Odisha State Board BSE Odisha Class 10 English Grammar Book Solutions Chapter 1 Tense Revisited Textbook Exercise Activity Questions and Answers.
BSE Odisha Class 10 English Grammar Solutions Chapter 1 Tense Revisited
Tense’ and ‘Time’ in English are not necessarily related to each other.
- ‘Time’ is a universal (ସାର୍ବଜନୀନ), non-linguistic concept because ( ଭାଷାବିହୀନ ଧାରଣା) it is independent oflanguage.
- ‘Time’ is a continuous flow (ନିରବଚ୍ଛିନ୍ନ ପ୍ରବାହ) measured in seconds, minutes, hours, days or years.
- ‘Time’ and ‘tense’ mustn’t be confused.
Let’s prove it :
The Chief Minister is visiting our school next week (ମୁଖ୍ୟମନ୍ତ୍ରୀ ଆସନ୍ତା ସପ୍ତାହରେ ଆମ ବିଦ୍ୟାଳୟ ପରିଦର୍ଶନ କରିବେ ।)
Here the tense “is visiting” is present but the time referred to (ସୂଚିତ କରାଯାଇଥିବା) is future.
- The word “Tense” is derived from ( ବ୍ୟୁତ୍ପରି ଲାଭ କରିଛି) the Latin word ‘Tempus’ which means ‘Time’.
- “Tense of the verb” (କ୍ରିୟାର କାଳ) suggests the time of an action or event (ଘଟଣା) and it is very important in the sense that we always express events or actions (କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ) with reference to different periods of time. ‘
- So ‘Tense’ shows (a) the time of an action and (b) its degree of completeness.
Remember: English grammar has no future tense as there is no specific (ସ୍ଵତନ୍ତ୍ର) or separate verb form or grammatical marker to indicate future time.
The present tense forms are used to talk about the future time. (ଭବିଷ୍ୟତ ସମୟ ବିଷୟରେ କହିବାପାଇଁ ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନ କାଳ ରୂପକୁ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ ।)
The Secretary is going (ଯିବେ) to Bhubaneswar next month.
The President arrives (ପହଞ୍ଚିବେ) here on Monday.
My younger son will go (ଯିବ) to college tomorrow.
Here the expressions next month, Monday and tomorrow indicate future time
Let’s see the time division.
PAST <— …………………………… NOW…………………………………—-> FUTURE
‘Now’- Present time
Before ‘Now’- Past time
After ‘Now’- Future time.
Each tense has four aspects. They are :
1. Indefinite or Simple
2. Continuous or Progressive
4. Perfect Continuous or Perfect Progressive
What is ASPECT?
‘Tense’ broadly (ମୁଖ୍ୟତଃ) corresponds to time, but tense forms have also to indicate the manner, i.e (that is) whether an action, activityor state is, was or will be in progress or whether it is, was or will be complete. This manner goes by the name “Aspect”.
Ways of Expressing Present Time
1. Present Simple and its uses :
The Present Simple or Simple Present tense retains its base form in all cases except when the subject in the third person is singular. (ତୃତୀୟପୁରୁଷ ଏକବଚନକୁ ଛାଡ଼ି ଅନ୍ୟ ସମସ୍ତ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ Present Simple Tense ନିଜର ମୂଳ ରୂପକୁ ଅକ୍ଷୁଣ୍ଣ ରଖୁଥାଏ ।)
A: Declarative Sentence (ବିବୃତିମୂଳକ ବାକ୍ୟ) :
|I go.(ମୁଁ ଯାଏ ।)||We go.(ଆମ୍ଭେ(ମାନେ) ଯାଉ ।)|
|You go.(ତୁମ୍ଭେ ଯାଅ ।||You go(ତୁମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଯାଅ ।)|
|He / Gopal goes.(ସେ / ଗୋପାଳ ଯାଏ ।)||They / Children go.(ସେମାନେ / ପିଲାମାନେ ଯାଆନ୍ତି ।)|
B. Negative sentence (ନାସ୍ତିସୂଚକ ବାକ୍ୟ) :
|I don’t go (ମୁଁ ଯାଏ ନାହିଁ ।)||We don’t go (ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଯାଉନାହୁଁ ।)|
|You don’t go (ତୁମେ/ତୁମ୍ଭେ ଯାଅ ନାହିଁ ।)||You don’t go (ତୁମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଯାଅ ନାହିଁ ।)|
|He / Gopal doesn’t go.(ସେ / ଗୋପାଳ ଯାଏ ନାହିଁ ।)||They/Children don’t go.(ସେମାନେ / ପିଲାମାନେ ଯାଆନ୍ତି ନାହିଁ ।)|
C. Interrogative Sentence (ପ୍ରଶ୍ନସୂଚକ ବାକ୍ୟ) : (Yes-No Question)
|Do I go?
(ମୁଁ ଯାଏ କି ?)
|Do we go?
(ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଯାଉ କି ?)
|Do you go?
(ତୁମେ । ତୁମ୍ଭେ ଯାଅ କି ? ଆପଣ ଯା’ନ୍ତି କି ?)
|Do you go?
(ତୁମ୍ଭେମାନେ / ଆପଣମାନେ ଯାଅ କି / ଯାଆନ୍ତି କି ?)
|Does he / Gopal go?
(ସେ । ଗୋପାଳ ଯାଏ କି ?)
|Do they / children go?
(ସେମାନେ / ପିଲାମାନେ ଯାଆନ୍ତି କି ?)
He, she, it, water, Gopal, Rahim, pen, duster, water, gold, rain etc. are third person singular numbers.
Uses (ବ୍ୟବହାର) :
(i) To express a habitual action (ଏକ ଅଭ୍ୟାସଗତ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ଅର୍ଥରେ) :
Father drinks (ପିଅନ୍ତି) coffee every morning.
He always speaks (କୁହେ) the truth.
I sometimes write (ଲେଖେ) poems.
Suresh gets up (ଉଠେ) at five and goes (ଯାଏ) to bed at nine.
→ In such cases (ଏଭଳି କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ) we can use adverbs (କ୍ରିୟା ବିଶେଷଣ) like everyday, usually (ସାଧାରଣତଃ), always, often, never, sometimes, at times (ବେଳେବେଳେ).
(ii) To express a present state (ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନ ଅବସ୍ଥା ଅର୍ଥରେ) :
I am hungry. (ମୁଁ ଭୋକିଲା ଅଟେ ।)
Mary has a doll. (ମେରୀ ପାଖରେ ଗୋଟିଏ କଣ୍ଢେଇ ଅଛି ।)
Children love (ଭଲପାଆନ୍ତି) sweets.
h/lr Mishra is (ଅଟନ୍ତି) a good writer.
(iii) To express general truth (ସାଧାରଣ ସତ୍ୟ ପ୍ରକାଶ ଅର୍ଥରେ) :
The earth moves (ଘୂରେ) round the sun.
Cows eat (ଖାଆନ୍ତି) grass.
Ladakh has (ର ଅଛି) cold climate (ଥଣ୍ଡା ଜଳବାୟୁ ଅନୁଭୂତ ହୁଏ ।).
Oil floats (ଭାସେ) on water.
Bad news travels (ବ୍ୟାପିଯାଏ) fast.
Water turns into (ପରିଣତ ହୁଏ) ice at 0°C.
A little learning is (ଅଟେ) a dangerous thing. (ଅଳ୍ପ ବିଦ୍ୟା ଭୟଙ୍କର ।)
This road goes (ଯାଇଛି) to Balasore.
The Ganga rises (ଉତ୍ପତ୍ତିଲାଭ କରିଛନ୍ତି) in the Himalayas.
We see with our eyes (ଦେଖୁ), hear (ଶୁଣୁ) with our ears and smell (ଶୁଘ୍ନ) with our nose.
Cuttack stands (ଅବସ୍ଥିତ) on the (କୂଳରେ) Mahanadi.
(iv) To express sports commentary (ଖେଳର ଧାରାବିବରଣୀ ଅର୍ଥରେ) :
Rajupasses the ball to Jitu and Jitu scores.
Sachin hits the ball to the boundary.
(v) (a) To express a planned future action, particularly when it refers to a journey.
(ଯୋଜନାବଦ୍ଧ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକ୍ରମ (ମୁଖ୍ୟତଃ ଯାତ୍ରା ଅର୍ଥରେ))
We leave (ଛାଡ଼ିବୁ) Delhi at 5 o’ clock tomorrow and arrive (ପହଞ୍ଚୁବୁ) in Kolkata the day after.
(b) To refer to future events, which are certain since they are fixed by calendar or time table or part of a fixed programme.
(କ୍ୟାଲେଣ୍ଡର ବା ସମୟ ସାରଣୀ ଆଦି ଦ୍ଵାରା ପ୍ରସ୍ତୁତ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତର ନିଶ୍ଚିତ ଘଟଣାବଳୀ ।)
The H.S.C Exam begins ( ଆରମ୍ଭ ହେବ) on 25th February.
The test match starts ( ଆରମ୍ଭ ହେବ) next week.
(vi) To express magic or some skill of making (ଯାଦୁ ଖେଳ ବା ତିଆରି କୌଶଳ ଅର୍ଥରେ) :
I take (ନେଉଛି) two eggs and break (ଭାଙ୍ଗୁଛି) them into a bowl.
I take (ନେଉଛି) this card from the pack andplace it (ରଖୁଛି) under the handkerchief.
(vii) Used with the verb ‘says’ while quoting (ଉଦ୍ଧାର କରିବା ଅର୍ଥରେ) from books or notices.
Keats says (କହିଛନ୍ତି), “A thing of beauty is joy forever.”
Newton says, “Every action has opposite and equal reaction”.
(viii) In exclamatory sentences, beginning with ‘here’ and ‘there’ to express the present continuous. (ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନରେ ଚାଲୁଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ଅର୍ଥରେ ବିସ୍ମୟସୂଚକ ବାକ୍ୟପାଇଁ Here ବା there ରୁ ଆରମ୍ଭ ହୋଇଥିବା ବାକ୍ୟରେ)
Here comes (is coming) Rama!
There goes (ବାଜୁଛି) our school bell!
(ix) In a dramatic narrative to describe past event (historic present)
(ଅତୀତ ଘଟଣାର ନାଟ୍ୟ ବିବରଣୀ ଅର୍ଥରେ) :
Alexander, the Great then invades ( ଆକ୍ରମଣ କଲେ; invaded) India.
After hearing the news of the meeting, the commander hurries (hurried; ଶୀଘ୍ର ଚାଲିଗଲେ) to Mumbai.
(x) To express a fact that exists at the time of speaking
(ବକ୍ତାଙ୍କର କହିବା ସମୟରେ ଚାଲୁଥିବା ସତ୍ୟ ଘଟଣା ଅର୍ଥରେ) :
Do you hear (ଶୁଣିପାରୁଛ) me ?
I know (ଜାଣିପାରୁଛ) what you want.
Potatoes cost (ମୂଲ୍ୟରେ ବିକ୍ରି ହେଉଛି) Rs.10 a kilo.
(xi) To express a future action or state in clauses of ‘time’ and of ‘condition’
(ଭବିଷ୍ୟତର ଘଟଣା ବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ପାଇଁ ‘ସମୟ’ ଓ ‘ସର୍ଗ’ ଅର୍ଥ ପ୍ରକାଶ କରୁଥିବା ଖଣ୍ଡ ବାକ୍ୟରେ) :
Mohit will wait till the classes are over (ଶେଷ ହେବ).
Ifit rains (ବର୍ଷାହେବ), our class will be suspended.
We shall discuss (ଆଲୋଚନା କରିବୁ) the matter when you come back (ଫେରିଆସିବ),
(xii) Newspaper headlines or broadcast (ସମାଚାରପତ୍ର ମୁଖ୍ୟଶ ବା ଟିଭି ଖବର) :
Peace talks (ଶାନ୍ତି କଥାବାର୍ତ୍ତା) fail (ଅସଫଳ ହେଲା).
The terrorists (ଆତଙ୍କବାଦୀମାନେ) escape (ଖସି ପଳାଇଗଲେ) from the jail.
(xiii) In some fixed interrogatives (କେତେକ ଚିରାଚରିତ ପ୍ରଶ୍ନସୂଚକ ବାକ୍ୟରେ)
Where do you come (ଆସିଛ) from ?
(Where are you coming from ?)
What makes you sad / laugh ? (ତୁମେ ଦୁଃଖୁତ / ହସୁଛ କାହିଁକି ?)
What brings you here ? (ତୁମେ / ତୁ ଏଠାକୁ ଆସିଛ / ଆସିଛୁ କାହିଁକି ?)
Why don’t you report the matter?
(xiv) Some declarations (କେତେକ ଘୋଷଣା) :
I declare (ଘୋଷଣା କରୁଛି)the meeting open.
I thank (ଧନ୍ୟବାଦ ଦେଉଛି) you for your help.
I beg your pardon. (ତୁମଠାରୁ କ୍ଷମା ଚାହୁଁଛି)
We accept (ଘୋଷଣା କରୁଛି) your offer. r
Here actions complete instantly as soon as they are declared about. (ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ ମାତ୍ରେ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ସାଧୂତ ହୋଇଥାଏ ।)
(xv) Present Simple with State verbs (ଅବସ୍ଥାସୂଚକ କ୍ରିୟାପଦ) (non-Progressive or without ‘ing’ form) :
(a) ‘Be’ (‘ହେବା’ ଅର୍ଥ ପ୍ରକାଶ କରୁଥିବା verb)
‘be’: The boy is (ଅଟେ) naughty (ଦୁଷ୍ଟ).
exist (ସ୍ଥିତି) : Ghost exists (ଅଛି). (There are ghosts)
belong: This book belongs to Kamal. (is the property of)
consist: The committee consists (ଗଠିତି) of nine members, (is made up of)
resemble (ସାଦୃଶ୍ୟ): The child resembles his grandfather (is like)
cost: The book costs twenty rupees, (is equal in value to)
(b) ‘have’ (Possession) ଧାରଣ :
Father has landed property.
Mr Rath owns (ଅଧିକାରରେ ଅଛି) a Maruti Wagner.
(c) Verbs of perception / sense (ଇନ୍ଦ୍ରିୟାନୁଭୂତି ପ୍ରକାଶକ କ୍ରିୟାପଦ) :
I see (ଦେଖୁଛି) a bird on the tree.
Honey tastes (ଲାଗେ) sweet.
He looks (ଦେଖାଯାଉଛି) tired.
Rose smells (ବାସୁଛି) sweet.
(d) Verbs of thinking:
I know (ଜାଣିଛି) this man.
Do you believe (ବିଶ୍ଵାସ କରୁଛ) him ?
He remembers (ମନେପକାଉଛି) his childhood days.
Do they understand (ବୁଝୁଛନ୍ତି) this poem?
I think ( ଭାବୁଛି) the man is mad.
Some peopleforget (ଭୁଲିଯା’ନ୍ତି) everything.
(e) Verbs ofemotion or wish (ଆବେଗ ବା ଇଚ୍ଛା ବା ଅନିଚ୍ଛା ପ୍ରକାଶକାରୀ କ୍ରିୟା) :
Children love (ଭଲପାଆନ୍ତି) to play.
Everybody hates (ଘୃଣାକରନ୍ତି) lying (ମିଛ କହିବା).
Father likes his tea strong. (କଡ଼ା ଚା’ ଭଲ ପାଆନ୍ତି ।)
I hope (ଆଶା କରୁଛି) for the best.
Nobody wants (ଚାହାଁନ୍ତି ନାହିଁ) to make friends with that bad man.
(f) Verbs of appearing (seem, appear, look, resemble):
The children appear (ଜଣାପଡ଼ୁଛନ୍ତି) sad.
The girl seems (ଜଣାପଡୁଛି) very happy.
2. Present Progressive and its uses :
If the action of a verb continues or is in progress in the present and is incomplete at the moment of speaking, Present Progressive tense is used, (is /am/are + ‘ing’)
A. Declarative sentence (ବିବୃତିମୂଳକ ବାକ୍ୟ) :
ମୁଁ ଯାଉଛି । – I am going.
ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଯାଉଛୁ । – I We are going.
ତୁମ୍ଭେ/ ତୁମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଆପଣ ଯାଉଛ ଯାଉଛନ୍ତି | – I You are going.
ସେ / ଗୋପାଳ ଯାଉଛି । – I He / Gopal is going.
ସେମାନେ / ପିଲାମାନେ ଯାଉଛନ୍ତି । – They / The children are going.
B. Declarative sentence (ବିବୃତିମୂଳକ ବାକ୍ୟ) :
ମୁଁ ଯାଉ ନାହିଁ । – I am not going.
ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଯାଉନାହୁଁ । – We aren ’t going.
ତୁମେ / ତୁମ୍ଭେ ଆପଣ ଆପଣମାନେ ଯାଅ ନାହିଁ / ଯାଉନାହାନ୍ତି । – You aren’t going.
ସେ / ଗୋପାଳ ଯାଉନାହିଁ । – He / Gopal is not going.
ସେମାନେ / ପିଲାମାନେ ଯାଉନାହାଁନ୍ତି । – They / The children aren ’t going.
C. Interrogative sentence (ପ୍ରଶ୍ନସୂଚକ ବାକ୍ୟ) :
ମୁଁ ଯାଉଛି କି ? – Am I going?
ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଯାଉଛୁ କି ? – Are we going ?
ତୁମ୍ଭେ । ଆପଣ ଯାଉଛ ! ଯାଉଛନ୍ତି କି ? – Are you going ?
ସେ । ଗୋପାଳ ଯାଉଛି କି ? – Is he Gopal going ?
ସେମାନେ । ପିଲାମାନେ ଯାଉଛନ୍ତି କି ? – Are they / the children going ?
Uses (ବ୍ୟବହାର) :
(i) to express an action that is in progress at the time of speaking
(ବକ୍ତାଙ୍କର କହିବା ସମୟରେ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟଟି ଚାଲୁଥିଲେ)
Mr Ashok is teaching (ପଢ଼ାଉଛନ୍ତି) us grammar now.
My mother is cooking (ରାନ୍ଧୁଛନ୍ତି) there.
What are the children doing (କରୁଛନ୍ତି)?
(ii) for an action that has started and is in progress, not necessarily at the time of speaking.
Mr Rath is writing (ଲେଖୁଛନ୍ତି) a novel, (though not writing at the time of speaking)
Hira’s brother is working (ଚାକିରି କରୁଛି) in a bank.
Mami is running (ଚଳାଉଛି) a music school.
(iii) to express a planned action for the future
(ଭବିଷ୍ୟତପାଇଁ ହେବାକୁ ଥିବା ଏକ ଯୋଜନାବଦ୍ଧ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକ୍ରମ ପାଇଁ)
He is going (ଯିବ) to Delhi tomorrow.
My father is giving (ଦେବେ) a dinner to his friends tomorrow.
(iv) with ‘always’, ‘constantly’ (UPQP), ‘regularly’ etc, to express a repeated action for the sense of disapproval (ବିରକ୍ତି, ଅଭିଯୋଗ, ଆଶ୍ଚର୍ଯ୍ୟ ଆଦି ଅର୍ଥରେ always, ‘constantly’ ଆଦି କ୍ରିୟା ବିଶେଷଣ ସହ ବାରମ୍ବାର ହେଉଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ଅର୍ଥରେ)
The ration dealer (ତେଜରାତି ଦୋକାନୀ) isn’t opening (ଖୋଲୁନାହିଁ) the shop regularly.
This dog is always barking (ଭୁକୁଛି) at the strangers.
My eldest brother is constantly shouting at (ଗାଳିଦେଉଛି) his children.
That man is always driving (ପୂରାଇ ଦେଉଛି) his cow into my garden.
(v) for the changing situations (ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତନଶୀଳ ପରିସ୍ଥିତିରେ)
The weather is getting (ଅଧିକ ଶୀତ ହେବାରେ ଲାଗିଛି) colder.
Prices are rising (ବଢ଼ୁଛି) from day to day.
The population of India is increasing (ବଢ଼ୁଛି) very fast.
(vi) for a temporary situation deviated from the habitual activity
(କୌଣସି କାରଣପାଇଁ ଅଭ୍ୟାସଗତ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟରୁ ବିଚ୍ଛିନ୍ନ ହୋଇଥିବା ଅସ୍ଥାୟୀ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ଅର୍ଥରେ)
We go to school at 9 a.m. everyday but we are going (ଯାଉଛୁ ) at 7 a.m.
Mr Mohanty goes to his office by scooter but now he is going ( ଯାଉଛନ୍ତି) by bicycle.
Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs given in brackets: [You can use she or her if required.]
He _____________ (get) up early every day. He _______________ (brush) his teeth and _______________ (have) his bath. He _______________ (take) a quick breakfast. He ____________ (not want) to be punished at school. So, he _____________ (set out) early to reach school in time. He ___________ (sit) on the same bench in my classroom. He _____________ (have) straight hair and a sharp nose. What is his name?
He gets (ଉଠେ) up early every day. He brushes (ବ୍ରଶୂକରେ) his teeth and has his bath (ସ୍ନାନକରେ). He takes (ଖାଏ) a quick breakfast. He doesn’t want (ଚାହେଁନାହିଁ) to be punished at school. So, he sets out (ବାହାରି ପଡ଼େ) early to reach school in time. He sits (ବସେ) on the same bench in my classroom. He has (ଅଛି) straight hair and a sharp nose. What is his name?
Write the daily activity (ସବୁଦିନିଆ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ) of an animal, for example, a cow/dog/cat/tiger/horse or any other animal/bird. Don V mentions the name of the animal For example, Fm a domestic animal I have four legs and a long tail, etc. Let your friends guess what animal you have thought of.
I’m an animal. People keep me (ରଖନ୍ତି) at home. But I watch their houses (ଜଗେ). I have (ଅଛି) a long body with a curved (ବଙ୍କା) tail (ଲାଙ୍ଗୁଡ଼). I have a sharp muzzle (ଥୋମଣି) with two hanging ears. I have a keen sense of hearing (ଶୁଣିବାର ପ୍ରଖର ଶକ୍ତି ଅଛି). My body is covered with fur (ଲୋମ). I have four long, slender (ପତଳା) legs. So I run (can run) (ଦୌଡ଼େ) quickly. When I see food, I wag (ହଲାଏ) my tail. I feed on (ଖାଏ) bread, rice, meat, biscuits, etc. I snarl ( ଭୀଷଣ ଭୁକେ) at the strangers. Then guess (ଅନୁମାନ କର) who I am (ଅଟେ).
Work in pairs, A and B. Yourpartner will tellyou some sentences that are wrong. Correct your partner. Then speak your sentences and let your partner correct you. In this way complete all the sentences and at the end, write down the corrected answers. ( ନିଜର ସାଥୀଙ୍କ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ନିଜେ ଠିକ୍ କରି ଓ ନିଜ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ସାଥୀଙ୍କଦ୍ଵାରା ଠିକ୍ କରାଇ ସବୁ ବାକ୍ୟ ପୂରଣ କରି ଠିକ୍ ଉତ୍ତରଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ଲେଖ ।)
A: Mr. Rao likes to eat fish. (ଭଲ ପା’ନ୍ତି)
B: No, he doesn ’t eat (ଖାଆନ୍ତି ନାହିଁ) fish. He is a vegetarian (ନିରାମିଷାଶୀ).
Wrong sentences for A:
Water freezes at 4°C.
Cuttack is the capital of Odisha.
The sun goes round the earth.
Viswanathan Anand plays football.
The Prime Minister of India lives in Mumbai.
Right sentences for ‘A’ :
Waterfreezes (ବରଫରେ ପରିଣତ ହୁଏ) at 0°C.
Bhubaneswar is (ଅଟେ) the capital of Odisha.
The earth goes (ପୂରେ) round the sun.
Viswanath Ananda plays (ଖେଳନ୍ତି) chess.
The Prime Minister of India lives (ବାସକରନ୍ତି) in New Delhi.
Wrong sentences for B :
Water floats on oil.
A rose is a kind of fruit.
Sachin Tendulkar plays hockey.
Vande Mataram is our National Anthem.
New York is the capital of the USA.
Right sentences for ‘B’ :
Oilfloats (ଭାସେ) on water.
A rose is a kind of flower.
Sachin Tendulkar plays cricket.
Jana Gana ManaAdhi.. is our National Anthem (ଜାତୀୟ ସଙ୍ଗୀତ).
Washington DC is the capital of the U.S.A.
Work in pairs. Match the following sentences (1-6) with the uses of the present simple and present progressive (a-f).
1. I live in Sambalpur.
2. She’s staying with her aunt at the moment.
3. Toffees are very sweet.
4. His English is getting better all the time.
5. I usually go to school on foot.
6. Look. Two swans are carrying a tortoise
|Present simple||Present Progressive|
|(a) General or scientific truths||(d) Something happening now|
|(b) Permanent state or permanent fact||(e) Something happening over a period of time|
|(c) Habitual action||(f) Temporary action|
|1. I live in Sambalpur.||(c) Habitual action|
|2. She’s staying with her aunt at the moment.||(e) Something happening over a period of time|
|3. Toffees are very sweet.||(b) Permanent state or permanent fact|
|4. His English is getting better all the time||(e) Something happening over a period of time|
|5. I usually go to school on foot.||(c) Habitual action|
|6. Look. Two swans are carrying a tortoise.||(d) Something happening now|
Look out through the window. What do you see? Write three sentences about the things that you see. Read out and see who else has written one exactly like you. For today, you are special friends.
I see a farmer going to the field.
I notice some girls pick flowers.
I watch a flight of birds in the sky.
Use either the PresentSimple or the Present Progressive to complete the dialogue.
Seema: Hello Lopa, what (you / do) these days?
Lopa: Nothing much. I (learn) how to dance in a dancing school. What about you?
Seema: Me? I (work) at a training school. The school (offer) lessons on cooking.
Lopa : (you /like) the job?
Seema: Yes, of course. I (prefer) this job because I (also learn) a lot how to cook while working here.
Lopa: What (they / teach) now?
Seema: Right now they (give) lessons on Chinese food. You know, Chinese dishes (taste) so good!
Lopa Can I join the classes someday?
Seema: Sure. They (want) more and more students to join their school. You are welcome.
Lopa: Thank you.
Seema: Hello Lopa, what are you doing (କରୁଛୁ) these days?
Lopa: Nothing much. I am learning (ଶିଖୁଛି) how to dance in a dancing school. What about you?
Seema: Me? I am working (କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କରୁଛି) at a training school. The school offers (ଶିକ୍ଷା ଦିଏ) lessons on cooking.
Lopa: Do you like (ଭଲ ପାଅ) the job?
Seema: Yes, of course. I prefer (ଭଲ ପାଉଛି) this job because I am always learning (ଶିଖୁଛି) a lot how to cook while working here.
Lopa: What are they teaching (ପଢ଼ାଉଛନ୍ତି) now?
Seema: Right now they are giving (ଶିଖାଉଛନ୍ତି) lessons on Chinese food. You know, Chinese dishes taste (ସ୍ଵାଦଲାଗେ) so good!
Lopa: Can I join the classes some day ?
Seema: Sure. They want (ଚାହୁଁଛନ୍ତି) more and more students to join their school. You are welcome.
Ways of expressing Past Time
1. Present Perfect and its uses :
The Present Perfect tense is formed with has/have and the past participle form of the verb.
A. Declarative Sentence (ବିବୃତିମୂଳକ ବାକ୍ୟ) :
|I have seen. (ମୁଁ ଦେଖୁଛି ।)||We have seen. (ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଦେଖିଛୁ ।)|
|You have seen. (ତୁମେ / ଆପଣ ଦେଖୁଛ / ଦେଖୁଛନ୍ତି ।)||You have seen. (ତୁମ୍ଭେମାନେ / ଆପଣମାନେ ଦେଖୁଛ (ଦେଖୁଛନ୍ତି ।)|
|He / Gopal has seen. (ସେ । ଗୋପାଳ ଦେଖୁଛି ।)||They / The children have seen. (ସେମାନେ / ପିଲାମାନେ ଦେଖୁଛନ୍ତି ।)|
B. Negative Sentence (ବିବୃତିମୂଳକ ବାକ୍ୟ) :
|I have not seen. (ମୁଁ ଦେଖୁନାହିଁ ।)||We haven’t seen. (ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଦେଖୁନାହୁଁ ।)|
|You have not seen. (ତୁମ୍ଭେ । ଆପଣ ଦେଖୁନାହଁ ।)||You have not seen. (ତୁମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଦେଖୁନାହଁ । ଆପଣମାନେ ଦେଖୁନାହାନ୍ତି ।)|
|He / Gopal has not seen. (ସେ ଗୋପାଳ ଦେଖୁନାହିଁ।)||They / The children have not seen. (ସେମାନେ / ପିଲାମାନେ ଦେଖୁ ନାହାନ୍ତି ।)|
C. Interrogative sentence (ପ୍ରଶ୍ନସୂଚକ ବାକ୍ୟ) : (Yes-No question)
|Have I seen ? (ମୁଁ ଦେଖୁଛି କି ?)||Have you seen ? (ତୁମ୍ଭେ ଦେଖୁଛ କି ?)|
|Have you seen ? (ତୁମ୍ଭେ ଦେଖୁଛ କି ?)||Have you seen ? (ତୁମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଦେଖୁଛ କି ? / ଆପଣମାନେ ଦେଖୁଛନ୍ତି କି ?)|
|Has he / Gopal seen ? (ସେ / ଗୋପାଳ ଦେଖୁଛି କି ?)||Have they / the children seen ? (ସେମାନେ / ପିଲାମାନେ ଦେଖୁଛନ୍ତି କି ?)|
Uses (ବ୍ୟବହାର) :
(i) to express an experience, action in the immediate past (ନିକଟ ଅତୀତର ଅଭିଜ୍ଞତା ବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟପାଇଁ)
I have seen (ଦେଖୁଛି) the Charminar city.
You have played (ଖେଳିଛୁ) well in today’s match.
(ii) to express an action which began in the past and is continuing upto the present moment. (ଅତୀତରୁ ଆରମ୍ଭ ହୋଇ ଏ ପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ ଚାଲୁଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ବା ଘଟଣାପାଇଁ)
India has been free (ସ୍ଵାଧୀନ ହେଲାଣି) since 1947.
He has been (ଅଛି) ill since last week.
(iii) for a habit in a period continuing till now (ଏ ପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ ଚାଲୁଥିବା ଏକ ଅଭ୍ୟାସ ପାଇଁ)
Malati has practised (ଅଭ୍ୟାସ କରୁଛି) classical music (ଶାସ୍ତ୍ରୀୟ ସଙ୍ଗୀତ) for ten years.
Mohit has attended (ଯୋଗ ଦେଉଛି) the camp regularly.
(iv) to express an action completed in the past but having current relevance. (ସମାପ୍ତ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟର ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନର ପ୍ରଭାବ ଥିବା ଅର୍ଥରେ)
It has rained (ବର୍ଷା ହୋଇଛି) heavily. (The ground is wet now)
John has reported the matter to the police. (The culprit will be found out (ଦୋଷୀକୁ ଧରାଯିବ))
I have cut (କାଟିଦେଇଛି) my finger. (It is bleeding now. (ଏବେ ରକ୍ତ ବହୁଛି))
(v) used in the usages like ‘This is the first time’, ‘this is the second time’, etc.
This is the first time I have ever travelled (ଯାତ୍ରା କରୁଛି) on a flight.
This is the second time Meera has commited the mistake (ଭୁଲ୍ କରିଛି).
(vi) after a superlative.
It is the best (superlative) book I have ever come across.
She is the prettiest (superlative) girl I have ever seen (ଦେଖୁଛି).
(vii) with the adverbs like ‘today’, ‘this morning’, ‘this week’, ‘this year’, ‘this month’ when the periods are not over at the time of speaking.
Have you met the teacher today?
Have you been (ଯାଇଛ) to the hospital this morning? (within 12 noon)
I haven’t received (ପାଇନାହିଁ) any letter this week.
(viii) used with just, already, yet, recently, ever, never, so far, since, etc.
Have you ever been (ଯାଇଛ) to Chilika? (ever)
The guest hasn ‘t arrived(ଆସିନାହାନ୍ତି) yet. (yet).
I have met the person recently (ନିକଟରେ). (recently)
Nobody has ever told (କହିନାହାନ୍ତି) me lies so far.
Father has never seen a ghost (ଦେଖୁନାହାନ୍ତି) (never).
(ix) for an action which lasts throughout an incomplete action.
(for, since, all day/night/week, all my life, all the time, lately, recently)
He has been in London for two years. (He is still in London.)
I have always respected him. (I still respect him.)
We have waited all day. (We are still waiting.)
(x) to indicate a habit with when, before, after, etc.
I shall speak to you when I have finished my dinner.
Boys will play after they have done their homework.
I never go to bed before I have finished my home work.
(xi) Used “ever” in questions :
Have you ever been (ଯାଇଛ) to Nagpur?
Has she ever won (ଜିତିଛ) any reward?
2. Present Perfect Progressive :
Present Perfect Progressive tense is formed by the present perfect of the verb followed by present perfect (has/have + been + base form of the verb + ‘ing’)
Uses (ବ୍ୟବହାର) :
(i) To express an action or event that began in the past and is still going on.
(ଅତୀତରୁ ଆରମ୍ଭ ହୋଇ ଏ ପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ ଚାଲୁଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ)
Nihar has been studying (ପଢୁଛି) in this college for three years.
The children have been playing in the field for (ଖେଳୁଛନ୍ତି) two hours.
(ii) to express an act that was going since a recent point of time and whose result is still.
present. (ଅତୀତରୁ ଆରମ୍ଭ ହୋଇ ଏ ପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ ଚାଲୁଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ଓ ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନ ଏହାର ପ୍ରଭାବ / ଫଳାଫଳ ଥିବା ଅର୍ଥରେ)
I feel cold because I have been swimming (ପହଁରୁଛି) for an hour.
Rekha is tired as she has been working (କାମ କରୁଛି) all the morning.
‘Past Tense refers to the past time action of the verb.
3. Simple Past:
The simple past tense in regular verbs is formed by adding d, ed, t etc. to the base form.
(base form + d / ed /1 = simple past tense)
A. Declarative Sentence (ବିବୃତିମୂଳକ ବାକ୍ୟ) :
|I said. (ମୁଁ କହିଲି / କହିଥିଲି ।)||We said. (ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ କହିଲୁ / କହିଥିଲୁ ।)|
|You said. (ତୁମ୍ଭେ / ତୁମ୍ଭେ / ଆପଣ କହିଲା / କହିଥୁଲ)||You said. (ତୁମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଆପଣମାନେ କହିଲ / କହିଲେ / କହିଥିଲେ)|
|He / Gopal said. (ସୋ ଗୋପାଳ କହିଲା / କହିଥିଲା)||They/ The children said. (ସେମାନେ / ପିଲାମାନୋ କହିଲେ / କହିଥିଲେ)|
B. Negative Sentence (ନାସ୍ତିସୂଚକ ବାକ୍ୟ) :
|I didn’t say (ମୁଁ କହିଲି ନାହିଁ ।) ବା (ମୁଁ କହି ନଥୁଲି ।)||We didn’t say. (ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ କହିଲୁ ନାହିଁ / କହି ନଥୁଲୁ)|
|You didn’t not say. (ତୁମ୍ଭେ । ଆପଣ କହିଲ ନାହିଁ / କହି ନଥିଲେ ।)||You did not say. (ତୁମ୍ଭେମାନେ / ଆପଣମାନେ କହିଲ ନାହିଁ / କହିନଥିଲେ)|
|He / Gopal did not say. (ସେ / ଗୋପାଳ କହିଲା / କହି ନଥିଲା ।)||They / The children didn’t say. (ସେମାନେ / ପିଲାମାନେ କହିଲେ ନାହିଁ / କହି ନଥିଲେ)|
C. Interrogative Sentence (ପ୍ରଶ୍ନସୂଚକ ବାକ୍ୟ) :
|Did I say? (ମୁଁ କହିଲି । କହିଥିଲି କି ? )||Did we say ? (ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ କହିଲୁ / କହିଥୁଲୁ କି ?)|
|Did you say? (ତୁମେ / ଆପଣ କହିଲେ / କହିଥିଲେ କି ?)||Did you say? (ତୁମ୍ଭେମାନେ / ଆପଣମାନେ କହିଲ / କହିଥିଲ କି ?)|
|Did he / Gopal say ? (ସୋ ଗୋପାଳ କହିଲା / କହିଥୁଲା କି ?)||Did they / the children say ? (ସେମାନେ ପିଲାମାନେ ଖେଳିଲେ । ଖେଳିଥିଲେ କି ?)|
Uses (ବ୍ୟବହାର) :
(i) For the completed actions in the past with the time adverbials like yesterday, last week/month/year/night, a few days/months/years ago, in 2010, etc. (ଅତୀତରେ ସମାପ୍ତ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟପାଇଁ)
His father died (ମୃତ୍ୟୁବରଣ କରିଥିଲେ) last year.
It rained (ବର୍ଷାହୋଇଥଲା) heavily last week.
Father had a bad headache a few days ago.
(ii) to denote a habitual or general action in the past but now terminated.
(ଅତୀତର ଅଭ୍ୟାସକାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ଏବେ ବନ୍ଦ ହୋଇଯାଇଥିଲେ)
We were (ଥିଲୁ) in Surat for seven years.
She studied (ପଢ଼ୁଥିଲା) journalism (ସାମ୍ବାଦିକତା) when she was in Mumbai.
(iii) to describe a past habit (ଅତୀତର ଅଭ୍ୟାସ ଅର୍ଥରେ)
The teacher always carried (ନେଉଥିଲେ) an umbrella.
Uncle often visited (ଦେଖା କରୁଥିଲେ) father.
(iv) historical or past event (ଐତିହାସିକ ବା ଅତୀତ ଘଟଣା)
Sepoy Mutiny (ସିପାହୀ ବିଦ୍ରୋହ) broke out (ଘଟିଥିଲା) in 1857.
Shakespeare wrote (ଲେଖୁଥିଲେ) for the Global Theatre.
(v) Of two actions completed in the past in a shorter period of time and first action leading to the second. (ଅତୀତରେ ଅଳ୍ପ ସମୟ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ସମାପ୍ତ ୨ଟି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ଭିତରୁ ପ୍ରଥମ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟପରେ ଦ୍ବିତୀୟ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ସଙ୍ଗେସଙ୍ଗେ ଆରମ୍ଭ ହୋଇଥିଲେ)
When the train stopped, I jumped off.
The girl turned off (ବନ୍ଦ କରିଦେଲା) the TV when her father came (ଆସିଲେ).
(vi) Used in subordinate clauses to refer to something desirable or an unreal state of things.
I wish I knew his name.
If I were you, I would buy that property. (Present time)
(vii) For polite enquiries with verbs hope, think or wonder (ନାମସୂଚକ ଅନୁସନ୍ଧାନ ଅର୍ଥରେ)
I wonder if you would lend me that book.
I hope he would excuse me.
4. Past Progressive / Continuous :
The Past Continuous / Progressive tense is formed by the past tense of the verb ‘be’ (was/were) followed by the present participle (‘ing’) of the verb
|I was eating. ( ମୁଁ ଖାଉଥଲି ।)||We were eating. (ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଖାଉଥଲୁ ।)|
|You weren’t eating. (ତୁମେ ଖାଉ ନଥୁଲ ।)||You weren’t eating. (ତୁମ୍ଭେମାନେ / ଆପଣମାନେ ଖାଉ ନଥୁଲ ।)|
|Was Gopal eating? (ଗୋପାଳ ଖାଉଥିଲା କି ?)||Were they eating? (ସେମାନେ ଖାଉଥିଲେ କି ?)|
Uses (ବ୍ୟବହାର) :
(i) to describe an action in progress over a period of time in the past
(ଅତୀତରେ ଚାଲିଥୁବା ଦୀର୍ଘ ସମୟର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ)
The children were playing (ଖେଳୁଥିଲେ) all the afternoon.
She was writing letters all the morning.
(ii) to describe an action in progress at a point of time in the past
(ଅତୀତରେ ଏକ ନିର୍ଦ୍ଦିଷ୍ଟ ସମୟରେ ଚାଲିଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ)
I was having (ଖାଉଥଲି) my breakfast at 7 A.M.
What were you doing (କରୁଥିଲୁ) when father called on you?
(iii) repeated action with ‘always’ causing annoyance to the speaker.
(ବକ୍ତାଙ୍କର ବିରକ୍ତି ଭାବ ପ୍ରକାଶ କରୁଥିବା ଅତୀତର ବାରମ୍ବାର ଘଟୁଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ‘always’ ସହିତ)
The child was always biting (କାମୁଡୁଥୁଲା) her nails.
Rama was always playing (ଖେଳୁଥିଲା) chess during the vacation.
Grandfather was always losing (ହଜାଇଦେଉଥ୍ଲେ) his walking stick.
(iv) to describe two or more parallel actions going on at the same time
(ଅତୀତରେ ସମାନ୍ତରାଳ ଭାବେ ଚାଲୁଥିବା ୨ଟି ବା ତହିଁରୁ ଅଧୁକା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ)
He was listening while I was talking.
Amit was watching the TV, while Sunlit was doing his homework.
(v) The Past Progressive and the simple Past are used together to say that something was happening when something also happened. (ଅତୀତରେ କୌଣସି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ଚାଲୁଥିଲା ବେଳେ ଅନ୍ୟ ଏକ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ହୋଇଯାଇଥିଲେ)
I was reading (ପଢୁଥୁଲି) when my friend arrived (ପହଞ୍ଚିଲେ).
It was raining (ବର୍ଷା ହେଉଥିଲା) when the wind blew (ବହିଲା).
5. Past perfect :
This is formed with ‘had + Past participle of the verb’.
‘go’ – had gone
‘talk’ – had talked
‘sing’ – had sung
Uses (ବ୍ୟବହାର) :
(i) When the subject or the narrator looks back at an earlier action from a certain point in the past. (ଅତୀତରେ ଏକ ନିର୍ଦ୍ଦିଷ୍ଟ ସମୟରୁ ବର୍ଣ୍ଣନାକାରୀ ପୂର୍ବ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକୁ ଚାହିଁଥିଲେ)
Dinesh was eighteen when his career started. His parents had died three years before and since then he had lived alone.
(ii) Out of the two actions of the past past perfect for earlier action and simple past for the later action. (ଅତୀତରେ ସମାପ୍ତ ୨ଟି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ମଧ୍ୟରୁ ପ୍ରଥମ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ପାଇଁ Past Perfect ଓ ପରବର୍ତୀ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟପାଇଁ Past Simple ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ)
When we reached the station, the train had left. (ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଯେତେବେଳେ ଷ୍ଟେସନରେ ପହଞ୍ଚିଲୁ ଟ୍ରେନ୍ ଚାଲିଯାଇଥଲା ।)
Her old father had died by the time she reached home. (ସେ ଘରେ ପହଞ୍ଚିଲା ବେଳକୁ ତାହାର ବୁଢ଼ା ବାପା ମୃତ୍ୟୁବରଣ କରିଥିଲେ ।)
(iii) to express a hypothetical (supposed) condition.
If he hadgone to the station, he would have averted the mishap. (ସେ ଯଦି ଷ୍ଟେସନକୁ ଯାଇଥାନ୍ତା, ଦୁର୍ଘଟଣାକୁ ଏଡ଼ାଇ ପାରିଥାନ୍ତା ।)
Surabhi would have got a first class if she had studied hard. (ଯଦି କଠିନ ପରିଶ୍ରମ କରି ପଢ଼ିଥା’ନ୍ତା ସୁରଭି ପ୍ରଥମ ଶ୍ରେଣୀ ଲାଭ କରିଥାନ୍ତା ।)
(iv) In the Reported speech to talk about things that had already happened at the time of talking. (ପରୋକ୍ଷ ଉକ୍ତିରେ ଅତୀତରେ କହିଲାବେଳେ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟଟି ଘଟିଯାଇଥଲେ)
Saurav told me that he had met my father. (ମୋ ବାପାଙ୍କୁ ଦେଖା କରିଛି / ଦେଖା କରିଥିଲା ବୋଲି ସୌରଭ ମୋତେ କହିଲା ।)
The teacher asked Ritesh where he had gone. (ସେ କେଉଁଠାକୁ ଯାଇଥିଲା ବୋଲି ଶିକ୍ଷକ ରିତେଶକୁ ପଚାରିଲେ ।)
(v) Used afer the verb ‘wish 9 to express an impossibility. (ଅସମ୍ଭବ ଅର୍ଥରେ verb ‘wish’ ପରେ)
I wish he had rung me. (didn’t ring)
I wish our Headmaster had suspended the school. (didn’t suspend)
(vi) Used with as soon as, the moment, immediately, till, until, before in the Time clause.
As soon as he had completed the work, he left.
The moment (ଯେଉଁ ମୁହୂର୍ତ୍ତରେ) the war had been declared (ଘୋଷଣା କରାଗଲା),, the price of oil went up (ବଢ଼ିଗଲା).
The emploee had immediately challenged his boss.
Mohan was refused payment untill he had finished his work.
(vii) In the clauses beginnning with ‘as ‘if’ or ‘as though’
Nabin spoke English as ifhe had come from England (ସତେଯେପରି ଇଂଲଣ୍ଡରୁ ଆସିଥିଲା).
The beggar looked (ଦେଖାଯାଉଥ୍ଲା) as if he hadn ’t eaten anything for a week. (ସତେଯେପରି ସପ୍ତାହ ପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ କିଛି ଖାଇ ନଥୁଲା)
(viii) With ‘after’ in the Time clause.
After Guru hadfailed (ଫେଲ୍ ହେବାପରେ) in the examination, he became upset.
(ix) To describe an action or event in the past which denotes cause for later action in the past. (ଅତୀତର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ବା ଘଟଣା ଯାହା ପରବର୍ତ୍ତୀ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟର କାରଣ ସୂଚିତ କରିଥାଏ ।)
The girl was nervous because she had never danced before.
I got the highest mark for (because) I hadanswered all the questions correctly.
6. Past Perfect Continuous :
This is formed with ‘had been’ + Present Participle of the verb.
|I had been eating. (ମୁଁ ଖାଉଥଲି । )||We had been eating. (ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଖାଇଥିଲୁ)|
|Gopal hadn’t been eating. (ଗୋପାଳ ଖାଉ ନଥିଲା ।)||They hadn’t been eating. (ସେମାନେ ଖାଉ ନଥିଲେ ।)|
|Had the girl been eating? (ସୋ ଗୋପାଳ କହିଲା / କହିଥୁଲା କି ?)||Had the children been eating? (ପିଲାମାନେ ଖାଉଥିଲେ କି ?)|
Uses (ବ୍ୟବହାର) :
to describe the earlier of the two actions in the past when the earlier action continued upto the time of the beginning of the second or later action (ଅତୀତର ଦୁଇଟି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ମଧ୍ୟରୁ ଦ୍ଵିତୀୟ ବା ପରବର୍ତୀ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ଆରମ୍ଭ ହେବା ପୂର୍ବରୁ ପ୍ରଥମ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ବହୁ ସମୟ ପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ ଚାଲିଥିଲେ)
My friend Bikash had been waiting for hours (ଘଣ୍ଟାଘଣ୍ଟା ଧରି ଅପେକ୍ଷା କରିଥିଲା) when I opened the door.
The workers had been digging (ମାଟି ଖୋଳୁଥିଲେ) for six months before they found petrol.
He was tired because he had been working (କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କରୁଥିଲା) since dawn (ପ୍ରତ୍ୟୁଷରୁ).
Activity – 1
Complete the following conversation, using either the past simple or the present perfect form of the verb given in brackets.
Ashok : What are these people doing here? What (happen)?
Bini : There (be) an accident.
Ashok : An accident? What (happen) exactly?
Bini : A cat (run) across the road in front of a car. The driver (try) to apply the brake and (hit) the tree on the side of the road.
Ashok : When (it happen)?
Bini : About ten minutes ago.
Ashok : (anyone call) for an ambulance?
Bini : No, not yet. But the police (arrive). They will take care of that.
Ashok : This is the second accident we (have) here this week.
Bini : We should have a road hump here.
Ashok : What are these people doing here? What has happened (ଘଟିଛି)?
Bini : There is (ହୋଇଯାଇଛି) an accident.
Ashok : An accident? What has happened (ଘଟିଛି) exactly?
Bini : A cat ran (ମାଡ଼ିଗଲା) across the road in front of a car. The driver tried (ଚେଷ୍ଟାକଲା) to apply the brake and hit (ବାଡ଼େଇ ହୋଇଗଲା) the tree on the side of the road.
Ashok : When did it happen (ଘଟିଲା)?
Bini : About ten minutes ago.
Ashok : Has any one called for (ଡକାଇଛନ୍ତି) an ambulance?
Bini : No, not yet. But the police have arrived (ପହଞ୍ଚି ଯାଇଛନ୍ତି). They will take care of that.
Ashok : This is the second accident we have had (ଏଠାରେ ଘଟିଛି) here this week.
Bini : We should have a road hump here.
Activity – 2
Make sentences using the present perfect progressive tense form of the verbs.
Mr Das is very tired. (work hard)
Mrs Das has been working hard.
Mr Das looks pale. (not feel well / all day)
Mr Das hasn’t been feeling well all day.
Their son Ashok has got a headache. (watch TV / all evening)
Their son Ashok has been watching TV all evening.
Their daughter Bini has got no money left. (buy clothes)
Their daughter Bini has been buying clothes.
They are sitting idle and can’t do anything. (rain / since the evening)
There has been raining since the evening.
Activity – 3
One sentence in each of the following pairs is wrong. Strike it off.
|1.||I can go home now.||I have finished my class work.
I have been finishing my class work.
|2.||You look tired.||Have you worked in the garden?
Have you been working in the garden?
|3.||Tell the truth.||Have you broken the window?
Have you been breaking the window?
|4.||Your eyes are red.||You have cried.
You have been crying.
|5.||Now you can live in that room.||We have repaired the roof.
We have been repairing the roof.
1. I have been finishing my class work, (✗)
2. Have you worked in the garden ? (✗)
3. Have you been breaking the window? (✗)
4. You have cried. (✗)
5. We have been repairing the roof (✗)
Activity – 4
Fill in the blanks with the past simple or present perfect forms of the verbs given in brackets.
Rahul : ________ (you / see) Jagu last night?
Bakul : No, but I ________(just come) from his house. He’s in bed. He ________ (be) very ill for the last three days, actually.
Rahul : I’m sorry to hear that. So that’s why he ________ (not come) to the party last night.
Bakul : The doctor ________ (see) him twice by now. He’s coming again tomorrow. Oh, by the way, Jagu ________ (send) your book.
Rahul : Did you see (ଦେଖୁଥୁଲୁ) Jagu last night?
Bakul : No. but I have just come (ଆସିଛି) from his house. He’s in bed. He has been very ill for the last three days, actually.
Rahul : I’m sorry to hear that. So that’s why he didn’t come (ଆସିନଥୁଲା) to the party last night.
Bakul : The doctor has seen (ଦେଖ୍ ସାରିଛନ୍ତି) him twice by now. He’s coming again tomorrow. Oh, by the way, Jagu has sent (ପଠାଇଛି) your book.
Activity – 5
Combine the given sentences into single ones using the past perfect or the past simple forms of the verbs.
The alarm clock rang. I woke up = As soon as ________
As soon as the alarm clock rang, I woke up.
I cleaned my teeth. I took bath = After I ________
After I had cleaned my teeth, I took bath.
I got dressed. I had breakfast. = When ________
When I had had breakfast, I got dressed.
I brushed my teeth again. I looked at my watch. = When ________
When I looked at my watch, I brushed my teeth.
I looked at my watch. I realized I was late = When ________
When I looked at my watch, I realized that I had been late.
I arrived at the school. I remembered it was Sunday = When ________
When I arrived at the school, I remembered that it was Sunday.
Activity – 6
Work in pairs A and B. Without showing your sentences to your partner, you write five sentences using the past perfect tense of verbs. You must put before the sentences an expression like as soon as/when/by the time/after. In the meantime, your partner writes five sentences using the past simple tense of verbs. After writing the sentences, show each other the sentences and try to combine them. When the teacher asks you, go and write the combined sentences on the blackboard. (All the sentences may not combine.)
(ତୁମେ as soon as/when/by the time/after ଆଦିରୁ ଆରମ୍ଭ କରି Past simple ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ତୁମ ସାଙ୍ଗ Past perfect tense କୁ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରିବାକୁ କହି ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ ୫ଟି ଲେଖାଏଁ ବାକ୍ୟ ଲେଖ ।)
As soon as he had watered the plants
It started to rain. / The teacher asked me a question (can’t combine)
As soon as he had watered the plants, it started to rain. (ଗଛରେ ଜଳ ଦେବା ମାତ୍ରେ ବର୍ଷା ହେବାକୁ ଆରମ୍ଭ କଲା ।)
The individual sentences are :
The bell rang. Then the pupils stood for the prayer.
When the bell had rung, the pupils stood for the prayer.
Father had a cup of tea. He set to work then.
After father had had a cup of tea, he set to work.
The patient died. The doctors had come by then.
The patient had died by the time the doctors came.
The rabbit woke up. Before that the tortoise had touched the finishing point.
When the rabbit woke up, the tortoise had touched the finishing point.
The meeting ended. Only then did the people return home.
After the meeting had ended, the people returned home.
Activity – 7
Fill in the blanks using the past simple or the past progressive forms of the verbs given in brackets.
Once when I ________ (read) in my room, I ________ (hear) a lot of noise outside. I ________ (come) out and ________ (see) that many people ________ (run) in a particular direction. They ________ (shout) at the top of their voice. They all ________ (have) buckets and water pots in their hands. I ________ (ask) them what the matter was. Somebody ________ (point) at a house at the end of our village. I ________ (see) that the house ________ (burn). People ________ (throw) water at the house in order to put out the fire. Very soon the fire ________ (come) under control.
Once when I was reading (ପଢୁଥୁଲି) in my room, I heard (ଶୁଣିଲି) a lot of noise outside. I came out (ବାହାରି ଆସିଲି) and saw (ଦେଖୁଲି) that many people were running (ଦୌଡ଼ୁଥିଲେ) in a particular direction. They were shouting (ଚିତ୍କାର କରୁଥିଲେ) at the top of their voice. They all had (ହାତରେଥିଲା) buckets and water pots in their hands. I asked (ପଚାରିଲି) them what the matter was. Somebody pointed (ଅଙ୍ଗୁଳି ନିର୍ଦ୍ଦେଶ କଲା) at a house at the end of our village. I saw (ଦେଖଲି) that the house was burning (ଜଳି ଯାଉଥିଲା). People were throwing (ଫିଙ୍ଗୁଥିଲେ) water at the house in order to put out the fire. Very soon the fire came (ନିୟନ୍ତ୍ରଣକୁ ଆସିଲା) under control.
Activity – 8
Use the past progressive or the past simple forms of the given verbs and rewrite the paragraph.
(Past progressive ବା past simple ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ଶୂନ୍ୟସ୍ଥାନ ପୂରଣ କର ।)
I (walk) along the street one day when I (see) something strange. I (notice) a person of the same height as me and (have) the same hairstyle. He (wear) clothes of the same colour and (carry) a school bag just as mine. He (just/cross) the road ahead of me but he (not / avoid) me at all. I (be) sure of that. As he (go across) the road, I (follow) him.
I was walking (ଚାଲିକରି ଯାଉଥୁଲି) along the street one day when I saw (ଦେଖୁଲି) something strange. I noticed (ଦେଖୁଲି) a person of the same height as me and had (ଥିଲା) the same hairstyle. He wore clothes of the same colour and was carrying a school bag just as mine. He was just crossing (ଅତିକ୍ରମ କରି ଯାଉଥୁଲା) the road ahead of me but he didn’t avoid (ଦୂରେଇ ରହିଲା ନାହିଁ) me at all. I was (ଥୁଲି) sure of that. As he went across (ଗଲା) the road, I followed (ଅନୁସରଣ କଲି) him.
Activity – 9
Complete the following dialogue using the ‘past perfect’ or the ‘past perfect progressive’
forms of the verbs given in brackets. (ନିମ୍ନୋକ୍ତ କଥୋପକଥନକୁ ସମାପ୍ତ କର ।)
Federer : My best moment in the match was when I realized that the game (finish) and I (become) the champion. I (win) at last. At that moment I (become) the best Tennis player of the world.
Reporter : And when you won, how long (you / play) Tennis?
Federer : I started just before I finished school. That means, I (play) for about six years when I won the Wimbledon.
Reporter : You (beat) some good players before you won that tournament.
Federer : Yes. Ever since I started as a Tennis professional, I (win) games regularly, until my injury.
Federer : My best moment in the match was when I realized that the game had finished and I had become the champion. I won at last. At that moment I had become the best Tennis player of the world.
Reporter : And when you won, how long had you been playing (ଖେଳୁଥିଲେ) Tennis?
Federer : I started just before I finished school. That means, I had been playing (ଖେଳୁଥୁଲି) for about she years when I won the Wimbledon.
Reporter : You had beaten (ପରାସ୍ତ କରିଥିଲ) some good players before you won that tournament.
Federer : Yes. Ever since I started as a Tennis professional, I had been winning (ଜିତୁଥୁଲି) games regularly, until my injury.
Ways of expressing the Future Time
Anita : Say, Bini, what are you doing (କରିବୁ) this afternoon?
Would you like (ଚାହୁଁଛୁ) to go shopping with me?
Binita : Oh, sorry, I can’t. I’m going to finish (ଶେଷ କରିବି) my homework before the evening.
My uncle and aunt are coming (ଆସିବେ) to our house.
Anita : You will help your mother, (ସାହାଯ୍ୟ କରିବୁ) won’t you?
Binita : Of course. Moreover, my uncle’s little son loves me so much. We are going to play (ଖେଳିବୁ) together.
Anita : That will be great (ଚମତ୍କାର କଥା ହେବା). Bye (ବିଦାୟ). Have a nice time.
The verbs underlined are in Present tense form but they expresses future time.
The ‘Future’ means future-time-related actions.
(The ‘Future’ ର ଅର୍ଥ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତ ସମୟ ସଂପର୍କୀୟ ଆଧାରିତ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ।)
We mainly use the following verb forms to indicate the future.
(ଭବିଷ୍ୟତର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକୁ ସୂଚିତ କରିବାପାଇଁ ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ ମୁଖ୍ୟତଃ ନିମ୍ନଲିଖତ କ୍ରିୟାରୂପ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରୁ।)
(i) Be going to + Main verb in the base form.
We are going to meet the President tomorrow.
(ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଆସନ୍ତାକାଲି ରାଷ୍ଟ୍ରପତିଙ୍କୁ ସାକ୍ଷାତ କରିବୁ।)
(ii) Present Continuous/ Progressive ( Be verb isl ami are + Main Verb in the “mg” form)
I am building a house very soon. (ଶୀଘ୍ର ମୁଁ ଗୋଟିଏ ଘର ତୋଳିବି।)
(iii) Present Simple
Our examination starts tomorrow. (ଆମ୍ଭମାନଙ୍କର ପରୀକ୍ଷା ଆସନ୍ତାକାଲିଠାରୁ ଆରମ୍ଭ ହେବ ।)
(iv) Will/shall + Main Verb in the base form.
I shall/will go home next week. ( ମୁଁ ଆସନ୍ତା ସପ୍ତାହରେ ଘରକୁ ଯିବି।)
ଏହି ଚାରୋଟି ବାକ୍ୟରେ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ ହେବାକୁ ଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ଆଧାରିତ verb ବା କ୍ରିୟା ପଦଗୁଡ଼ିକରୁ ଚାରୋଟି forms; ଯଥା – are going to (ସାକ୍ଷାତ କରିବି), am building (ତୋଳିବି), starts (ଆରମ୍ଭ ହେବ) ଏବଂ shall/will go (ଯିବି) ଦିଆଯାଇଛି।
Let’s see how these four forms of verbs are used to denote different future actions.
(ଉପରୋକ୍ତ ୪ ଟି verb forms କିଭଳି ଭିନ୍ନ ଭିନ୍ନ future action ବା ଭବିଷ୍ୟତ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟପାଇଁ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ, ଲକ୍ଷ୍ୟ କର।)
1. Be (is/am/are) going to + Main Verb in the base form.
Use (ବ୍ୟବହାର) :
(a) To talk about the future fulfillment of a present plan or intention.
(ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନର ଯୋଜନା ବା ଇଚ୍ଛା ବା ଉଦ୍ଦେଶ୍ୟ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ ପୂରଣ ହେବା ବିଷୟରେ କହିଲେ)
(i) am going to visit my parents tomorrow. ( ଆସନ୍ତାକାଲି ମୁଁ ମୋ ବାପା ମା’ଙ୍କୁ ଦେଖାକରିବି ।)
(ଏଠାରେ ‘ଦେଖାକରିବା’ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତର ଏକ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ଓ ଏହା ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନର ଇଚ୍ଛା ଉପରେ ଆଧାରିତ ।)
(ii) What are you going to do in the afternoon ? (ତୁମେ ଆଜି ଅପରାହ୍ନରେ କ’ଣ କରିବ ?)
(ଏଠାରେ ଅପରାହ୍ନର କୌଣସି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟପାଇଁ ଏକ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତିର ଇଚ୍ଛା ବା ଯୋଜନା ସଂପର୍କରେ ପଚରା ଯାଇଛି ।)
(b) To talk about a future fulfilment of a present cause or indication
(ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନର କୌଣସି ବାହ୍ୟ ପରିସ୍ଥିତି (external condition) ବା କାରଣକୁ ଆଧାର କରି ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ ହେବାକୁ ଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ବିଷୟରେ ସୂଚିତ କରାଗଲେ)
(i) The sky is cloudy. It is going to rain soon.
(ଆକାଶଟି ମେଘୁଆ ଅଟେ । ଶୀଘ୍ର ବର୍ଷା ହେବ ।)
(ଏଠାରେ ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନ ର ମେଘୁଆ ପାଗରୁ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ ବର୍ଷା ହେବାର ସମ୍ଭାବନା କରାଯାଉଛି ।)
(ii) You are late. You are going to miss the train.
(ତୁମର ଡେରି ହୋଇଗଲାଣି । ତୁମେ ଟ୍ରେନ୍ ହରାଇବ ।)
(ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ ଟ୍ରେନ୍ ହରାଇବାର ସମ୍ଭାବନା ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନର ଡେରି ହେବାରୁ ସୃଷ୍ଟି ହୋଇଛି ।)
(iii) Look, the man is going to fall. (He has lost his balance on the rope.)
(ଚାହଁ, ଲୋକଟି ରାସ୍ତାରେ ପଡ଼ିଯିବ । )
(ଏଠାରେ ଲୋକଟିର ପଡ଼ିଯିବାର ସମ୍ଭାବନା, ତା’ର ନିୟନ୍ତ୍ରଣ ହରାଇବା ପରିସ୍ଥିତିରୁ ସୃଷ୍ଟି ହୋଇଛି ।)
(iv) Run! The bull is going to attack you. (ଦୌଡ଼! ଷଣ୍ଢଟି ତୁମକୁ ଆକ୍ରମଣ କରିବ ।)
2. Present Progressive (Is/ am / are + Main Verb in the ‘ing’ form)
(a) To talk about plans or arrangement made for a particular time in the future.
(ଭବିଷ୍ୟତର ଏକ ନିର୍ଦ୍ଦିଷ୍ଟ ସମୟ ପାଇଁ ପୂର୍ବରୁ ପ୍ରସ୍ତୁତ କରାଯାଇଥିବା ଯୋଜନା ବା ବ୍ୟବସ୍ଥା ସଂପର୍କରେ କୁହାଗଲେ ) Examples :
(i) We are having a picnic tomorrow. (ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଆସନ୍ତାକାଲି ଏକ ବଣଭୋଜି କରିବୁ ।)
(We have already arranged for it)
(ii) Tomorrow is Sunday. I am taking the children to the Zoo.
(ଆସନ୍ତା କାଲି ରବିବାର । ମୁଁ ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କୁ ପଶୁଉଦ୍ୟାନ ବୁଲାଇ ନେବି ।)
(ଯୋଜନା ପୂର୍ବରୁ ପ୍ରସ୍ତୁତ)
(iii) Smita is returning by train next week. (ସ୍ମିତା ଆସନ୍ତାକାଲି ଟ୍ରେନ୍ରେ ଫେରିବ ।)
3. Present Simple (Is/am/are/take/takes)
(a) To talk about future events which are on a timetable or are part of a fixed plan or arrangement.
(ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ ହେବାକୁ ଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକ୍ରମ ଯଦି ସମୟ ନିର୍ଘଣ୍ଟ ଆଧାରିତ ବା ଧାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟସୂଚୀର ଅଂଶ ବିଶେଷ ହୋଇଥଲେ, ସେହିଭଳି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ପାଇଁ verb ର Present Simple tense form ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ ।)
(i) Tomorrow is a holiday. (ଆସନ୍ତାକାଲି ଏକ ଛୁଟିଦିନ ଅଟେ ।)
(ii) The Shatabdi Express leaves Kolkata at 8 p.m. today.
(ଆଜି ଶତାବ୍ଦୀ ଏକ୍ସପ୍ରେସ୍ ରାତି ୮ ଟାରେ କଲିକତା ଛାଡ଼ିବ । (ଟ୍ରେନ୍ସୂଚୀ))
(iii) What time does the game begin?
(ଖେଳ କେତେବେଳେ ଆରମ୍ଭ ହେବ ?)
4. Shall/Will+ base form of the Main Verb
(A) For a statement of future facts.
(ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ ସାଧାରଣତଃ ଘଟୁଥିବା (ସ୍ଵାଭାବିକ) କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ shall / will + Main Verb ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ ।)
(i) This work will take me two weeks to finish. (take = Main Verb/ base form)
(ଏହି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟଟିକୁ ଶେଷ କରିବାକୁ ମୋତେ ୨ ସପ୍ତାହ ସମୟ ଲାଗିବ ।)
(ii) shall be sixteen next week. (be = Main Verb/ base form)
(ଆସନ୍ତା ସପ୍ତାହରେ ମୋତେ ୧୬ ବର୍ଷ ହେବ ।)
(iii) The train will be late by half an hour. (be Main Verb / base form)
(ଟ୍ରେନ ଅଧଘଣ୍ଟା ପାଇଁ ଡେରି ହେବ ।)
(B) Shall / Will + Main Verb is used with the expressions ‘I hope/We expect/I feel/Probably/Perhaps etc. to denote one’s hope/thought etc. for future.
(ଭବିଷ୍ୟତ ପାଇଁ ଆଶା, ଭାବନା, ସମ୍ଭାବନା ଆଦି ଅର୍ଥରେ ଉପରୋକ୍ତ ବାକ୍ୟାଶ; ଯଥା, I hope/We except/I feel/will + Main Verb ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ ।)
(i) I think you will feel better after a rest.
( ମୁଁ ଭାବୁଛି ତୁମେ ବିଶ୍ରାମ ପରେ ସୁସ୍ଥ ଅନୁଭବ କରିବ ।)
(ii) Probably they will leave this place soon.
(ସମ୍ଭବତଃ ସେମାନେ ଏହି ସ୍ଥାନ ଶୀଘ୍ର ଛାଡ଼ିବେ ।)
(iii) I’m afraid she won’t agree to your proposal.
(ମୋର ଆଶଙ୍କା ସେ ତୁମର ପ୍ରସ୍ତାବରେ ରାଜି ହେବ ନାହିଁ ।)
(C) For expressing a sudden decision taken at the moment of speaking.
(କଥାବାର୍ତ୍ତା ସମୟରେ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ ହେବାକୁ ଥିବା ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନରେ ତତ୍କ୍ଷଣାତ୍ ନିଷ୍ପତ୍ତି ନେବା ଅର୍ଥରେ )
(i) The phone is ringing . I’ll answer it. (ଫୋନ୍ ବାଜୁଛି । ମୁଁ ଧରୁଛି ।)
(ii) Wait a minute. I’ll will come you. (ଏକ ମିନିଟ୍ ଅପେକ୍ଷା କର । ମୁଁ ତୁମ ସହିତ ଯାଉଛି ।)
(ii) Kamala: Please don’t tell this to others.
(କମଳା : ଦୟାକରି ଏହା କାହାକୁ କହିବନି ।)
Sushree: Ok, I won’t tell anybody about i
(ସୁଶ୍ରୀ : ଠିକ୍ ଅଛି, ମୁଁ ଏହା ବିଷୟରେ କାହାକୁ କିଛି କହିବିନି ।)
Remember the differences (ପାର୍ଥକ୍ୟ ସବୁ ମନେରଖ )
1. (a) ’m sure it will rain today. (ମୁଁ ନିଶ୍ଚିତ ଆଜି ବର୍ଷା ହେବ ।)
(a prediciton based on personal assessment)
(ବ୍ୟକ୍ତିଗତ ଆକଳନ ଉପରେ ଆଧାରିତ ପୂର୍ବାନୁମାନ)
(b) The sky is cloudy. It is going to rain today.
(ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନର ପରିସ୍ଥିତି ବା ସୂଚନା ଆଧାରିତ ଭବିଷ୍ୟବାଣୀ)
(a prediction based on present indication)
2. (a) ’m going to learn English soon.
(ମୁଁ ନିକଟ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ ଇଂରାଜୀ ଶିଖୁ ।)
(It is my plan or intention = ଏହା ମୋର ଯୋଜନା ବା ଇଚ୍ଛା ଅଟେ ।)
(b) am learning English soon. (ମୁଁ ନିକଟ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ ଇଂରାଜୀ ଶିଖୁ ।)
(I have arranged for it = ମୁଁ ଇଂରାଜୀ ଶିଖୁବାର ବ୍ୟବସ୍ଥା କରିଛି ।)
5. The Future Progressive
Shall/will be + the Main Verb in the ‘ing’ form
We use the ‘Future Progressive’ to say about an action that will be going on at a particular time in the future.
(ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ ଏକ ନିର୍ଦ୍ଦିଷ୍ଟ ସମୟ ପରିଧ୍ଵ ମଧ୍ଯରେ ଚାଲୁଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ପାଇଁ Future Progressive ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ ।)
Sushree : Can I see you at 1.45 sir ?
(ସୁଶ୍ରୀ : ସାର୍, ମୁଁ ଆପଣଙ୍କୁ ଗୋଟାଏ ପଇଁଚାଳିଶ ମିନିଟ୍ରେ ଦେଖା କରିପାରିବି ?)
Mr Pradhan : No, don’t come then. I will be having my lunch at that time.
(ଶ୍ରୀଯୁକ୍ତ ପ୍ରଧାନ : ନା, ସେତେବେଳେ ଆସନା । ମୁଁ ସେତେବେଳେ ମୋର ମଧ୍ୟାହ୍ନ ଭୋଜନ କରୁଥିବି ।)
The film begins at six and ends at nine.
(ଫିଲ୍ମଟି ଛ’ଟାରେ ଆରମ୍ଭ ହୋଇ ନ’ଟାରେ ଶେଷ ହୁଏ ।)
We will be watching the film tomorrow at seven.
(ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ ସାତଟାରେ ଫିଲ୍ମଟିକୁ ଦେଖୁଥିବୁ ।)
6. Future Perfect
Will/shall have + Main Verb in the past participle
We use the ‘Future Perfect’ to talk about something that will be finished before a time in the future.
(ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ ଏକ ନିର୍ଦ୍ଦିଷ୍ଟ ସମୟ ପୂର୍ବରୁ ଶେଷ ହେବାକୁ ଥିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ପାଇଁ Future Perfect ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୁଏ ।)
(Here ‘by + time expression’ is used. = (ଏ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ by + time expression ବ୍ୟବହାର କରାଯାଏ ।)
I am saving money for a scooter.
(ମୁଁ ଗୋଟିଏ ସ୍କୁଟର ପାଇଁ ଟଙ୍କା ସଂଚୟ କରୁଛି । )
I will have saved enough for it by the end of this year.
(ଏଇ ବର୍ଷ ଶେଷ ସୁଦ୍ଧା ମୁଁ ଯଥେଷ୍ଟ ସଂଚୟ କରି ଦେଇଥିବି ।)
I will have finished reading the book by then.
(ମୁଁ ସେତେବେଳେ ସୁଦ୍ଧା ବହିଟି ପଢ଼ି ଶେଷ କରିଦେଇ ଥୁବି ।)
Activity – 1
Use shall/will in the blank spaces :
(i) A friend is trying to move a heavy table. You say, “ ________ I give you a hand ?”
A friend is trying to move a heavy table. You say, “Shall I give you a hand ?”
(ii) “There is a lot of cleaning to do. You do the cleaning and I ________ do the drying. ”
“There is a lot of cleaning to do. You do the cleaning and I will do the drying.”
(iii) A friend is carrying a lot of books to the library. You are going there anyway. You say, “I ________ take them there if you like. ”
A friend is carrying a lot of books to the library. You are going there anyway. You say, “I shall take them there if you like. ”
(iv) I ________ go and ask the clerk if he has a spare key.
I shall go and ask the clerk if he has a spare key.
Activity – 2
Work in small groups and write a four-line poem. Your first line should be one of the following expressions. The other three lines must be your creation and must start with I’ll. The lines need not rhyme.
# When I’m old and gray,
# When I go to college,
# When I wake up tomorrow,
# When I become famous,
# When I win a prize next,
# When father pats me on the back (tomorrow),
When I wake up tomorrow,
I’ll rush to my little garden;
I’ll play with the little butterfly;
I’ll hope with weaver-bird.
Activity – 3
In each of thefollowing pairs ofsentences, one is more natural and common. Cross out the more unusual ones (ଭୁଲ୍ ବା ଅସ୍ଵାଭାବିକ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ କାଟିପକାଅ)
(i) Leave that. (I’ll carry it./I’m going to carry it) for you.
I am going to carry it (✗)
(ii) Bye. (I’ll see you/I’m going to see you) tomorrow.
I’m going to see you (✗)
(iii) (I’ll post/I’m going to post) these letters for you if you like.
I’m going to post (✗)
(iv) I’m so tired. (I’ll go/I’m going to go) to bed.
I’m going to go (✗)
(v) I’m so far behind with my studies that (I’ll work/I’m going to work) next Sunday.
I’ll work (✗)
Activity – 4
Two friends Nilu and Chinu are leaving school together. Their parents have gone to their village. Some of the lines of their conversation are correct and some have mistakes. If a line is correct, put a tick mark. If a line has a mistake in it, underline the mistake and write the correct expression against the brackets. (ଠିକ୍ ଧାଡ଼ି ପାଇଁ (✓) ଚିହ୍ନ ଓ ଭୁଲ୍ ଧାଡ଼ି ପାଇଁ ଭୁଲ୍ ଶବ୍ଦକୁ ରେଖାଙ୍କିତ କରି ଏହାର ସଠିକ୍ ଉତ୍ତର ବନ୍ଧନୀ ଭିତରେ ଲେଖ)
Where will you eat tonight ? (1)
Where will you eat tonight ? (1) (✓)
At home, I’ve got a cookery book, so I’ll make a curry. (2)
At home, I’ve got a cookery book, so I’ll make a curry. (2)
Correct : I’m going to make a curry.
Why not come to my place? I’m going to cook us both something. (3)
Why not come to my place? I’m going to cook us both something. (3)
Correct : I will cook something for both of us.
Won’t you go to meet your Grandpa? (4)
Won’t you go to meet your Grandpa? (4)
Correct : Aren’t you going to meet your Grandpa?
No, he’s left for the village. I’m not going to meet him for a month or so. (5)
No, he’s left for the village, I’m not going to meet him for a month or so. (5) (✓)
O.K.I’m going to come round at 8 and I’ll bring some ice-cream. (6)
O.K. I’m going to come round at 8 and I’ll bring some ice-cream. (6)
Correct : I’ll come round at 8 and I’ll bring ice cream.
Fine. I’ll see you then. (7)
Fine. I’ll see you then. (7) (✓)
Activity – 5
Use in the blank spaces will/shall, be going to, or present progressive forms of he verbs given in brackets, (will/shall, be going to ବା present progressive form ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ଶୂନ୍ୟସ୍ଥାନ ପୂରଣ କର ।)
Mina : Would you like to come to watch a movie this weekend?
Nina : I’d like to, but I’m afraid ________ (I/not/have) time.
Mina : Why? ________ (what / do)
Nina : Well, (my father/arrive) back from Delhi. He’s been there for six months and ________ (we/have) a big party to celebrate.
Mina : ________ (he/not/be) too tired for a party after his long train journey?
Nina : Yes and no doubt ________ (he/have) no proper food during the journey. So, on Saturday he can take it easy. But on Sunday, ________ (all the family/come) on a picnic. ________ (I/prepare) things all day on Saturday.
Mina : What a lot of work for you.
Nina : I don’t mind. Other members of my family are helpful and we are well organized. In fact, ________ (I/see) someone about hiring a cook this afternoon. So, I must go now or ________ (I/not/get) to their shop before ________ (they/close).
Mina : I hope ________ (everything/go) well for you.
Nina : I’m sure ________ (it/be) a great day. Provided ________ (the weather/remain) fine.
Mina : Would you like to come to watch a movie this weekend?
Nina : I’d like to. but I’m afraid I won’t have time.
Mina : Why ? What are you going to do? (କ’ଣ କରିବୁ).
Nina : Well, my father is arriving (ପହଞ୍ଚେବେ) back from Delhi. He’s been there for six months and we’re having (ଭୋଜିଦେବୁ) a big party to celebrate.
Mina : Won’t he be tired too for a party after his long train journey?
Nina : Yes and no doubt he will have no proper food during the journey. So. on Saturday he can take it easy. But on Sunday, all the family are coming on a picnic. I am preparing/am going to prepare (ପ୍ରସ୍ତୁତ କରିବି) things all day on Saturday.
Mina : What a lot of work for you.
Nina : I don’t mind. Other members of my family are helpful and we are well organized. In fact, I will see someone about hiring a cook this afternoon. So, I must go now or I won’t get to their shop before they are closed.
Mina : I hope everything will go well for you.
Nina : I’m sure it will be a great day. Provided the weather remains fine.
Activity – 6
Copy your time-table for next Thursday. On the basis of that write five sentences to mention what you are going to do that day. Compare your sentences with those of your friend’s. (ଆସନ୍ତା ଗୁରୁବାର ପାଇଁ ତୁମର ସମୟ ନିର୍ଘଣ୍ଟ ପ୍ରସ୍ତୁତ କର ।) (ସେ ଦିନ କ’ଣ କରିବାକୁ ଯାଉଛ ୫ଟି ବାକ୍ୟରେ ପ୍ରକାଶ କର ।)
I’m participating (ଅଂଶଗ୍ରହଣ କରିବି) in a drawing competition in my school.
I’m monitoring the class after the class.
I’m collecting (ଆଦାୟ କରିବି) money for giving farewell to our headmaster.
I’m going (ଯିବି) to the market with my friends to buy a few things.
I’m joining (ଯୋଗଦେବି) the birthday party of my friend Jatin in the evening.
Activity – 7
Use either will be v-ing or will have v-en in the blank spaces in the following lines. The verbs have been given in brackets.
(i) Our school closes at 4.30. I ________ (take) some snacks at home at five o’clock.
Our school closes at 4.30. I will be taking (ଖାଉଥିବି) some snacks at home at five o’clock.
(ii) Our school closes at 4.30. I ________ (reach) home by five o’clock.
Our school closes at 4.30. I will have reached (ପହଞ୍ଚିଯାଇଥିବି) home by five o’clock.
(iii) They ________ (not/finish) painting the school building until next week.
They won’t have finished (ଶେଷ କରିନଥିବେ) painting the school building until next week.
(iv) You ________ (take) a test on English Grammar this day next week.
You will be taking (ଏକ ପରୀକ୍ଷା ଦେଉଥିବ) a test on English Grammar this day next week.
(v) Our teacher ________ (work) here for next five years.
Our teacher will be working (ଶିକ୍ଷାଦାନ କରୁଥିବେ) here for next five years.
(vi) By the time you read this, I ________ (finish) answering all the questions.
By the time you read this, I will have finished (ଶେଷ କରି ନେଇ ଥୁବି) answering all the questions.
Tense Revisited Additional Exercises With Answers
Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs given in the brackets.
1. Cow ________ on grass. (live)
2. The Mahanadi ________ into the Bay of Bengal. (flow)
3. Ashish ________ in ghosts. (believe)
4. Oxygen ________ bumping. (help)
5. The notice ________ “No Smoking”. (say)
6. You can stay as long I ________ here. (be)
7. School ________ at 10. (sit)
8. Here ________ Kohli to bat. (come)
9. I ________ he is right, (think)
10. I shall help if he ________. (come)
11. He always gets up early, but today he ________ late. (get up)
is getting up
12. The girl ________ constantly mistakes. (make)
13. My father ________ from the USA tonight. (return)
14. I TV when some one rang. (watch)
15. He explained what ________. (happen)
16. I wish I ________ her telephone number. (know)
17. We ________ Puri last week, (visit)
18. He used to ________ a bag. (carry)
19. The patient ________ before the doctor arrived. (die)
20. I found a note when I ________ my father’s shirt. (wash)
21. When Munu was playing, Sonu ________. (read)
22. I ________ to the song four times since this afternoon, (listen)
23. The boy admitted that he ________ the window. (break)
24. When I reached the station, the train ________ the station. (leave)
25. Our school ________ yesterday. (open)
26. The police ________ the thief for the last six months. (chase)
has been chasing
27. I ________ the book for the last two months. (write)
have been writing
28. They ________ for two hours, when their car broke down. (drive)
had been driving
29. India ________ free in 1947. (become)
30. The girl is out of breath because she ________ round the playground, (run)
has been running
31. She ________ with her aunt at the moment. (stay)
32. This is the first time Sneha ________ meat. (cook)
33. My father waters the plants, but today I ________ them. (water)
34. The tin ________ some sugar, (contain)
35. By the time I reached at school, the teaching ________ for an hour. (continue)
36. Dr PrativaRoy ________ many novels. (write)
37. Shakespear ________ many plays. (write)
38. The postman ________ come yet. (not come)
has not come
39. If he ________ to cheat, I would inform his father. (try)
40. I ________ Puri three times last year, (visit)
41. Quinine ________ bitter. (taste)
42. I ________ he is right. (feel)
43. He ________ a house in the city. (own)
44. The chief guest ________ the function open. (declare)
45. When I was in Hyderabad, I ________ a student. (be)
46. Once upon a time there ________ a king. (live)
47. We ________ to the new house next week. (move)
48. Education ________ a nation great. (make)
49. The Prime Minister ________ America next month. (visit)
50. Tomorrow ________ Sunday.(be)
51. I wish I ________ wings. (have)
52. As soon as I ________ the letter, I will inform you. (receive)
53. When the teacher entered the class, the students ________. (stand up)
54. The bridge collapsed when the train ________ on it. (run)
55. He ________ at this school this year, (read)
56. The climate ________ day by day. (change)
57. Babul ________ in class IX last year. (read)
58. Madhusmita is not at home. She ________ to Mumbai. (go)
59. Rojalin ________ this place a few minutes ago. (leave)
60. As soon as the ship ________ the harbour, it started raining. (leave)
61. ________ you meet him yesterday? (do)
62. My father ________ coffee to tea. (prefer)
63. What ________ you tomorrow? (do)
64. She ________ always ________ her keys. (lose)
65. Elephants ________ in forest. (live)
66. Water ________ our life. (sustain)
67. Nothing ________ since you came here. (change)
68. The villagers ________ the road for two weeks. (repair)
have been repairing
69. He looked as if he ________ for days together. (not eat)
had not eaten
70. Marconi ________ radio. (invent)
71. I ________ my face about when she looked at me. (turn)
72. Recently the price of petroleum ________. (go up)
has gone up
73. Cricket ________ in America. (not play)
is not played
74. Help me if you ________. (like)
75. Don’t read the questions until I ________ you to do so. (ask)
76. Man ________ one day. (die)
77. We ________ a play next week. (have)
78. I hope she ________. (come)
79. I think it ________ today. (rain)
80. Don’t call me at 11 pm. I ________ then. (sleep)
shall be sleeping
81. Call me after 9.30 pm. I ________ dinner then.(finish)
shall have finished
82. Leave those questions, I ________ you the answer. (tell)
83. Our teacher ________ here for next four years. (work)
will be working
84. I don’t think, he ________ the scholarship. (get)
85. Look! The child ________. (fall)
is going to fall
86. I ________ fifteen next week. (be)
87. The phone is ringing. I ________ it. (answer)
88. We ________ a picnic tomorrow. (have)
89. Our examination ________ on Monday next. (start)
90. The train ________ at 5 am. (leave)
91. The sky is clear. It ________ a sunny day. (be)
is going to be
92. I ________ a house very soon. (build)
93. You are late. You ________ the train. (miss)
are going to miss
94. I ________ HSC examination by may next. (pass)
shall have passed
95. I afraid she ________. (not agree)
96. Wait a minute. I ________ with you. (come)
97. The hunter is pointing his gun at the bird. He ________ it. (shoot)
is going to shoot
98. I ________ English soon. (learn)
99. I ________ school by 10.30. (reach)
shall have reached
100. She ________ chess at this time tomorrow. (play)
will be playing
What do the tense forms used in the following sentence express?
1. Spring comes after winter.
law of nature
2. Light travels faster than sound.
3. The collector declares the flower show open.
4. I am hungry.
5. Jammu and Kashmir is in the north part of India.
6. The AHSC Exam 2019 begins next week.
planned future action
7. The sun rises in the east.
8. Lifestyle of people is changing very fast.
9. Puja is always biting her nails.
10. He is getting up at 6 every morning for his examination.
Single words answer.
1. The past form of ‘learn’ is ________.
2. The present form of ‘put’ is ________.
3. The past participle form of ‘bite’ is ________.
4. The -ing form of ‘die’ is ________.
5. The -ing form of ‘forget’ is ________.
6. The past form of ‘buy’ is ________.
7. The past form of ‘cling’ is ________.
8. The present form of ‘fled’ is ________.
9. The past participle form of ‘meet’ is ________.
10. The past participle form of ‘awake’ is ________.
11. The present form of ‘froze’ is ________.
12. The past form of ‘dream’ is ________.
13. The past form of ‘breed’ is ________.
14. The past form of ‘dwell’ is ________.
15. The -ing form of ‘stop’ is ________.
16. The-ing form of ‘continue’ is ________.
17. The -ing form of ‘begin’ is ________.
18. The past form of ‘choose’ is ________.
19. The past participle form of ‘lie’ is ________.
20. The past form of ‘shine’ is ________.