Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 Invitation to English 4 Solutions Grammar Tense Patterns Unit 1 The Present Simple and the Present Progressive Textbook Activity Questions and Answers.
CHSE Odisha 12th Class English Grammar Tense Patterns Unit 1 The Present Simple and the Present Progressive
We might have heard two English words, i.e., Time and Tense. They are not regarded as the same in the English language. The word ‘Tense’ is a purely grammatical term. But we use the words yesterday, today, and tomorrow. We use ‘yesterday’ for past time, ‘today’ for the present time, and ‘tomorrow’ for future time. We can experience the time and say what time it is. The term ‘tense’ in grammar is used to refer to a verb form. An English verb basically has two forms/categories. Let’s take the verb go. We say: go — present tense, went — past tense, gone — past participle tense.
Some of us have a wrong notion that the verb ‘go’ has three forms.
Observe all the forms of the verb (go)-
(i) present (go),
(ii) past (went), and
(iii) past participle (gone).
The past participle is the sub-class/form of the past form. So there are basically two forms of a verb i.e., present and past. These two forms express all the various kinds of meanings in the present, past, and future times. If a verb has two forms, then there are two tenses — (not three tenses). That is why there is no ‘Future Tense’ in the English language.
Let’s have some ideas on Tense patterns.
The Present Simple and Present Progressive.
Look at the following sentences.
(a) Satish: What are you doing?
Manish: I am writing a letter to my friend. I write to him every Sunday.
(b) I don’t understand why my dog is barking at you this morning. He is usually quite friendly.
(c) You are very gentle normally, so why are you acting in such a violent manner now?
In the above examples, 7 write to him every Sunday.’ 7 don’t understand’. ‘He is usually quite friendly.’ ‘’You are very gentle normally.’ the verb phrases underlined belong to ‘Simple Present Tense’.They are used to describe persons and things in their normal or usual state or they talk about some activity that takes place habitually or regularly.
But the examples: ‘Why my dog is barking at you this morning.’ ‘Why are you acting… ?’ and 7 am writing a letter….’ the verb phases (be + ing form) belong to ‘Present Progressive/Continuous Tense’. They are used to talking about some activity that is going on at the present moment of speaking. The activity/event is going on or continuing now.
Activity – 1
Study the sentences below and fill in the gaps, using the Present Simple / Present Progressive form of the verb in brackets, as required.
(a) They boy next door ______________(water) the plants this morning, but he normally ______________(do) it in the evening.
(b) My sister ______________(play) badminton now, but she ______________ (not play) here everyday.
(c) My brother ______________(search) for his pen. He always ______________ (misplace) it.
(d) We ______________(get) ready to go to school; we ______________ (go) to school every morning.
(e) I usually ______________ (enjoy) reading books in the library, but I ______________ (not enjoy) this one very much.
(f) My grandfather rarely ______________(carry) an umbrella, but he ______________(carry) one now because there are dark clouds in the sky.
(g) I’m sorry, but you can’t see the Minister. He ______________ (sleep) still, although he usually ______________(wake up) very early.
(h) Hari ______________ (do) his homework still. His brother, who always ______________(work) very fast ______________ (play) in the garden already.
(a) The boy next door is watering the plants this morning, but he normally does it in the evening.
(b) My sister is playing badminton now, but she does not play here every day.
(c) My brother is searching for his pen. He always misplaces it.
(d) We are getting ready to go to school; we go to school every morning.
(e) I usually enjoy reading books in the library, but I am not enjoying this one very much.
(f) My grandfather rarely carries an umbrella, but he is carrying one now because there are dark clouds in the sky.
(g) I’m sorry, but you can’t see the Minister. He is sleeping still, although he usually wakes up very early.
(h) Hari is doing his homework still. His brother, who always works very fast, is playing in the garden already.
The time is 8 p.m. Everyone in your family is busy, but each person is doing something which is different from what he/she usually does at this time. The members of your family, including yourself, are listed below. Write what each one of them is doing, and also mention what they usually do at this time. (One example has been given)
3. My uncle
4. My aunt
5. My sister
6. My brother
Father is having a shave, but he usually goes for a walk at this time.
She is knitting now, but she normally works at this time.
3. My uncle
My brother is sleeping still, but he usually goes to school at this time.
4. My aunt
My aunt is having a bath now, but she usually sleeps at this time.
5. My sister
My sister is playing now, but she generally studies her lessons at this time.
6. My brother
My brother is playing cards now, but he usually goes to the fields at this time.
I am doing morning exercise now, but I usually do not do it every day.
Examine the following sentences :
(a) We usually have a football match in our village every Sunday, but this year we aren’t having any matches.
(b) He usually avoids going to the library but he is going there regularly this month as he is preparing for an exam.
The above examples show that the Present Progressive does not specify either the time of beginning or the time of completing the activity. All we know is the activity is in progress now (the moment of speaking). Expressions like nowadays, this month, these days, etc. are used to refer to the period of time during which the activity takes place. In order to distinguish the Progressive from the Non-Progressive form, we have to see its three separate meanings. It indicates :
(i) Temporary duration,
(ii) Limited duration,
(iii) the happenings need not be complete.
Simple present, on the other hand, refers to a relatively permanent activity or state.
Activity – 3
Fill in the blank spaces below, using the appropriate forms of the verbs in brackets.
(a) Our neighbours ______________(go) to Puri every winter but this winter they ______________ (go) to Sambalpur.
(b) My father generally______________ (take) the bus but today he ______________(walk) to work.
(c) They usually ______________(play) football on Sundays but this month they ______________ (play) cricket instead.
(d) My brother always ______________(work) on the day shift but this summer he ______________(work) on the night shift.
(e) My teacher ______________(go) abroad every year but she ______________ (visit) Kanyakumari this year.
(a) Our neighbors go to Puri every winter but this winter they are going to Sambalpur.
(b) My father generally takes the bus but today he is walking to work.
(c) They usually play football on Sundays but this month they are playing cricket instead.
(d) My brother always works the day shift but this summer he is working on the night shift.
(e) My teacher goes abroad every year but she is visiting Kanyakumari this year.
Imagine that you have an examination next month. You are working very hard for your examination and have been forced to change your daily routine. Describe seven things that you usually do and the things you are required to do now. You can use expressions such as these days, nowadays, this month, this summer, etc. An example is given in (i).
(i) I normally get up at 7 o’clock but I am getting up at 5 a.m. these days.
(ii) I usually go to tuition but I am preparing my lessons myself these days.
(iii) I normally read my books but I’m writing out my lessons this month.
(iv) I generally study the textbooks but I’m studying the key books these days.
(v) I study for my lessons two hours a day but I’m studying ins ten hours this month.
Activity – 5
Imagine that panchayat elections are going to be held in your village and as a result, a lot of development work is taking place. Write five sentences, mentioning in each what the present condition in the village is and what new work is going on right now. Look at the example in (i) and use the hints provided in the other bits of your sentences.
(i) Drinking water.
(iv) Medical facilities
(i) Drinking water.
Our village has no water supply but now the government is providing piped water to every home.
Our village has no electricity facilities but the government is fixing poles in our village for electricity.
Our village has no concrete road but the government is making a concrete road for the villagers.
(iv) Medical facilities
Our village has no dispensary but the government is providing a dispensary for us.
Our village has no primary school but the government is constructing a building for a primary school.
Verbs that do not normally take the Progressive form.
Examine the pairs of sentences below.
(a) (i) I like to fish.
(ii) I am liking fish.
(b) (i) He feels very happy.
(ii) He is feeling the heat now.
(c) (i) Sugar tastes sweet.
(ii) The sugar in the market is tasting less sweet these days.
Verbs like feel, like, taste, love, hate, want, need, prefer, know; realize, suppose, mean, understand, believe, remember, belong, contain, consist, depend, seem, think, see, etc. are known as stative verbs. They refer to states rather than to events or actions. We use the Simple Present to refer to states that exist at the present moment. Some of these verbs can be used as dynamic or action-oriented. In that case, they go with an —ing form i.e., the Progressive form. Then the usual character of the verb
Activity — 6
Choose the correct alternative to fill in the blanks.
(a) Costs / is costing
(i) Gold ________ more and more these days.
(ii) Gold ________a great deal of money.
(b) thinks/is thinking
(i) He ________Don’t disturb him.
(ii) He ________very highly of you.
(c) enjoy/am enjoying
(i) I ________ games.
(ii) I ________this game.
(a) (i) is costing
(b) (i) is thinking
(c) (i) enjoy
(ii) am enjoying
Rewrite the sentences below without changing the meaning. Use the word given in capital letters, which must not be altered in any way.
These shoes are the wrong size for me. FIT
These shoes do not fit me.
(a) There are four gallons of petrol in the tank. CONTAINS
(b) I intend to go to Koraput next summer. THINKING OF
(c) The life of the Rajput family forms the subject of the story. DESCRIBES
(d) The doctor is looking at the X-Ray. HAVING A LOOK
(e) When I see this village I remember my childhood. REMINDS ME OF
(f) I am fond of sweets. LIKE
(g) In my opinion you should meet him again. THINK
(a) The tank contains four gallons of petrol.
(b) I am thinking of going to Koraput next summer.
(c) The life of the Rajput family describes the subject of the story.
(d) The doctor is having a look at the X-Ray.
(e) This village reminds me of my childhood.
(f) I like sweets.
(g) I think you should meet him again.
Activity – 8
Use the verbs in brackets in the Simple Present or Present Progressive forms.
This year I ________ (study) English at Delhi University. I ________ (work) part-time in a public library. I’m lucky to have this job. I ________(not have to) get up early. The library ________ (open) at 10 and ________ (close) at 7. The work is interesting because people ________ (always come in) and ________ (ask) me to help them, so I ________ (learn) a lot about different subjects. I ________ (enjoy) the job and ________ (find) it very amusing too. People ________ (use) the strangest things as bookmarks. I have found a lock of black hair inside books. Matchsticks ________ (be) common and so ________ (be) bus tickets. My colleagues ________ (always find) things – even a ten rupee note, but I haven’t been so lucky! I often ________ (think) of a photograph I once found inside a book. It was the photograph of a beautiful girl, and on the back were the words ‘I ________ (love) you, and I ________ (miss) you very much.’
This year I am studying English at Delhi University. I am working part-time in a public library. I’m lucky to have this job. I do not have to get up early. The library opens at 10 and closes at 7. The work is interesting because people always come in and ask me to help them, so I learn a lot about different subjects. I enjoy the job and find it very amusing too. People use the strangest things as bookmarks. I have found a lock of black hair inside books. Matchsticks are common and so is bus tickets. My colleagues always find things – even a ten rupee note, but I haven’t been so lucky! I often think of a photograph I once found inside a book. It was the photograph of a beautiful girl, and on the back were the words ‘I love you, and I miss you very much.