpanzee can be trained from boyhood and can live with human beings, clean the dress, polish and clean the furniture, clean the room and sharpen the pencil. By training the animals enable to dance and play with the man.Learning also affects one’s life style. It modifies one behaviour, helps in reaching a goal, creates interest to know new things, learning experiences us and brings differences in activities. From this discussion the nature of learning are as follows:
- Learning is a continuous process.
- Learning affects the modes of behaviour.
- Learning is a change in behaviour.
- Learning is active.
- Learning is creative.
- Learning is purposive or purposeful.
- Learning is transferable.
- Learning is training.
- Learning is adjustment to changing situations.
Give the classification of learning. What are the main factors that influence learning? Explain.
Learning broadly classified into two categories such as :
i) Logical learning.
ii) Rote learning.
i) Logical Learning: Logical learning involves clear understanding. The individual is able to apply such learning in different situation meaningfully and correctly. Logical lean hug is more significant that rote learning. It is Hilly psychological because the learner enjoys this and gets satisfaction. There is discussion in the classroom and the use of aids. The subject matter is very clearly understandable and meaningful to the people.
ii) Rote Learning: Rote learning or cramming involves mechanical memorisation of the subject matter. The learner simply memorises or gets by heart the subject matter witho ut any understanding. The learning material is not clear to the pupils.One of the characteristics of Rote Learning of variation (to memorise word byword) of the material.
- There is no discussion and use of aids in the classroom in such learning.
- During examination, the learner particularly adopts rote learning.
- Again learning can be classified into passive and active learning.
Passive learning: Passive learning is theoretical in nature. The learner simply receives the theoretical instructions given in the classroom He has nothing to participate in the learning process. So there is an element of boredom, fatigue and monotony in such learning. In such a learning process, both teacher and taught seem to be inactive. There is no use of aids, learning materials, no discussions are there. Today in many schools students go on such passive learning.
Active Learning: By active lemming, we mean learning by experience or learning by doing. There is full participation of pupils in such learning. Each pupil feels that he has some contribution to the lesson. When the child learns through discussions, demonstrations, experimentation and practical works assigned to him, develops his understanding. Learning becomes satisfying with the direct participation of the teacher and taught through discussions, the child-centred instructions promote logical learning among the learners.
Factors influence learning
The factors that influence learning of the learners are as follows:
i) Physiological factors: Physiological factors such as physical health, nutrition, age, physical comfort, defects in sense organs, prolonged illness, suffering from secret disease, defects in sense organs like eyes, and ears, and malfunctioning of glands directly affects the behaviour of the learners. If a person meets any accident he becomes work in both physically and mentally. James Ross, “A sound body creates sound mind and a sound mind”. So physically work person cannot progress in learning. Learning hampers.
ii) Psychological factors: The psychological factors include mental health, tension, conflicts, complexes, motivation, interest, attention, motives and drives etc. affect learning in varying degrees. Psychological factors are ‘mental factors and there is no learning in case the child is mentally handicapped. The person having mental disorder, half crack, mad etc.
iii) Environmental factors: The environmental factors that affect the learning are like atmosphere, atmospheric conditions like high temperature, lack of illumination, over-crowding, uncomfortable sitting arrangement etc. Further the location of school, its surroundings, affects of industries and pollution, crowdy area, unhealthy sanitary condition, impure air, lacking suitable accommodation are badly affect the learning. So learning is very much affected by environmental factors.
iv) Methodology of Instructions: Learning can be facilitated by proper organisation of and pressurisation of learning materials. Learning by doing or experiences and timely testing. Theoretical teachings should be replaced by demonstrations and discussions. The teacher should employ dynamic methods of teaching and use different audio-visual aids and learning materials in time by which learning is greatly affected and influenced.If such factors and undertaken and executed properly, the learning will be much effective and fruitful.
Explain how learning and maturation are interrelated.
There is an interrelationship as well as difference in learning and maturation. Learning and maturation both are interrelated, two parts of a coin.Maturation is physical sense where as learning is in mental sense. Maturation is a stage where there is no further physical growth. But learning is a deliberate process which helps in the modification of human behaviour in different stages of growth. The active and activities are changed in time and situation.
Maturation and learning are closely related. Sometimes we fail to guess from which behaviour changes develop. For learning definite level of maturation is essential
Maturation is a mental process. It is growth which takes place within the individual. Learning on the other hand, is a change in living individuals which is not governed by this genetic inheritance. It is a process which takes place as a result of stimuli from without the changes in the behaviour, in the process of teaming are always produced through some activity, training or experience.
By maturation, we mean the physiological growth and development up to a particular level at Which the child will be able to team specifically. Learning without attaining adequate level of maturation, does not yield any good results. Maturation thus implies concept of readiness for an activity. Personality is the interaction between maturation and teaming. Maturation is growth from within but learning is an outward growth. The effect of training or teaming varies with maturation Training will be effective when it will coordinate with the level of maturation As an individual attains maturity his capacity to team enhances.
In case of behaviour sequence through a regular stage irrespective of intervening practice or training the behaviour is said to be developed through maturation and not through teaming. The learning procedure modifies the behaviour.Unless a child is mature, not attained physical maturity, he does not team to walk, to , talk, until he reaches a stage of maturation. For example, a four years child cannot ride a bicycle or handle a sewing machine. This is due to maturation.
Hence, the two processes, maturation and learning are very closely related like the two parts ofa coin. There is need of both physical and mental maturation for perfect learning. Maturation helps in the process of teaming and training. We can train a child, unless he got physical and mental maturation. So when a child reaches the stage of maturation, teaming takes place.
What is Trial and Error theory of leaming. Give its laws. What are the educational implications?
The ‘Trial and Error ’ theory of learning is also known as “Theory of Connectionism” the connection between stimulus and response. Such theory was developed by American Psychologist E.L.Thorndike. This theory is called Trial and Error because all teaming is the connection between stimulus and response. It helps in reaching goal. By regular trials, endeavours, exercise one can reach a goal.
E.L.Thomdike to prove this theory, put a hungry cat inside a cage or puzzle box. The puzzle box is made in such a way that its door can be opened either lifting a hatch or by pulling a level. A piece of fish is kept outside the box so that hungry cat is sufficiently motivated to go into action. The cat starts blind, random movements, hit and miss methods of movement to go outside. Then out of sheer chance, it touches the lever mechanism and opens the door.
When the hungry cat goes out, it is allowed to take a little portion of fish and then it is put book in the box. After, a white, it again goes out of the box by touching the lever mechanism and again opens the door. When it goes out the Psychologist allowed it to take only a little portion of fish Mid then it is put back in the box. If the process continues and the number of trial increases the cat has less and less unnecessary random activity. A point corns when after being put inside the cage, the cat goes out of the cage straight and release the mechanism and handles it to go out. After a number of trials, the cat learns to use the release mechanism. Trial and error learning takes place.
The psychologist advocated the trial-and-error learning theory and successfully proved it.
Laws of Learning
From the above experiment, Thorndike deduced three theories of learning such as:
- The law of readiness.
- The law of exercise.
- The law of effect.
i) The law of readiness: Readiness means the preparation for action. If the child is ready to learn, he has reached a definite age and experience, he learns more quickly and effecitvely. So the teacher should make attempt to motivate the students accordingly. For readiness, there is need of physical and mental maturation. If readiness is not there, there is no learning.
ii) The law of Exercise: The law of exercise is of two types as the law of use and the law of disuse. Any activity when it is repeated gets fix up practice makes perfect. By regular exercise, learning takes place. The teacher should make practice and drill of a difficult lesson.
iii) The Law of Effect: The law of effect means effective result of an activity. The activity which ends in pleasure and leads to success are repeated and this learnt but the activity which is unpleasant is left. This law emphasizes on the reward and punishment in the process of learning.
Thorndike’s theory of trial and Error has contributed greatly of educational theory and practice. The most educational implications are as follows :
- The teacher should motivate learners from the very beginning. Punishment should be avoided in learning. It brings indifferent attitude.
- Such theory of learning is very beneficial for the acquisition of motor skills.
- The teacher must consider the psycho-biological readiness to lead to learning failures.
- Learning situations should be made pleasant through praises, rewards, competitions, teaching aids and through teaching in a new technique like in dramas, word competitions teaching aids and through dictation of words.
- In the achievement of a number of subjects repetitions, exercise and drilling is needed. Attempts should not be random but with proper planning and understanding.
- The teacher must wait till the learner is ready and give such experiences to help for readiness.
Explain learning by classical conditioning and its educational implications.
The classical conditioning theory was advocated by Russian physiologist Evan Patrovich Pavlov. It is supported by J.B. Watson. In the experimental works on dogs Pavlov discovered his theory of conditioning. To him learning is a linking of a response to a situation. To him fear is a natural response to a loud sound and salivation is a natural response to food.For a natural stimulus, there is a natural response. For example, food is a natural stimulus, and salivation is a natural response and loud sound is a natural stimulus and fear is a natural response.
If another artificial stimulus is presented along with the natural stimulus a number of times, the artificial stimulus can elicit the natural response. So here, artificial stimulus has acquired the quality of natural stimulus and has acquired the quality of natural responses. So, ‘when artificial stimulus acting upon the natural stimulus elicit natural response is known as conditioning”.
Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Experiment
Dog’s Experiment – Evan Pavlov carried out an experiment on dog. He used toring a bell while giving food to the dog. This activity continued for a few days. When the food was placed before the dog, it was accustomed with it. The ringing ofbell would secrete saliva with the mouth of the dog. After a few days, it was seen that when only the bell was rang, but the food was not placed, but saliva start secreting. Pavlov named it as ‘Theory of Conditioned Reflex”. Here, the ringing ofthe bell secreted saliva from the dog in the absence of food.
Although the natural stimulus food was absent, the artificial stimulus bell was alone responsible for the natural response; the secretion of saliva from dog’s mouth.
Learning is a matter of conditioning. The principle of classical conditioning can be used in the following areas of learning, known as implications.
i) Development of Good habits – Through conditioning, good habits can be developed in children like cleanliness, health habits respect for elders and punctuality.
ii) Removal of Superstitions – A child may develop superstitions. But it can be removed by conditioning. For example – the child develop a superstition that number ‘ 13 ’ is an inauspicious number to remove such superstition, he should be always assigned with no. 13.
iii) Attitude Formation – Children often form attitudes through conditioning. They
may develop positive or negative attitude. So the teacher should create situation, for positive attitude towards learning and the school.
Likewise, if a child dislikes the teacher, he can not appreciate his teaching, whatever fruitful teaching he provides.
iv) Love and Hatred – The child may develop love or hatred by for an object. If the object is associated continuity with object of love or hatred, a child may have a particular subject not because the subject is bad, but because he hates the subject.
v) Language Learning – The child learns alphabet and words by the process of conditioning. The child speaks out, ‘Parrot’ when the picture ofParrot is presented and the word is spelt by the teacher. Later on, if the picture is not presented, only the symbol is presented and child is associated with the symbol with the bird and with the sound of the bird.
vi) Rewards and Punishment – Reward and punishments is closely associated with conditioning. Rewards strengthen the bond and punishment weakens the bond. Hence, rewards and punishment both have positive and negative value.
What is theory of ‘learning by insight’. Explain with examples and discuss the educational implications.
The theory of insight was developed by Gestalt, Psychologists Kohler, Koffaka, Weirthemer and Lenin.Kohler strongly propounded the theory ‘Insightful theory’. This theory as an opposition to the trial and error and conditioning theory of learning.
The Gestalt psychologist believed that gestalt or ‘whole’ is more important than the parts. Learning takes place as a whole but hot by parts. This is perceptual learning because the teacher perceives the situation as a whole.German psychologist Kohler conducted a number of experiments on monkeys and . came to conclusion that ‘learning takes place’ through ‘insight’ but not by trial and error. Insight is a sudden perception which gives learning.
Kohler’s Monkey’s Experiment
Kohler kept a monkey, Sultan by name and then shut him in a large cage or a chamber. A bunch ofbanana was kept hanged from the ceiling ofthe large cage roof. Three boxes were put on the floor of the cage. Sultan jumped to catch the banana but failed. Kohler observed that after a while Sultan put one box on the other and snatched the bananas. Here, Sultan used his insight to put two boxes one upon another, stand on these and reach the bananas.
Experiment – II
In another experiment, Kohler put three sticks long and short. The sticks were made in such a way that they can be fixed each other to make a long stick. A bunch of bananas were kept outside the cage. The monkey / Chimpanjee was kept inside the cage. The moment the monkey saw the ripe bananas, it made random movement inside the cage. But it was in vain.
It remained silent a while. All on a sudden he could catch the idea. He fitted the sticks together and got the bananas. Thus, here Sultan displayed insight by observing the total situation, the sticks, the bananas, and the distance. It performed the right task through understanding and insight. Here, whole situation arouses insight with the monkey. The German and Gestalt means whole or configuration. So whole learning is better than part learning.
Some of the major educational implications of learning by insight are as follows:
- Proceeding from whole to part – The teacher must always proceed from the
whole to part. The total concept should be given first, then it should be broken into number of sub-concepts begin from the globe (world) then come to the country, state, city and locality. The teacher should teach about the whole flower and then analyse the part.
- Motivation – The teacher should arouse motivation in the pupils. The purpose for the goals should be clearly understood by the learner so that they will be motivated for further learning.
- Organisation of Materials – Insight depends upon the arrangement of elements in the environment. If the subjects are well arranged by a teacher then the students can solve the problems easily. The integrated curriculum of the modem times recognizes the importance of insight.
- Methodology- John Dewey’s project method of teaching is considered as the best method of teaching for insight. The Heuristic method of teaching recognizes the importance of insight.
Discuss the principles of learning.
The learning process is guided by certain fundamental principles or guidelines.
They are as follows:
- Learning as an active process – Learning is an active process in which both the teacher and taught are active. With the active interaction of teacher and taught, learning takes place. The principle states that passive receptivity of information by the students does not contribute to effective learning. The learner participates actively in the classroom situations through discussion learning becomes meaningful
- Learning should be individualised – Learners differ from each other with their abilities and interest. To expect the same type of learning, we can help the children to acquire competency when we can teach them individually. Different methods are there for individualised learning such as project method, programmed learning, and mastery learning etc.
- Learning should be satisfying – Learning should be satisfying to the learners. Satisfaction comes when the learner becomes able to understand the subject matter. Satisfaction motivates the learner to learn more and more.
- Learning should be purposeful – Everything has a purpose. The learner must understand what he is doing and why he is doing. Each topic should have some set objectives. The purpose of learning is not to pass in the examination but adjustment to different situations. –
- Learning should be interesting – Interest is an emotional factor. There are some teachers who make dull thing interesting. Similarly, some other teacher make interesting things dull. For this a teacher should be a resourceful teacher who can create and evoke interest among the pupil’s satisfaction and fulfil of aspirations can create new interest to anything.
- Learning should be unified-All learning are helpful to our life. Learning always purposive. So nothing can be learned isolated. So the subjects like history, geography, language of literature should be learned as separate subjects. All subjects are interrelated and so an integrated study of pupils.
What is motivation in learning? Give its classification. Explain the different methods/ techniques of motivation.
Motivation is simply the process of inducing motives, drives and wills in the learner towards the goal It is that force which impels or incites individual’s action, his direction of action and rate of action.
Adequate motivation is the art of stimulating interest in the pupils. It also involves arousing, sustaining and directing desirable behaviour.
Clansmir defines motivation as an activity by our person to stimulate or arouse a state within a second person that under appropriate situations, initiates activity in relation to goals.
Motivation is a force, an external stimulus which directs activity towards a goal. This motivation plays an important role in realising goals. In all types of learning, there must be a goal and it is sure that all types of learning there lie motivation. So, the teacher should adopt a number of methods, techniques of motivation to motivate his pupils in different learning situations.
Motivation always involves manipulating and goal directing, goal creating of the proper atmosphere arousing of emotional interest and inducing a pleasant state of satisfaction.
Classification of motivation
- Intrinsic motivation – This type of motivation is directly linked with the natural
instincts, urges impulses of the organism. The individual is naturally motivated, performs an act. Examples are food, rest, sleep and sex desires etc.
- Extrinsic motivation – In extrinsic motivation the source of pleasure and the
Individuals obtain the desired goal are gets some external reward, and working for a better grade, receive praise and blame, reward and punishment etc.
Methods of instruction of motivation
The teacher can adopt the following methods of motivation with classroom and outside of the classroom. They are as follows:
- Dramatisation – While teaching history, a teacher should teach in the form of drama where the students will play the roles of the characters the topic.
- Games and competitions – This emphasizes the play way method of competitions along the children. Individual and group competitions should be encouraged in the classroom. They will be encouraged towards learning.
- Organisation of visits, excursions, and short trips to places of importance to provide the students with first-hand experiences and arouse interest with them towards learning.
- There should be a provision of inviting resource persons from the locality and distant places to address to students and students may have interviews with them to gain experiences.
- Always rewards and praise promote learning. The teacher must use such things for the achievement of students. Regular punishment should be avoided. Rewards and praises will arouse interest to more learning.
- Producing publications, wall magazines and school magazines, narrating all their activities will give maximum opportunity to children for self-expression and satisfaction.
- Competitions and team works should be encouraged and organised. It will develop team spirit among the learners. They will be involved in social work and human qualities be encouraged. The attitude of students will be changed.
- Audio-visual Aids – The teacher should use audio-visual aids to demonstrate and illustrate the content materials, pictures will attract the attention of the pupils. They will understand more.
- Novelty – The teacher must display novelty in his methods of teaching. He should adopt dynamic methods for different categories of learners.
- Feedback knowledge progress in relation to his learning should be provided to the pupils. Feedback will act as an incentive for further learning.
Discuss observation method in learning. Explain its characteristics.
The term ‘observation’ means ‘to see’ or ‘to observe. It is not called scientific observation.To P.V.Young, observation is a systematic and deliberate study through the eyes of spontaneous occurrences, at the time they occur.” To C.AMoser.”.Observation implies the ues of eyes rather than that of ears and voice.” To Oxford Concise Dictionary, “Accurate watching and noting of Phenomena as they occur in nature with regard to course and effect or mutual relations”.
So, observation mean to see directly or indirectly.
Characteristics of Observation:
- Full use Of Human senses – In observation method the sense organs of man like eyes, ears and tongue are fully utilised. The importance of eyesight is more than other organs.
- Observation is purposive and deliberate technique – Observation is separate from other general insight. Everything is observed by eyesight. It is not observation. Observation is purposive and deliberate process.
- Observation is the direct method of educational psychology – By observation direct study is done. The researchers go to the place and directly observe the things and collects the data. So observation is a direct method of educational psychology.
- Observation is a scientific technique – By observation, the datas collected are gathered together and it is reliable. Because the investigator directly collects the data. By the application of scientific techniques, the observer collects the data.
- Observation minutely studies the educational phenomena – The observer observes the occurrences minutely and studies the educational phenomena. He bring a relationship among the occurrences. This method is suitable for the observation of educational phenomena directly.
- Observation explains cause and effect relationship – By this method the cause and effect relationship of occurrences is known clearly. It explains the cause-and-effect relationship, after observation and collection of data.
Give the classification of observation.
Observation is classified into different categories such as:
1. Participant non-participant observation.
2. Controlled or structured uncontrolled or unstructured observation.
1. Participant observation – When the observer in a group involved and collects data is known as participant observation. As a working observer, his presence is essential. So those are collecting information as participant observers, they have to apply different techniques.
Advantages of Participant Observation:
- The observer studies the occurrence in a natural environment. He records the group behaviour. He acts as a member of the group in participant observation,
- In such an observation so many data are collected. For example in studying the – socialization of a child, he studies from the early childhood. For this reason he collects more information.
- By observation the observer gather more knowledge than needs. As a result, the insight is developed.
- All social incidents are not directly observed. For example sex behaviour, dissolution of family and all other secret activities. But by participant observation those things are possible.
Disadvantages of Participant Observation:
- The study is limited.
- It creates emotional situation with group relation the observer become nearest to them So more data is not collected and become partial.
- It is lacks aims and objectives.
- It is impossible to collect data for prisoners.
- It is an expensive method.
2. Non-Participant Observation – When the observer is not involved in the group and observes from a distance it is known as Non-participant observation. The investigator self observes and it depends upon experience of the observer. As a strange, he has to observe the occurrences and studies lonely as a stranger to the group.
Advantages of Non-participant Observation :
- Objective study is possible – In such an observation, the investigator studies the occurrences as a stranger. As a result the group behaviour never affects his behaviour. So the information collected becomes objective and more valuable.
- Collection of more reliable data – The method is very useful in collecting reliable information. Because the moment the data is collected noted it immediately. „
- More cooperation – The observer gets cooperation and affection in the observation method. The faith of the members are developed.
- Less expensive method – It is a less expensive method. So in low budget research is done.
- More Collection of Data – In such a method more data is collected. Small data are gathered together and result is achieved.
- Able to maintain his status as a researcher-In this method the researcher is able to maintain his status. As a researcher he keeps his preparation continuing.
Disadvantages of Non-participant observation:
- The researcher sees the observation from his own insight. As a result it losses objectivity.
- In non-participant observation he can not observe the group members. But he has to keep relations with others and biased by them.
- In getting secret and useful information is not compared.
- Such type of observation seems to be incomplete.
- Many incidents are incidental.
3. Uncontrolled or unstructured observation: Uncontrolled or unstructured observation worked out in natural environment but not by external factors. In uncontrolled observation, the observer goes to the spot and investigates the incidents and collects the data. This type of observation method is reliable. It has no any control and so partiality is seen. Different observers observe it differently in different ways.
4. Controlled or structured observation – To control the specific incidents and oppose the external affects, controlled observation is barely needed. It acts in two controls such as:
i) Control upon incidents.
ii) Control upon the observers.
To examine the social incidents such type of observation is worked out. Secondly, to control all the incidents a single observer is not sufficient. Until and unless a incidents are not properly observed, the observer controls the sense organs. The controlled observation controls the incidents observed by the observer in the following ways. They are:
- Total observation planning.
- Use of mechanical instruments.
- Use of projects.
- Commonly observation.
- Use of controlled groups.
5. Quasi-participant observation-Jn any study there is no possibility of full participation or non-participation of the observer. It is a very hard task. So for this it is called partly participation and partly non-participation observation. So it is called Quasi-participant observation.
Role of Importance of Observation
- It is the simplest method – Observation is very simple method. The scientific observation is very easy which attracts the persons towards observation. A slight training is need before observation
- It is useful in framing Hypothesis-This method is very useful in the framing of a hypothesis. It is also primary media for observation. Social observers study the activity of people in surroundings. This observation is continuous in nature.
- Greater Accuracy – The observation method is specified to other methods, different from the interview. It is an indirect method. But in observation, the investigator observes in his own eyes and the data collected as reliable and accurate.
- More convincing result-By observation the data collected is more perfect and reliable. The datas are sent by others. In observation, the observer observes the incidents. There is no suspect but the observer tries for its generalisation.
What is Constructive Approach to learning? Explain types, role of teacher and educational implications.
In the Constructivist Approach, importance is given on learning centred education. The chief assumption of the constructivist approach is given by Jean Piaget and Liv Vygotsky. They have given five concept about learning process.
- The learner becomes active and learns:
- Most of the human activity is organised by the process:
- The organisation of personal activity is self-referent.
- Learning only possible by interaction.
- Meaningful learning is possible only by perfect learning situation and learning activity.
Different types of Constructivism:
Constructivism is classified into Radical Constructivism, Social Constructivism, Cultural Constructivism etc. But from education point of view Radical Constructivism and Social Constructivism is very important.
1. Radical Constructivism – Van Glaserfeld is the exponent of Radical Constructivism. Van Glaserfeld took the help of Jean Piaget’s Mental Development in the approach.
The main tenets of radical constructivism are:
- Learner actively participate in the construction of knowledge.
- ‘Coming to know’ is the adjustment process in which the learner modifies his behaviour by interacting of external experience with inter experience.
Jean Piaget’s adjustment process has two directions – Assimilation and accommodation. When old experience is assimilated with newer experience knowledge is constructed, which means learning is managed fully a person and learning depend of the learner.
2. Social Constructivism – Social constructivism is propagated by Russain Psychologist Vygotsky. To this theory social constructivism has three tenents. They are:
To Vygotsky, the mental growth depends on the social situations. Constructivism mostly depends on social activity and learning. In this theory the learner learns through social adjustment. The learner acquires experience with the help of peer groups, and others. It develops to the zone of proximal development – ZPD. By working with other the learning power of the learner is developed.
Role of Teacher in Constructivism:
1. In constructivism theory the teacher is the helper of knowledge organisation.
2. The teacher will help the learners in teaching-learning process.
3. In different activities both teacher and taught will work together.
4. In such a organisation situation is created to learn learner from teacher and teacher from learner.
5. Both teacher and taught through discussion create learning environment.
Educational implication of constructivism:
- In the classroom learning environment is to be created.
- To solve the problems in the real world realistic method is to be given importance.
- In the learning process the teacher is a coach and he works an analyst to solve the problem.
- The aims and objectives is decided to keep in mind the learner. Nothing to be imposed on the learners.
- Learning process should be frilly controlled by the learners.
- For the mental development and understanding of the learner’s errors are to be used.
- The learners should be provided with participating learning situations.
- The learner are to be encouraged to prepare questionaries and preparation in educational planning.
- The learning environment should not be confined or limited with the four walls of classroom, school and periods but extend to the external world.
Discuss the conditions promoting motivation.
There are certain conditions that promote motivation in learning are as follows:
- Creating interest – Creating interest in learning promotes motivation The interest may be natural or acquired. Intrinsic motivations are natural (but acquired interests are external). Interest in music, and literature is a permanent interest in the pupils, he should create jokes, employ play way method using aids.
- Arousing curiosity – Curiosity is a great motivating force. Curiosity about something will naturally lead to its exploration. The motivation for specific exploration is curiosity. A sound environment is necessary to evoke curiosity for creativity. Ideal teaching methods, teachers behaviour, skill in teaching, and suitable curriculum development helps in learning.
- Developing achievement motivation – Higher the achievement motivation, the greater the learning. This implies setting of high goals before the pupils. If the goal is highly challenging the effort will be challenging. So the teacher should keep high aims before the students. Achievement is one of the aspects affects the other. The prizes, medals, and certificates in the last examination influences the most to read more and more.
- Providing incentives – Extrinsic motivation can be provided by providing incentives in the form of rewards, prizes, awards, and appreciation of thing or activity. So the teacher uses or applies such incentives which influence for more activity.
- Producing and spirit of competition – The spirit of competition is a great motivating force, stimulus which implies the desire to excel other. Competition has been widely used by the teacher as a means of motivation towards scholastic achievement. The teacher urges individual and group competitions in the class.
- Use of Audio-visual Aids – The class teachers uses audio-visual aids like T. V. films, record player, maps, graphs, charts, and pictures in the class to motivate the pupils towards learning.
- Use of Praise and Blame – The teacher can use the incentives like praise and blame at proper time and in proper manner to motivate the pupils to learn more praise and blame both acts in positive and negative direction. If it is used by the teacher in right time it will affect the mental factor of the child, and the child will be influenced towards learning. Rewards, prizes, praises and punishment also act as incentives. The teacher should handle it with care.