Odisha State Board BSE Odisha Class 9 English Grammar Book Solutions Chapter 6 Pre and Post Modifiers in the Noun Phrase Textbook Exercise Activity Questions and Answers.
BSE Odisha Class 9 English Grammar Solutions Chapter 6 Pre and Post Modifiers in the Noun Phrase
ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ବାକ୍ୟାଶରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ Pre- modifiers ଓ Post- modifiers
Look at the following sentences (ନିମ୍ନଲିଖତ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ଲକ୍ଷ୍ୟକର) :
(i) Flowers are beautiful.
(ii) The red flowers are beautiful.
(iii) The red flowers in the pot (ଫୁଲଦାନୀ) are beautiful.
In these sentences the Bold parts are noun phrases. (ବାକ୍ୟମାନଙ୍କରେ Bold ଶବ୍ଦଗୁଡ଼ିକ noun phrases ବା ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ବାକ୍ୟାଶ ଅଟନ୍ତି ।)
As we know, a noun phrase can be a single word and a group of words with noun or pronoun as the head. (ଆମେ ପୂର୍ବରୁ ଯାହା ଜାଣିଛୁ ଗୋଟିଏ noun phrase ଗୋଟିଏ ଶବ୍ଦ ବା ଏକାଧିକ ଶବ୍ଦକୁ ନେଇ ଗଠିତ ଯାହାର ମୁଖ୍ୟ ଶବ୍ଦ ହେଉଛି ଗୋଟିଏ ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ବା ସର୍ବନାମ ।)
The pronouns as headwords or head nouns can be of two kinds. (Head word ବାHead noun ରୂପେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ Pronoun ଦୁଇପ୍ରକାରର ।)
In the first sentence ‘flowers’ is the noun phrase or head word or head noun.
In the second sentence before the head word/noun, ‘the red’ is used as pre-modifier modifying ‘flowers’. ( ୨ୟ ବାକ୍ୟରେ the redକୁ head noun flowers ର modifier ରୂପେ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଇଛି ଓ flowers ର ପୂର୍ବରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୋଇଥିବାରୁ ଏହାକୁ Pre-modifier କୁହାଯାଏ।) In the third sentence ‘the red’ is the pre-modifier and ‘in the pot’ is the post-modifier as it modifies the head noun ‘flowers’ and is used after (post) ‘flowers’. (ତୃତୀୟ ବାକ୍ୟରେ in the pot (ଫୁଲଦାନୀରେ) ହେଉଛି post-modifier, କାରଣ ଏହା head noun ‘flowers’ କୁ modify କରି ଏହାର ପରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୋଇଛି।)
(i) The little birds in the tree were twittering. (ଗଛରେ ଥିବା ଛୋଟ ଚଢ଼େଇମାନେ କିଚିରିମିଚିରି ହେଉଥ୍ଲେ।)
The little birds in the tree- noun phrase
କେଉଁ ପକ୍ଷୀ (Q) – (A) ଛୋଟ ପକ୍ଷୀମାନେ (Pre-modifier)
କେଉଁ ଛୋଟ ପକ୍ଷୀସବୁ (Q) – (A) ଗଛରେ ଥିବା (Post-modifier)
(ii) A country ruled by the corrupt ministers will be ruined. ( ଦୁର୍ନୀତିଗ୍ରସ୍ତ ମନ୍ତ୍ରୀମାନଙ୍କଦ୍ୱାରା ଶାସିତ ଦେଶ ଧ୍ବଂସ ପାଇଯିବ।) (A country ruled by the corrupt ministers = noun phrase)
Analysis of the Noun Phrase (ବିଶେଷ ବାକ୍ୟାଶର ବିଶ୍ଳେଷଣ)
(i) The little birds in the tree are chirping.
(ii) The beautiful girl dressed in the blue frock is my sister.
(iii) Every one of them knows English.
Let’s put the different elements in the Noun phrase (ଏବେ ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ବାକ୍ୟାଶରେ ବିଭିନ୍ନ ଶବ୍ଦ ବା ଉପାଦାନକ ରଖିବା)
|(i) The little||birds||in the tree|
|(ii) The beautiful||girl||in a blue frock|
Pre-Modifiers ofthe Noun Phrase ( ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ବାକ୍ୟାଶର Pre-modifiers)
- Articles (a, an, the): a flower, an apple, the books
- Demonstratives (this, that, these, those): this magazine, that woman, these potatoes, those maps
- Numerals (ସଂଖ୍ୟାବାଚକ ଶବ୍ଦ) : (one, two, three, first, tenth)
two pupils, three puppies (କୁକୁରଛୁଆ), second car, hundredth (ଶହେତମ) goal
- Quantifiers (ପରିମାଣବାଚକ ଶବ୍ଦ) : (many, much, all, a few, a little, some, any, a great number of, several, a lot of.)
a few doctors, much wealth, some roses. all nations, a little milk
- Genitives / Possessives (ସମ୍ବନ୍ଧବାଚକ ଶବ୍ଦ): Anil’s watch, my shoes, their building, Meera’s ribbon, one’s health
- Distributives (ବଣ୍ଟନକାରୀ ଶବ୍ଦ): each boy, every car, either road, neither pen
- Multipliers (ବାକ୍ୟଶ ରୂପକ ଶବ୍ଦ ବିଶେଷ) : double the amount , one-third players, twice the number
- Wh-words (ଶବ୍ଦ): whose book, what colour, which road.
- Adjectives (ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ): strong (କଡ଼ା) tea, weak goats, black suitcase, old people
- Participles (Present and Past): walking-stick (ଆଶ୍ରାବାଡ଼ି), swimming pool (ସନ୍ତରଣ), trained soldiers (ତାଲିମପ୍ରାପ୍ତ), sliced tomatoes (କଟା ହୋଇଥିବା ଟମାଟୋ)
- Nouns (ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ପଦ): Paper boats, school garden, oil lamp, Kashmir apples, TATA trucks, kitchen chair, dog biscuits, table cloth.
- Intensifiers (ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦର ବିଶେଷକ): extremely beautiful park, (beautiful-adjective) most boring film (boring = adjective)
Post-Modifiers ofthe Noun Phrase (ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ବାକ୍ୟାଶର Post-Modifiers):
Note: The word or words used after the headword or head noun is Post-modifier.
(head word ବା head noun ପରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ଶବ୍ଦ ବା ଶବ୍ଦଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ Post-modifier କୁହାଯାଏ ।)
The Post-modifier is otherwise known as a qualifier in the noun phrase.
(noun phrase ରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ Post-modifierକୁ qualifier ମଧ୍ୟ କୁହାଯାଏ ।)
- Here is the list of Post-modifiers or qualifiers of the noun phrase (ଏଠାରେ Post- modifier ବା qualifiers ର କେତୋଟି ଉଦାହରଣ) :
(i) Adjective (ବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ) :
- There is nothing secret in this information.
[nothing- headword, secret- post-modifier (adjective)]
My father sometimes does something strange. [something- headword, strange adjective / post-modifier]
(ii) Adverbs or Adverbials (କ୍ରିୟାବିଶେଷଣ ପଦ) :
- The books on the table are mine.
[books- headword, on the table- post-modifier / adverbial]
- The children here are quite noisy.
[children- headword, here- post-modifier / adverbial]
- The example below has been illustrated.
[example- headword, below- post-modifier / adverbial]
(iii) Prepositional Phrase :
- People in general love Gandhiji.
[in general- prepositional phrase / post-modifier, people- head word]
- We have a house to let. (ଘର ଭଡ଼ା ଦିଆଯିବାକୁ ଅଛି)
[house- headword, to let- prepositional phrase / post-modifier]
- The old man with his only daughter is living in our house.
[man- headword, with his only daughter- prepositional phrase / post-modifier]
- Can you see the house over the hill?
[house- headword, over the hill- prepositional phrase / post-modifier] (A Prepositional Phrase usually begins with a preposition)
→ Note: Post-modifier ରୂପେ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କରୁଥିବା ଗୋଟିଏ Prepositional phrase ସାଧାରଣତଃ Preposition ଋୁ (an, in, with, over, at, across, under, of) ଆରମ୍ଭ ହୋଇଥାଏ ।
(iv) Non-finite Clause (ଅସମାପିକା ବାକ୍ୟଖଣ୍ଡ) :
- Did you see the man sitting in the corner?
[man- headword, sitting in the comer- non-finite clause / post-modifier]
- Who is sitting in the comer = finite clause
- Have you read the plays (ନାଟକ ବହି) written by Shakespeare? plays- headword
[written by Shakespeare- non-finite clause / post-modifier which were written by Shakespeare = finite clause]
- The children themselves are to be blamed.
[children- headword, themselves- self-word /post-modifier]
- The girl herself (ଆତ୍ମହତ୍ୟା କରିବାକୁ) decided to commit suicide.
[girl- headword, herself- self-pronoun / post-modifier]
(vi) Relative Clauses :
- The site where Gandhi was born, is historical.
[site ( ସ୍ଥାନ) – headword, where Gandhi was bom- relative clause / post-modifier]
- The reason why he discontinued (ଅଧାରୁ ଛାଡ଼ିଦେଲା) his studies, still remains a mystery. (ରହସ୍ୟ)
[reason- head word, whyhe discontinued his studies- relative clause / Post-modifier]
→ Remember :
The above Bold parts given in various examples are noun phrases. ଉପର ଲିଖ୍ତ ଉଦାହରଣମାନଙ୍କରେ ରେଖାଙ୍କିତ ଅଂଶଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଗୋଟିଏ ଗୋଟିଏ ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ବାକ୍ୟଶ ଅଟେ ।)
Complete the following passage by filling in the blanks with suitable pre-modifiers. You can choose the pre-modifiers from those in the brackets, (brackets ଭିତରେ ଥିବା ସଠିକ Pre-modifiers ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ନିମ୍ନଲିଖତ ଅନୁଚ୍ଛେଦକୁ ପୂରଣ କର ।)
(story, two, the, some, a, different, friend’s, my, happy)
There was _____________ fair going on near _____________ village. I went to my ____________ house and called him. We went to ____________ fair together. We went round the ____________ stalls in ____________ fair. I bought ___________ books. My friend bought _____________ toys one for his nephew and another for his niece. We came back home in the evening. It was a very _______________ experience for us.
There was a fair (ମେଳା) going on near my village. I went to my friend’s house and called him. We went to the fair together. We went round the different stalls in the fair. I bought some storybooks. My friend bought two toys one for his nephew and another for his niece. We came back home in the evening. It was a very happy experience for us.
Fill in the blanks choosing the post-modifiers from those given in brackets, (brackets ଭିତରୁ Post-modifiers ବାଛି ଶୂନ୍ୟସ୍ଥାନ ପୂରଣ କର ।)
(nearby, sitting in the gallery, in colorful jerseys, posted around the field, in general, kept for the winners, who acted as the referee)
Boys of our school love to play football _____________. So we arranged a football match in the field ______________. The players entered the field. The children __________ encouraged the players. A teacher ___________ conducted the game. The linesman _____________ helped him. The trophy ______________ was given away after the match.
Boys ofour school love to play football in general (ସାଧାରଣତଃ). So we arranged a football match in the field nearby (ପାଖରେ ଥିବା). The players entered the field. The children sitting in the gallery (ଗ୍ୟାଲେରୀରେ ବସିଥିବା) encouraged the players. Ateacher who acted as the referee (ଯିଏ ରେଫେରୀ ରୂପେ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କରିଥିଲେ) conducted the game. The linesman posted around the field ( ପଡ଼ିଆର ଚାରିପଟେ ଜଗିଥିବା) in colourful iersevs (ରଂଗୀନ ଜର୍ସି (ପୋଷାକ) ପନ୍ଧିଥିବା) helped him. The trophy kept for the winners ( ବିଜେତାମାନଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ରଖାଯାଇଥିବା) was given away after the match.
Pre and Post Modifiers in the Noun Phrase Additional Questions With Answers
Identify the Pre-modifiers of the noun phrase.
1. Which class are you in?
which – wh-determiner
2. There are some books on the table.
Some- quantifier, the – article
3. Neither pen will do for me.
Neither – distributive
4. My friend comes to our house on Sunday.
My, our- Possessive
5. Everyday he takes an apple.
6. Don’t try to catch the running train.
the – article, running- participle
7. There is enough time for him.
enough – quantifier
8. My father has built a brick house.
my – possessive, a- article, brick – noun
9. Those elephants are trained.
Those – demonstrative
10. One-third members were present at the meeting.
11. The red flowers are beautiful.
The – article, red – adjective
12. You can take either book.
either – distributive
13. There is a little water in the glass.
a little – quantifier, the – article
14. His first ten stories are interesting.
His – possessive, first, ten – numerals
15. I have given him twice the quantity of rice.
twice – multiplier
16. Now every town faces pollution problem.
17. She is washing a table-cloth.
a – article, table – noun
18. A black cat is sitting there.
a – article, black – adjective
19. I have three brothers.
three – number (cardinal number)
20. This is Mr. Prusty’s bike.
Mr. Prusty – possessive.
Identify the Post-modifiers in the noun phrases.
1. He told me something interesting about the place.
interesting – adjective
2. People in general love Gandhiji.
in general – prepositional phrase
3. Did you meet the man sitting in the comer?
sitting in the comer – non-finite clause
4. We helped the girl who was new in our class.
who was new in our class – finite clause
5. He is a boy from our village.
from our village – prepositional phrase
6. You can take anything necessary for you.
necessary – adjective
7. The book kept on the table is mine.
kept on the table – non-finite clause
8. The teacher who acted as the referee conducted the match.
who acted as referee – finite clause
9. The weather today is fine.
today – adverb
10. The match was held in the field nearby.
nearby – adverb
11. Boys love to play football in colourful jerseys.
in colourful jersey – prepositional phrase
12. The trophy kept for the winners was given away after the match.
kept for the winners – non-finite clause
13. I notice the girl playing in the field.
playing in the field – non-finite clause
14. Do you feel something disgusting?
disgusting – adjective
15. A friend in need is a friend indeed.
in need – prepositional phrase