CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Official Letter Writing

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Invitation to English 3 Solutions Official Letter Writing Textbook Activity Questions and Answers.

CHSE Odisha 11th Class English Official Letter Writing

Official Letters

A letter written to an official, in most cases, deals with some problem that concerns the writer.
Characteristics of good official letters
(a) Introduction
(b) Information
(c) Conclusion
The problem of the writer is briefly introduced in the first person. It is then elaborated on and substantiated in the second section. concluding section throws light on a specific request for a solution to the writer’s problem.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Official Letter Writing

Activity 5

Here is a letter written by a Ward Member of Berhampur Municipality to the local Police Station. Read it carefully.

From
Dr. N.T. Rao, Member
Berhampur Municipal Council
Ward – 1
Dated 1 June, 20
To
The Officer-in-Charge
Baidyanathpur Police Station
Komapalli Berhampur
Sub: Request for Night Patrol Sir,
I write to draw your attention to the frequent occurrence of thefts of house-breaking in our locality during the last couple of weeks. last night, my neighbor lost all his valuables in a case of house-breaking. After receiving an urgent call, he had gone to his village in the evening with his family. He had locked all the doors, but when he returned in the morning, to his dismay.

he found the back door broken and all his valuables stolen. Last week, another neighbor lost his scooter. Someone broke open the grill gate during the night and took away his scooter. Cases of bicycle lifting have rather become common in our locality. We have reasons to believe that there is a gang operating in this area. I request you to provide extra police patrol at night and take urgent steps to nab the gang.
Yours faithfully,
N.T.Rao

Now read the letter again and answer the following questions.

Who is it from?
What is the problem he is writing about?
In which paragraph does he provide the details?
What are they?
What is the request made?
Answer:
(a) The letter is from N. T. Rao.
(b) He is writing about frequent occurrences of theft and house-breaking in his locality.
(c) He provides the details in paragraph 2.
(d) They refer to his neighbor’s house-breaking and theft of valuables. Above all, Dr. Rao refers to frequent bicycle lifting and the theft of a scooter from his neighbor.
(e) He requests the police to provide extra patrolling at night to catch the gang involved in house-breaking and theft.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Official Letter Writing

Activity 6

Complete this letter which Mr. Sahu writes to the Chief District Medical Officer about some problems in the local hospital.

From
Mr.Srinivas Sahu,
Sarapanch
Nua Patna Gram Panchayat
Tigiria, Cuttack
14 Mar, 20_
To
The Chief District Medical Officer,
Cuttack
Sub: Steps to improve facilities in the hospital Sir,
I wish to invite your attention to some serious problems that the local hospital in Nigeria has been facing for some time. (The problems: inadequate staff; vacant posts not filled; unsanitary conditions; garbage dumped all around; poor maintenance of buildings and equipment; shortage of essential medicines, etc.) (Action requested: Yours faithfully, (Srinivas Sahu)

Answer:

Nua Patna Gram Panchayat
Tigiria, Cuttack
14, March, 20

To
The Chief District Medical Officer
Cuttack
Sir,
I wish to invite your attention to some serious problems that the local hospital at Tigiria has been facing for some time. First of all, Tigiria has been plagued by a lack of adequate staff for the last five years. While the sanctioned strength of doctors is twelve, there are only two of them. Moreover, the two doctors now posted at Tigiria are only graduates. There is no one to man the different other departments established at the hospital’s foundation by the WHO.

One is tempted to ask what has happened to the funds/grants that are being sanctioned every year by the W.H.O. in lieu of the salary of doctors. Similarly, where there ought to be 20 nurses there are only 6; of 8 pharmacists only 2, and of 10 attendants only 1. With such a skeletal staff one wonders how such a large hospital with such a great inflow of patients, can be run.

Secondly, there is the unsanitary condition of the hospital. Wards are being cleaned only once a week. Sweepers complain about the non-availability of phenyl, bleaching powder, and other disinfectants. As a result, the environs of the hospital emit a foul smell. This is compounded by the garbage piled behind the hospital. Without an incinerator or some kind of waste disposal unit, the hospital is becoming a breeding ground for germs and viruses from which it is intended to protect people.

Thirdly, poor maintenance of buildings and equipment is having its toll on patients. The air-conditioner in the ICU is ‘under repair’ for the last year. The x-ray machine is out of order and so on. One does not know when the leaking wards will be repaired and how long it will be before the hospital is whitewashed. Finally, what is of great concern is the shortage of essential medicines.

Oral rehydration packets, Enteroquinol, Quinine, Primaquin, etc. are always in short supply thereby resulting in a number of deaths. I request you therefore to kindly visit the hospital and get a first-hand experience of the situation here. I would also request you ensure the supply of essential medicines immediately so that common deaths from dysentery and malaria do not recur. Doctors, nurses, and pharmacists may also be transferred from overstaffed city hospitals.
Yours faithfully,
(Srinivas Sahu)

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Official Letter Writing

Activity 7

Your friend wants to send a letter to the Chairman of the Municipality complaining about the neglect of roads and drains in your locality. As he is going out, he expects you to write a letter to him. He gives you the following points. Write a letter to him.

From
Mr. Sujit Mishra
Ward Member, Municipal Council
Sector – 3, Rourkela
Date – 20 Feb, 20
To
The Chairman Rourkela Municipality
Rourkela
Sub: Improvement of civil facilities.
Sir,
– neglect of roads and drains
– roads not swept
– piles of garbage
– drains blocked
– stagnant water
– mosquitoes and flies
– place unhygienic
– request to clean the roads and drains twice every week
Yours faithfully,
(Sujit Mishra)

Answer:

Sector – 3
Rourkela
20, February, 20

To
The Chairman
Rourkela Municipality
Rourkela
Sir,
I would like to draw your attention to the unsanitary conditions that plague our locality. There is complete neglect of roads and drains in our sector. The roads are seldom swept and piles of garbage can be seen at every comer. Moreover, as some of the garbage has been washed into the drains by the rains, the drains have been completely blocked.

As a result, there is at least two feet of standing water in the drain. This has thus become a suitable place for the breeding of mosquitoes and flies, thereby making the whole locality unhygienic. I request you therefore to kindly see that the roads and drains are cleaned and the garbage lifted regularly so that the place is free from mosquitoes and flies and a hygienic environment prevails.
Yours faithfully,
(Sujit Mishra)

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Official Letter Writing

Activity 8

(a) Write a letter to the District Transport Manager, OSRTC complaining about the rude behavior of bus conductors on your route.
(b) The walls of your locality are frequently disfigured by posters. Write a letter to the police authorities expressing your disapproval and giving suggestions for overcoming the problem.
(c) There are frequent unscheduled power cuts in your locality. It seriously affects your preparation for the ensuing CHSE Examination. Write a letter to the SDO (Electricals) of your locality requesting him to check these unscheduled power cuts.
Answer:
(a)

Plot No. 106,
Jaydev Vihar
Bhubaneswar
25 Sept., 20.

To
The District Transport Manager,
OSRTC
Cuttack
Sir,
I wish to invite your attention to the rude behavior of bus conductors on the BBSR-Cuttack route. I am a regular commuter to Cuttack as I study there. Every day I take the OSRTC Bhubaneswar-Cuttack ‘Students Special’ to Ravenshaw College. As a student I am entitled to a fifty percent concession in the fare which amounts to Rs. 3.50. But the conductor charges Rs. 4.00 every time. In spite of our repeated requests, he has been doing this regularly.

Yesterday, he stopped the bus mid-way and forced a few classmates of mine, out of the bus. He even threatened them with dire consequences if they reported him and did not pay Rs. 4.00 as fare. Moreover, he takes in passengers other than students on the bus and charges them Rs. 10.00/- for dropping them off near Ravenshaw. As a result, many bona fide students are deprived of this facility.

It is a well-known fact that this conductor is a goonda and therefore he treats the passengers with little respect and has the bus move according to his own whims and fancy with unscheduled stops and erratic timing. As a result other conductors to have become lackadaisical in their work and high-handed with passengers. I request you therefore to look into the matter and take action to transfer the conductor in question to some other zone so as to pacify and solve the problems of the students.
Yours faithfully,
Prabhat Mishra

(b)

College Square
Cuttack
30 July, 20

To
The Station House Officer Cantonment Police Station Cantonment Road Cuttack Sir,
I wish to invite your attention to the disfiguring of walls in our locality. As you are aware Cuttack Chandi is graced by the Chandi temple as well as many educational institutions like the Sailabala Women’s College and Christ College. It is sad that the walls of this temple that houses the goddess and the walls of these temples of learning are disfigured by posters of films, posters advertising meetings or Tutorials, etc. Right in front of the Chandi Temple, the wall of Sailabala College provides a convenient place for posters.

But the sight of nude film posters is not only disconcerting but also ugly to look at. Similarly, the walls of Christ College have been disfigured by posters. Walls of private houses paralleling the wall of Christ College also have not been left untouched. I, therefore, request you to kindly enforce the prohibition on pasting posters on the walls of the Chandi temple as well as the colleges and private houses. The citizens’ committee is also willing to provide bamboo screens at suitable sites chosen by you, for putting up the posters.
Yours faithfully,
Santanu Mohanty

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Official Letter Writing

(c)

Main Road
Angul
4 March, 20

To
The SDO
CESCO
Angul
Sir,
I wish to draw your attention to the unscheduled power cuts that frequently occur in Kunjakanta. I am a student appearing for die ensuing CHSE Examination. Like me, there are numerous other friends of mine here at Kunjakanta who are taking the CHSE Examinations. All of us are deeply concerned about the unscheduled power cuts that frequently occur in our area.

The power cuts occur so erratically and with such increasing frequency as well as for such long hours that our preparation for the examination is greatly hampered. Besides, we are not even able to sleep well so that we can appear for the Examination the following morning without feeling sleepy and tired. It would not be too far-fetched to say that the power cuts are indirectly affecting our performance in the examinations.

We are not against load-shedding but with unscheduled power cuts, we are unable to plan out when we could relax and when to give time to studies. On the other hand, if load-shedding is scheduled, even for a whole hour, we could spend that time relaxing, going on walks, and thereby refreshing our minds and body. I request you therefore to view this matter seriously and prevent unscheduled power cuts.
Yours faithfully,
Ramesh Jena

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Application Writing

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Invitation to English 3 Solutions Application Writing Textbook Activity Questions and Answers.

CHSE Odisha 11th Class English Application Writing

Applications

An important type of business letter is the letter of aplication. Usually it is written in reply to an advertisement. The following points should be borne in mind in writing a lttter of application.

A. Presentation:
The letter must be neatly written or typed. The envelope must be properly stamped and addressed.

B. Qualifications:
Your qualifications must be clearly stated, and related to the job you are applying for. You should not sound boastful, but, on the other hand, you should clearly show that you consider yourself eligible for the post.

C. Experience:
Here again give the information that is relevant to the post. If you have just completed your studies, don’t write – Experience : nil You should try to say something positive.

D. Testimonials:
These can be enclosed even if the advertisement does not ask for them.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Application Writing

Activity 1

Read the following advertisement and the letter of application that follows it.

Wanted Medical Representative (Male/Female) for various towns in Orissa. Write to Agrasen Laboratories Pvt. Ltd., Sharma Lane, Banka Bazar, Cuttack within 7 days.

College Street
Puri
9 March, 20

Sir,
I read your advertisement in The Samaj of 8 March for the post of ‘Medical Representative’. I wish to apply for the post. I am 21 years old. I have passed +2 Science in the First Division. At present I am doing B.Sc. in BJB College with Chemistry as my Honours subject. I shall take the final Examination in April this year. I hope to hold a rank in the university. I am sorry to tell you that I have no experience as a medical representative. I am, however, quite familiar with different medicines, including their names and brands. My uncle runs a small shop in Puri, where I have worked part-time during my vacations. I speak Oriya, Bengali and Hindi. Being convent educated, I am quite comfortable in English. I am enclosing copies of my certificates. If necessary I can produce a testimonial from the Principal, BJB College at the time of interview. I look forward to meeting you for a personal interview at a time convenient to you.
Yours faithfully,
S Patnaik
Sudhir Ku. Patnaik.

In the box on the left, you have the main points of the application. Notice that they are not in order. Arrange them as they occur in the letter. Also put all the points of each paragraph in separate boxes on the right. The first one has been done for you.

In the box on the left, you have the main points of the application

Answer:
In the box on the left, you have the main points of the application Answer
Notice that they are not in order. Arrange them as they occur in the letter.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Application Writing

Activity 2

Read the following advertisement which appeared in The Samaj on 5 August, 2009 and the application of Miss Rani Das which is left incomplete. Complete the application by writing sentences for the information provided.

Padma Commercial Institute

Applications are invited from young graduates the post Clerk-cum-Typist at Padma Commercial Institute, Bajra Kabati, Cuttack. Applications should be sent to the Administrative Officer to reach him on or before 25 August 2009. Preference will be given to candidates having experience.

Lane 2
Gajapati Nagar
Berhampur Ganjam
16 August, 20

To
The Administrative Officer
Padma Commercial Institute
Bajra Kabati
Cuttack.
Sir,
I wish to apply for the post of Clerk-cum-Typist as advertised in The Samaj of
5 August, 20.
H.S.C. : First Division from De Paul School, Berhampur
B.A: Second class Honours in Economics from Berhampur University
Course in typing : Speed 45 words per minute.
Age : 27 years
Health : Sound
Post held : Clerk-cum-Typist
Experience : 6 months
Organisation : NM Tutorials New Bus Stand Berhampur
Salary : Rs. 8500 pm. (consolidated)
I enclose a testimonial from the Managing Director of NM Tutorials, Berhampur, I can get relieved from my present job in two weeks if I am selected for appointment. Your faithfully (Rani Das)

Answer:

Lane 2, Gajapati Nagar
Berhampur, Ganjam
16 August, 20

To
The Administrative Officer
Padma Commercial Institute
Bajra Kabati
Cuttack
Sir,
I wish to apply for the post of Clerk-cum-Typist as advertised in The Samaj of 5 August 20. I am 27 years old and possess sound health. As far as my educational qualifications are concerned, I have passed H.S.C. in the First Division from the De Paul School and have graduated from Berhampur University with second-class honors in Economics. Besides this, I have completed a certificate course in typing from the Hindustan Commercial Institute, Berhampur. My typing speed is 45 words per minute. I am working for the NM Tutorials, Berhampur as a Clerk-cum-Typist and am drawing a salary of Rs.8500 p.m. (consolidated). I have been working in this position for the last six months. I enclose a testimonial from the Managing Director, NM Tutorials, Berhampur, and attested copies of my certificates. I shall be relieved in two weeks if I am selected for an appointment.
Yours faithfully
(Miss Rani Das)

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Application Writing

Activity 3

Here is an advertisement which your friend Girish Chandra Mohanty brought to you along with his personal details. He would like to apply for the post advertised. Can you help him ? Draft a letter of application for the job for your friend.

WANTED
SECURITY OFICER
below 50 : Apply in 15 days to
HOTEL MAYFAIR, Bhubaneswar.

Girish Chandra Mohanty
Nuapatana
Cuttack District
Orissa

– 47 years (Date of birth: 07.04.1962)
– H.S.C. (1978) Second division
– B.Sc. (1980) Second division
– Security Officer at Shakti Sugar, Baramba from 1984 to 1992
– DSP in Orissa Police from 1993 – 2008 (voluntary retirement in 2008)
– can read, speak and write Oriya, Hindi, and English
– good health, good eyesight
– gun license

Answer:

Anand Vihar
Nuapatna
Cuttack
23 Oct., 20

The Chief Manager
Hotel Mayfair
Nandankanan Road
Bhubaneswar
Sir,
I wish to apply for the position of Security Officer as advertised in The Samaj on 15 Oct., 20. I am 47 years old. I passed my H.S.C. in the Second Division in the year 1978, and B.Sc. in Second Division in 1980. At present, I am working as Security Officer at Shakti Sugar, Baramba, and have been in this position for the last 5 years. Prior to that, I had been working with the State Government as a Sub-Inspector of Police for 17 years from 1990-2006 and D.S.P. from 2006 to 2008. I took voluntary retirement in 2008. I am proficient in Oriya, Hindi, and English which I can read, write and speak. Besides this, I possess a sound physique and good eyesight. I enclose a testimonial from the Chief Executive Officer. Shakti Sugar and copies of my certificate as well as service records as S.I. of Police and D.S.P.
I shall be relieved in two weeks if I am selected for an appointment.
Yours faithfully,
(Girish Ch. Mohanty)

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Application Writing

Activity 4

Write applications in response to the following advertisements :

(a) Wanted an experienced Lady Stenographer with good knowledge of English. Contact Box No. 998, The Samaj, Cuttack.
(b) Students ! Earn your pocket money during the holidays. Door-to-door visits to promote the sale of our Washing Powder Henko. Only for residents of Sambalpur. Apply to Box No. 446, The Samaj, Sambalpur.
(c) Wanted Lady Tutor for 3 Children of Convent School : 4th, 5th and 6th standanrd. Contact Deepak Mishra, Lane-3, Gajapati Nagar, Berhampur.

Answer:
(a)

27, Kharvel Nagar
Bhubaneswar
8 Dec., 20

To
Box No 998
The Samaj
Cuttack
Sir,
I wish to apply for the post of Lady Stenographer as advertised in The Samaj of 10 Dec. 2009.
I am 22 years old. I have passed the H.S.C. in the First Division. Besides this, I have passed a certificate course in Stenography from the Padma Commercial Institute, Bhubaneswar. Presently, I am working as Steno to the Manager, Home Products Ltd., Bhubaneswar, and am drawing a consolidated pay of Rs. 5500 p.m. I have been working in this capacity for the last year. I can read, write and speak Oriya, Hindi, and English. I enclose a testimonial from the Manager, Home Products Ltd., and attested copies of my certificate. I can be relieved within a week if selected for an appointment.
Yours faithfully,
(Ms. Snigdha Mohanty)

(b)

Daleipara
Sambalpur
20 Dec 20

To
Box No. 446
The Samaj
Sambalpur
Sir,
I wish to apply for the position of Door-to-Door promotional salesman as advertised in The Samaj of 17 Dec., 20. I am 20 years old. I have passed +2 Arts in the Second Division. At present, I am doing B.A. at G.M. College, Sambalpur with Political Science as the honors subject. I am in the first year of my graduation. This summer for 45 days I shall be completely free as the college is closing for vacations. Last summer after my +2 finals I worked as a newspaper delivery man and so am familiar with the lanes and by-lanes of many areas of Sambalpur. This experience I hope will stand me in good stead in door-to-door visiting. I have a cycle at my disposal and therefore going from one place to another will pose no problems. Moreover, I am fluent in Oriya, Hindi, and English which I can speak, read and write. I am enclosing copies of my certificate as well as a testimonial from the manager, of The Today News Agency, Sambalpur. I look forward to meeting you for a personal interview at a time convenient to you.
Yours faithfully,
(Shakti Das)

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Application Writing

(c)

Hill Patna
Berhampur
14 Dec 20

To
Mr. Deepak Mishra
Lane – 3
Gajapati Nagar
Berhampur
Sir,
I am writing in connection with the advertisement which appeared recently in ‘The Samaj’, for a lady tutor. I am a trained Secondary School teacher and have taught in English medium schools. I would be interested in knowing further details about the post. I would be grateful if you could tell me what subjects the children are to be taught, for how long you expect to employ the tutor, and what salary you intend to pay. I am willing to supply full details of my qualifications and exposure. I look forward to hearing from you shortly.
Yours faithfully
S. Mishra (Miss)

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Invitation to English 1 Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

CHSE Odisha 11th Class English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English The Inchcape Rock Text Book Questions and Answers

Unit – I
Gist with Glossary
Gist:
The poet presents a picture of stillness. The air, the sea, the ship, her sails, and the ocean all look motionless. The slow rise and fall of waves failed to move the Inchcape Bell, a dangerous reef off the east coast of Scotland near the mouth of the river of Tay. During sunny days it could be easily noticed but during a storm, the ships would meet their death because of it. So to solve this problem the Abbot of Aberbrothok placed a bell on this rock. The bell would be heard loud and clear during a storm and as a result, would warn the sailors that the fatal Inchcape Rock was near. His humanitarian deed helped many a sailor know the presence of the dangerous rock. It was but natural that the Abbot of Abberbrothok won their blessings.

Glossary:
Stir: movement.(ଗତି)
Still: motionless. (ସ୍ଥିର)
Keel: bottom part of the ship. ( ଜାହାଜର ତଳଭାଗ)
Inchcape Rock: a perilous reef off the east coast of Scotland near the mouth of the river Tay.
Placed: fixed .(ଥୋଇଦେଲେ)
Buoy: a floating object on the sea to mark a dangerous rock. (ସମୁଦ୍ରରେ ଏକ ଭାସମାନ ବସ୍ତୁ |ଏକ ବିପଜ୍ଜନକ ପଥର ଚିହ୍ନ କରିବାକୁ |)
Surge’S Well: the rise of the tidal waves. (ଜୁଆରିଆ ଢେଉର ଉତ୍‌ଥାନ)
The Mariners: the sailors. (ମେରାଇନର୍ସ)
Perilous: dangerous. (ଭୟଙ୍କର )

Think It Out

Question 1.
How does the poet describe the Inchcape Rock?
Answer:
The poet states that the Inchcape Rock was a few inches high above the surface of the sea in low tide and was completely covered by the sea in high tide or when the sea was rough.

Question 2.
Was the Inchcape Rock dangerous? Give your reasons.
Answer:
The Inchcape Rock was quite dangerous because during sunny days the huge stone could be easily noticed, but it was completely covered by the sea at a high tide or when the sea swelled. As a result, many ships had been wrecked.

Question 3.
Why did the Abbot place a bell on the Inchcape Rock?
Answer:
The Abbot placed a bell on the Inchcape Rock to warn the sailors of the presence of this fatal rock nearby.

Question 4.
When did the Inchcape bell ring?
Answer:
The Inchcape bell rang during a storm or when the sea swelled.

Question 5
Why did the mariners bless the Abbot?
Answer:
Mariners blessed the Abbot because he saved many imminent shipwrecks during the storm by placing a bell on the perilous Inchcape Rock. In other words, humanitarian deeds gave them strength where nature was inhospitable.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

Unit – II
Gist with Glossary
Gist :
The poet describes the cheering power of spring. The glittering sun, the screaming of seabirds, and the visible Inchcape filled the air with great joy. The beauty of spring made Sir Ralph the Rover, a sea pirate, cheerful beyond words. But his cheerful spirit gave way to mischief. His eye was fixed on the Inchcape Rock. The bell placed by the Abbot of Abberbrothok was a great disadvantage for him because he plundered the ships that were wrecked by the Inchcape Rock. So he decided to cut the bell from the rock. He was very happy now since there was no more bell. There was a lot more loot! The sailors would not bless the Abbot of Abberbrothok anymore.

Glossary:
Gay: here brightly. (ଆନନ୍ଦରେ )
screamed: made a loud high cry. (ଚିତକାର କରୁଥିଲେ)
wheeled: turned around quickly. (ହଠାତ୍ ବୁଲିପଡ଼ିଲେ)
speck: a very small part.(ଏକ କ୍ଷୁଦ୍ର ଅଂଶ )
He fell…. spring: The pirate Ralph the Rover was in high spirits because of spring, a season of joy and excitement.
His heart…….. excess: the pirate’s joy knew no limits.
But…. wickedness: His pleasure gave way to mischief.
Quoth: said (କହିଲେ)
Put Out: (here) make the ship ready (ପ୍ରସ୍ତୁତ କର)
I’ll…..Aberbrothok: Sir Ralph the Rover is determined to cause pain to the Abbot of Aberbrothok by cutting the bell.
Down……..sound: The bell sunk beneath the tide producing a low sound.

Think It Out

Question 1.
How does the poet express ‘the cheering power of spring’?
Answer:
The poet expresses the cheering power of spring in terms of the bright sun, screaming birds, and joy in their sounds. Merriment was in the air.

Question 2.
How did Ralph come across the Inchcape Bell?
Answer:
Ralph came across the Inchcape Bell by walking his deck and focusing his attention on it when spring set in and it surfaced on the calm sea.

Question 3.
What was the effect of ‘the cheering power of spring’ on Ralph?
Answer:
The cheering power of spring made Ralph whistle and sing and filled his heart with great delight.

Question 4.
What kind of a person was Ralph? Which line tells you so?
Answer:
Ralph was a wicked person to the backbone. The line ‘His heart was mirthful to excess’ tells us so.

Question 5.
What act of wickedness did he do?
Answer:
He committed a wicked deed by cutting the bell that the Abbot of Aberbrothok had placed on the dangerous Inchcape Rock.

Question 6.
Why did he do the wicked act?
Answer:
He did the wicked act because the sailors would not bless the Abbot of Aberbrothok.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

Unit – III
Gist with Glossary
Gist :
As a result of his plundering spree, Sir Ralph the Rover became very rich in no time and came back to the shore of Scotland. It was a very stormy day. There was a thick haze and a strong gale and it was nearing nighttime. It was so dark that they could hot see the land. Sir Ralph tried to give his sailors courage by saying that the moon would soon appear and that they would be able to see. However, they still could not see and everybody wished they could hear the Inchcape bell. The ship soon struck the rock and everybody was in despair. Sir Ralph was cursing himself as the ship was sinking beneath the tide. Even as he was dying, Ralph could hear one dreadful sound. It was as if it was the warning sound of the Inchcape bell, it was as if it was the sound of the Devil ringing his knell.

Glossary:
scoured: searched for ships in the sea for plundering (ରେ ଜାହାଜ ଖୋଜିଲା | ଲୁଣ୍ଠନ ପାଇଁ ସମୁଦ୍ର)
Many A Day: many days (ଅନେକ ଦିନ)
Plunder: loot (ଲୁଣ୍ଠନ)
Loot: dense (ଘନ, ଘଞ୍ଚ)
Haze: fog (କୁହୁଡ଼ି)
Gale: storm (ଝଡ଼)
Died Away: stopped (ବନ୍ଦ ହୋଇଗଲା)
Canst: can
Swell: rise (ଉତ୍‌ଥାନ)
Strikes: hits (ବାଡ଼ି ହୋଇଗଲା )
Shivering: trembling ( ଦୋଳାୟମାନ )
‘Oh….. Rock’: The helplessness of the mariners is indicated by deep shock
Despair: misery (ଦୁର୍ଦ୍ଦଶା )
Dreadful : fearful (ଭୟଙ୍କର )
The Devil…. knell: This line signifies Ralph’s death.

Think It Out

Question 1.
How did Ralph become rich?
Answer:
Ralph became rich by plundering the ships that met with wrecks.

Question 2.
Why did the ship lose its way in the sea while it was heading towards Scotland?
Answer:
The ship lost its way in the sea while it was heading towards Scotland because of a dense fog and a strong gale. Besides, it was nearing nighttime.

Question 3.
Why did a mariner think that they were near the shore?
Answer:
A mariner thought that they were near the shore.

Question 4.
‘Oh, Christ! it is the Inchcape Rock’ – why did the mariners exclaim so?
Answer:
The mariners exclaimed so in their stale hopelessness. To their stunned disbelief, they feel the presence of the dangerous Inchcape Rock and consequently think of their imminent death. In Christ, they see their savior.

Question 5.
Why did Sir Ralph curse himself?
Answer:
Sir Ralph cursed himself because he realized that his notorious act of cutting the bell to tarnish the image of the Abbot of Aberbrothok paved the way for the sinking of his own ship in the roaring waves of the sea.

Question 6.
‘The Devil below was ringing his knell.’- what does this expression mean?
Answer:
The expression ‘The Devil below was ringing his knell’ means the death of the notorious Ralph the Rover. Even as he was dying, he could hear one fearful sound as if it was the warning sound of the Inchcape bell. It was as if the Devil was ringing the sound of his disaster.

Question 7.
Do you find this poem musical? The rhyme scheme of the first stanza is AABB (sea-A, be-A, motion-B, ocean-B). Is the rhyme scheme the same for all the stanzas?
Answer:
We find this poem completely musical. The poet’s profuse use of alliteration ‘S’ sea/ship/still and so on justifies this fact. The rhyme scheme is the same for all the stanzas.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English The Inchcape Rock Important Questions and Answers

A.Short Answer Type Questions with Answers

1. Read through the extract and answer the questions that follow.

No stir in the air, no stir in the sea,
The ship was still as she could be,
Her sails from heaven received no motion,
Her keel was steady in the ocean.

Without either sign or sound of their shock
The waves flowed over the Inchcape Rock;
So little they rose, so little they fell,
They did not move the Inchcape Bell.

The Abbot of Aberbrothok
Had placed that bell on the Inchcape Rock;
On a buoy in the storm it floated and swung,
And over the waves its warning rung.

When the Rock was hid by the surge’s swell,
The mariners heard the warning bell;
And then they knew the perilous Rock,
And blessed the Abbot of Aberbrothok.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

Questions :
(i) What picture do the first two lines present?

(ii) “Her sails from heaven received no motion;” What does the expression ‘Her sails’ refer to?

(iii) In spite of flowing over the Inchcape Rock, why didn’t the waves move its bell?

(iv) What made the Inchcape Rock unseen?

(v) What picture of the Abbot of Aberbrothok do you get in the extract?

Answers :
(i) The first two lines present a graphic description of calm nature. There is no movement either in the air or any roar in the sea. The ship was motionless,

(ii) The expression ‘Her sails’ refers to the ship’s sails.

(iii) The waves did not move Inchcape bell, in spite of flowing over the Inchcape Rock, because of their excessively slow rise and fall.

(iv) Rise of the tidal waves made the Inchcape Rock unseen.

(v) The extract presents a picture benevolence associated with the Abbot of Aberbrothok. His act of placing the bell on Inchcape Rock for the interest of the mariners is a case in point.

2. Read through the extract and answer the questions that follow.

The sun in heaven was shining gay,
All things were joyful on that day;
The sea-birds screamed as they wheeled round
And there was joyance in their sound.

The buoy of the Inchcape Bell was seen
A darker speck on the ocean green;
Sir Ralph the Rover walked his deck,
And he fixed his eye on the darker speck.

He felt the cheering power of spring;
It made him whistle, it made him sing;
His heart was mirthful to excess.
But the Rover’s mirth was wickedness

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

Questions :
(i) How does the poet describe the sun?

(ii) What did the seabirds do and what did they produce?

(iii) How do you account for the repetition of ‘darker speck’?

(iv) “It made him whistle.” What does ‘It’ refer to?

Answers :
(i) The poet gives a description of the bright sun.

(ii) The seabirds screamed as they wheel around. There was joy in their sound.

(iii) Sir Ralph the Rover could not take his eye off the darker speck visible on the green ocean. Later his act of dealing with it becomes the focus of the poem and the repetition.

(iv) ‘It’ refers to the cheering power of spring.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

3. Read through the extract and answer the questions that follow.

His eye was on the Inchcape float;
Quoth he, ‘My men, put out the boat,
And row me to the Inchcape Rock,
And I’ll plague the Abbot of Aberbrothok’

The boat is lowered, the boatmen row,
And to the Inchcape Rock they go;
Sir Ralph bent over from the boat,
And he cut, the Bell from the Inchcape float.

Down sunk the Bell with a gurgling sound;
The bubbles rose and burst around;
Quoth Sir Ralph, ‘The next who comes to the Rock
Won’t bless the Abbot of Aberbrothok.’

Questions :
(i) What did Ralph say to his men?

(ii) ‘And I’ll plague the Abbot of Aberbrothok” – what aspect of Ralph’s character does this describe?

(iii) How did Ralph cut the bell?

(iv) What happened after he cut the bell?

(v) ‘Quoth Sir Ralph, ‘The next who comes to the Rock
Won’t bless the Abbot of Aberbrothok.’
What device does the Southey use here?

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

Answers :
(i) Ralph said to his men to get the boat ready and row him to the Inchcape Rock.
(ii) This line presents Ralph as a sadist.

(iii) Ralph cut the bell by bending over the boat.

(iv) After he cut the bell, it sunk down into the sea making a gurgling sound.

(v) The device poet Southey uses here is irony. Sir Ralph the Rover cut the Inchcape bell and eventually paid the penalty.

4. Read through the extract and answer the questions that follow.

Sir Ralph the Rover sailed away,
He scoured the seas for many a day;
And now grown rich with plundered store
He steers his course for Scotland’s shore.

So thick a haze o’erspreads the sky
They cannot see the sun on high;
The wind hath blown gale all day,
At evening it hath died away
On the deck the Rover takes his stand.

So dark it is they see no land.
Quoth Sir Ralph, ‘It will be lighter soon,
For there is a dawn of the rising moon.’

‘Canst hear’, said one ‘the breakers roar?
For methinks we should be near the shore’
‘Now where we are I cannot tell,
But I wish I could hear the Inchcape Bell.’

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

Questions :
(i) What did Sir Ralph do for many days?

(ii) Why were the mariners not able to see the sun?

(iii) When did the wind stop?

(iv) Why was the land not visible to the mariners?

(v) What did a mariner wish?

Answers :
(i) Sir Ralph searched for the ships in the sea and kept on plundering them for many days.

(ii) The mariners were not able to see the sun, because of dense fog that had overspread the sky.

(iii) The wind stopped in the evening.

(iv) The land was not visible to the mariners, because it was dark everywhere.

(v) A marinor wished he had heard the Inchcape Bell

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

5. Read through the extract and answer the questions that follow.

They hear no sound; the swell is strong;
Though the wind hath fallen they drift along,
Till the vessel strikes with a shivering shock
‘Oh Christ ! It is Inchcape Rock’.

Sir Ralph the Rover tore his hair,
He cursed himself in his despair;
The waves rush in on every side;
The ship is sinking beneath the tide.

But even in his dying fear
One dreadful sound could the Rover hear,
A sound as if with the Inchcape Bell
The Devil below was ringing his knell.

Questions :
(i) ‘They hear no sound;’ who are they?

(ii) ‘Sir Ralph the Rover tore his hair.’ What poetic device is used here?

(iii) Why was the ship sinking?

(iv) What sort of sound did Ralph hear?

(v) In what condition did Ralph find himself?

Answers :
(i) They are Sir Ralph the Rover and the other mariners who accompanied him.

(ii) Alliteration is used here. The repetition of ‘R’ here justifies this fact.

(iii) The ship was sinking beneath the stormy sea because it struck the Inchcape Rock in the darkness of night.

(iv) Ralph heard a sound that was quite fearful as the sound of the Inchcape bell.

(v) Ralph found himself in a state of dread, despair, and belated repentance.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

B. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) with Answers
Choose the correct option.
Unit – I
The test
Lines 1 to 16

No stir in the air…………………………. Abbot of Aberbrothok
Question 1.
What is ‘Inchcape Rock’?
(a) the name of a rock on the east coast of Scotland near the mouth of the river Tay.
(b) the name of a ship that could cross all obstacles.
(c) the name of a sea animal that is very dangerous.
(d) none of the above.
Answer:
(a) the name of a rock on the east coast of Scotland near the mouth of the river Tay.

Question 2.
The first four lines present a similar picture of air, sea, ship, sails, and ocean. What is that?
(a) stormy.
(b) stillness.
(c) sometimes stormy and sometimes calm.
(d) none of the above.
Answer:
(b) stillness.

Question 3.
What do you mean by the word ‘keel’?
(a) the old form of the word hill.
(b) bottom of the sea.
(c) the bottom part of the ship.
(d) top of the rock.
Answer:
(c) the bottom part of the ship.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

Question 4.
What did happen to the Inchcape Rock when there was low tide?
(a) fully visible.
(b) only its top was visible.
(c) not visible.
(d) none of the above.
Answer:
(b) only its top was visible.

Question 5.
What did happen to the Inchcape Rock when there was high tide?
(a) completely covered by seawater.
(b) only its top was visible.
(c) the rock moves away to one side of the sea.
(d) the rock floats on the sea like a ship.
Answer:
(a) completely covered by seawater.

Question 6.
What did happen to ships that could not see the Inchcape Rock?
(a) they could not move.
(b) they returned away.
(c) they got wrecked.
(d) they passed away in another direction.
Answer:
(c) they got wrecked.

Question 7.
What did Abbot do to save the ships from the wreckage?
(a) He fixed a red flag on the Rock.
(b) He fixed a bell that rang in an abnormal situation on the sea.
(c) He fixed a huge magnet to check the movement of the sea.
(d) none of the above.
Answer:
(b) He fixed a bell that rang in an abnormal situation on the sea.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

Question 8.
When did the Inchcape bell ring?
(a) during the visit of a ship.
(b) during the low tide in the sea.
(c) during a storm or when the sea swelled.
(d) during the attack of sea pirates.
Answer:
(c) during a storm or when the sea swelled.

Question 9.
The ‘bell’ floated and swung on a_________.
(a) log.
(b) pole.
(c) pillar.
(d) buoy.
Answer:
(d) buoy.

Question 10.
The ‘bell’ worked as a________ to the ship
(a) information.
(b) warning.
(c) signal.
(d) sailing.
Answer:
(b) warning.

Question 11.
What do you mean by the word ‘buoy’?
(a) a flying object.
(b) a sinking object.
(c) a floating object.
(d) a moving object.
Answer:
(c) a floating object.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

Question 12.
What do you mean by the words ‘surge’s swell’?
(a) rise of the ship on the rock.
(b) rise of the tidal waves.
(c) rise of the rock on the sea.
(d) rise of seawater on the banks.
Answer:
(b) rise of the tidal waves.

Question 13.
How the Inchcape Rock was hidden?
(a) by the low tide.
(b) by the darkness.
(c) by the clouds.
(d) by the high tide.
Answer:
(d) by the high tide.

Question 14.
Who did hear the warning bell?
(a) the sea pirates.
(c) the mariners.
(b) the visitors.
(d) the ship owners.
Answer:
(c) the mariners.

Question 15.
What do you mean by the word ‘mariners’?
(a) the engineers.
(b) the pirates.
(c) the sailors.
(d) the passengers.
Answer:
(c) the sailors.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

Question 16.
How was the rock described by the boat?
(a) pleasures.
(b) disadvantageous.
(c) advantageous.
(d) perilous.
Answer:
(d) perilous.

Question 17. Who did bless Abbot?
(a) the visitors.
(b) the mariners.
(c) the ship owners.
(d) none of the above.
Answer:
(b) the mariners.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

Question 18.
‘Aberbrothok’ is associated with_________.
(a) the mariners.
(b) the Inchcape Rock.
(c) the ship.
(d) Abbot.
Answer:
(d) Abbot.

Unit – II
The test
Lines 17 to 40

The sun in heaven…………………. Abbot of Aberbrothok
Question 19.
The description of the sun in line 17 of the poem signifies :
(a) scorching sun.
(b) setting sun.
(c) rising sun.
(d) pleasant bright, sun.
Answer:
(d) pleasant bright, sun.

Question 20.
What does the screaming sound of sea birds signify?
(a) melancholy.
(b) joyance.
(c) a sight of horror.
(d) a bad day.
Answer:
(b) joyance.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

Question 21.
How was the buoy of the Inchcape Bell seen on the sea?
(a) a brighter spot.
(b) a green speck.
(c) a darker speck.
(d) a white speck.
Answer:
(c) a darker speck.

Question 22.
Whose eye was fixed on the darker speck?
(a) the poets.
(b) the mariners.
(c) Sir Ralph’s.
(d) Pirates.
Answer:
(c) Sir Ralph’s.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

Question 23.
What do you mean by the word ‘speck’?
(a) a very big spot.
(b) a very small spot.
(c) a bright spot.
(d) an invisible spot.
Answer:
(b) a very small spot.

Question 24.
What, according to the poet, the bright sun, screaming of birds and their joyance do signify?
(a) terrible summer.
(b) cheerful spring.
(c) the happy memory.
(d) unpleasant day.
Answer:
(b) cheerful spring.

Question 25.
Who was mirthful by the cheerful spring?
(a) the poet.
(d) the visitor.
(c) Sir Ralph.
(b) the mariner.
Answer:
(c) Sir Ralph.

Question 26.
What was the secrecy of Sir Ralph’s mirth?
(a) success.
(b) cheerful spring.
(c) wickedness.
(d) achievement.
Answer:
(c) wickedness.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

Question 27.
What do you mean by the word ‘mirth’?
(a) delight.
(b) bad feeling.
(c) mourn.
(d) danger.
Answer:
(a) delight.

Question 28.
What did Sir Ralph want to do?
(a) to praise Abbot.
(b) to blame Abbot.
(c) to destroy Inchcape Rock.
(d) to earn a good name.
Answer:
(b) to blame Abbot.

Question 29.
What did he do to blame Abbot?
(a) stopped the bell ringing.
(b) cut the bell from the buoy.
(c) criticized Abbot in public.
(d) proved Abbot’s method was wrong.
Answer:
(b) cut the bell from the buoy.

Question 30.
What did Sir Ralph say after cutting the bell from the Inchcape Rock?
(a) everybody would praise him.
(b) he would fix a new bell.
(c) the next who comes to the Rock won’t bless the Abbot.
(d) none of the above.
Answer:
(c) the next who comes to the Rock won’t bless the Abbot.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

Question 31.
What does the word ‘plague’ mean?
(a) cause pleasure.
(b) cause success.
(c) cause accident.
(d) cause pain.
Answer:
(d) cause pain.

Unit – III
The Text
Lines 41 to 68

Sir Ralph……………………ringing his knell
Question 32.
Sir Ralph was a ………………..
(a) ranger.
(b) rover.
(c) counselor.
(d) doctor.
Answer:
(d) doctor.

Question 33.
What did he do moving into the sea?
(a) visiting different places.
(b) discovering the things in the sea.
(c) plundering the ships for wealth.
(d) none of the above.
Answer:
(c) plundering the ships for wealth.

Question 34.
What did he do at last?
(a) enjoyed his days in the sea.
(b) returned to Scotland’s shore.
(c) crossed Inchcape safely.
(d) fulfilled his mission.
Answer:
(b) returned to Scotland’s shore.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

Question 35.
How was the weather when Sir Ralph’s ship was near Scotland’s shore?
(a) dark, foggy, and stormy.
(b) bright, clear, and fine.
(c) cloudy, smoky, and semi-darkness.
(d) none of the above.
Answer:
(a) dark, foggy, and stormy.

Question 36.
But standing on the deck of the ship, Sir Ralph was hopeful of a clear day with the rising of_________.
(a) sun.
(b) stars.
(c) moon.
(d) a bright celestial object.
Answer:
(c) moon.

Question 37.
Why was the land not visible to the mariners of Sir Ralph’s ship?
(a) because of darkness.
(b) because they were far from the shore.
(c) because mariners had no microscope.
(d) all of the above.
Answer:
(a) because of darkness.

Question 38.
But one of the mariners could hear the________.
(a) wreck of a ship.
(b) thunder on a ship.
(c) Inchcape Bell.
(d) sound of a sea animal.
Answer:
(c) Inchcape Bell.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

Question 39.
At last, the ship lost its way and got wrecked hitting against________.
(a) the other ship.
(b) the Inchcape Rock.
(c) a huge sea animal.
(d) none of the above.
Answer:
(b) the Inchcape Rock.

Question 40.
What did Sir Ralph do in despair?
(a) pray God.
(b) scolded his mariners.
(c) cursed himself.
(d) cursed Abbot.
Answer:
(c) cursed himself.

Question 41.
While dying in fear, Sir Ralph could hear a sound similar to________.
(a) band party drum.
(b) Thunder.
(c) sweet music.
(d) Inchcape Bell.
Answer:
(d) Inchcape Bell.

Question 42.
Who was in fact ringing this bell?
(a) Abbot.
(b) the Devil.
(c) Inchcape Bell.
(d) mariners.
Answer:
(b) the Devil.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

Question 43.
What does the last line of the poem signify?
(a) death of Sir Ralph.
(b) end of his journey.
(c) a lesson taught to him.
(d) none of the above.
Answer:
(a) death of Sir Ralph.

Question 44.
Who is the author of the poem “Inchcape Bell”?
(a) Robert Frost.
(b) Robert Smith.
(c) Robert Stewart.
(d) Robert Southey.
Answer:
(d) Robert Southey.

Introducing The Poet :
Robert Southey was an English poet of the Romantic School, one of the so-called “Lake poets” and poet laureate for 30 years. His poems often told a story and were set in faraway lands. Although his fame has been long eclipsed by that of his contemporaries and friends William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Southey’s verse still enjoys some popularity.

Moreover, Southey was a prolific letter writer, literary scholar, essay writer, historian, and biographer. His biographies include the life and works of John Bunyan, John Wesley, William Cowper, Oliver Cromwell, and Horatio Nelson. The last has rarely been out of print since its publication in 1813 and was adapted for the screen in the 1926 British film, Nelson.

He was also a renowned Portuguese and Spanish scholar, translating a number of works from those two countries into English and writing both a History of Brazil (part of his planned History of Portugal which was never completed) and a History of the Peninsular War. Perhaps his most enduring contribution to literary history is the immortal children’s classic, The Story of the Three Bears, the original Goldilock story.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

About The Poem :
The Inchcape Rock is based on the fact that a wicked man always pays the penalty in the long run. Here Sir Ralph the Rover is a case in point. He exhibits a common proverb – ‘As you sow, so you reap.” His wicked act of removing the bell from the perilous Inchcape Rock paved the way for his death. In short, Robert Southey hits at the cruel deed of Sir Ralph the Rover who perishes for the crime of removing the Inchcape bell and his unpardonable sins against humanity.

Summary:
The poem begins with a graphic description of calm nature. There is no movement either in the air or any roar in the sea. The ship is silent so also are her sails. The bottom part of the ship is steady in the ocean. There is no sign of any disaster. The poet takes us back to the Inchcape Rock, a perilous roof off the east coast of Scotland near the mouth of the river Tay. During sunny days it can be easily noticed but during a storm, the ship meets its death because of it. Here comes the role of benevolent the Abbot, of Aberbrothok. To tide over this problem, he places a bell on this rock. The bell can be heard loud and clean when the sea is rough and hence warn the sailors of their presence near the fatal Inchcape Rock.

Now a pirate called Sir Ralph the Rover emerges on the scene. It is spring. The bright sun and the loud sound produced by the sea birds create an atmosphere of joy. Meanwhile, Ralph caught sight of a very small spot which is the bell placed by the Abbot of Aberbrothok upon the dangerous rock. He cannot take his eyes off it. He deeply feels the exciting power of spring. Driven by merriment, he whistles and sings. His heart leaps in joy, but his delight gives way to mischief. His eyes are fixed on the Inchcape Rock. Tom by hatred, is keen on destroying the good name of the Abbot of Aberbrothok. Human nature dies hard. Ralph, out of malice towards the Abbot, commits the sin of removing the bell. As a result, it sinks down producing a low sound. The bubbles surface and bursts around.

With the bell gone, Ralph searches for the seas for many days and keeps on plundering the ships that meet with wrecks. He becomes rich again. His ship moves towards Scotland’s shore, but a dense fog stormy wind and darkness prevent Ralph and his mariners from seeing the land. But Sir Ralph does not lose his heart. He tries to give his sailors courage by saying that the moon will soon appear and they will be able to see, but in vain. The ship soon strikes the rock. Everybody sinks into despair. Ralph’s misery knows no end. He tears his hair and curses himself, but it is too late.

The poem ends on a note of tragedy. Ralph finds the ship sinking beneath the tide. In his dying fear, he can hear one fearful sound as if it was the warning sound of the Inchcape bell. It is as if the Devil below were ringing Ralph’s death knell.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 3 The Inchcape Rock

ସାରାଂଶ:
କବିତାଟି ଆରମ୍ଭ ହୁଏ ଶାନ୍ତ ସରଳ ପ୍ରକୃତିର ଏକ ଚିତ୍ରି ବର୍ଣ୍ଣନାରୁ । ସମୁଦ୍ରରେ କୌଣସି ଗର୍ଜନ ନ ଥିଲା କିମ୍ବା ନ ଥିଲା କିଛି ଚଳଚଞ୍ଚଳତା । ଜାହାଜ ଗତି କରି ଚାଲୁଥାଏ । ଧ୍ଵଂସର କୌଣସି ସଙ୍କେତ ନ ଥାଏ । କବି ଆମକୁ ନେଇଯାଆନ୍ତି ସ୍କଟଲ୍ୟାଣ୍ଡର ପୂର୍ବ ଉପକୂଳରେ ଥିବା ଘାତକ Inchcape Rock ନିକଟକୁ, ଯାହାକି ନିମ୍ନ ଜୁଆର ସମୟରେ ଉପରକୁ ଅଳ୍ପ ଦିଶେ ଓ ଉଚ୍ଚ ଜୁଆର ସମୟରେ ସମ୍ପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ବୁଡ଼ିଯାଏ। Tay ନଦୀର ମୁହାଣରେ ଏହି Inchcape Rock ଥିଲା । ପାଣିରେ ସମ୍ପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ବୁଡ଼ିଯାଇଥିବା ସମୟରେ ଅନେକ ଜାହାଜ ଏଥିରେ ବାଡ଼େଇ ହୋଇ ଖଣ୍ଡ ବିଖଣ୍ଡ ହୋଇଯାଏ । କାରଣ ଏହି ସମୟରେ ନାବିକମାନେ ଏହି Rockକୁ ଦେଖିପାରନ୍ତି ନାହିଁ । ଏହି ସମସ୍ୟାକୁ ସମାଧାନ କରିବାପାଇଁ ଜଣେ ଧର୍ମଯାଜକ The Abbot of Abberbrothok ଏହି ପଥର ଉପରେ ଏକ ଭାସମାନ ବସ୍ତୁକୁ ବାନ୍ଧି ତା’ ଉପରେ ଏକ ଘଣ୍ଟି ରଖିଲେ । ଯେତେବେଳେ ସମୁଦ୍ର ଅଶାନ୍ତ ହୋଇଉଠେ ଏବଂ ଉଚ୍ଚ ଜୁଆର ହୋଇଥାଏ, ଏହି ଘଣ୍ଟି ହଲିଦୋହଲି ଏକ ସତର୍କ ଶବ୍ଦ ସୃଷ୍ଟି କରେ ।

ଏହି ଘଣ୍ଟି ଶବ୍ଦ ଶୁଣି ନାବିକମାନେ ଜାହାଜକୁ ଅନ୍ୟ ମାର୍ଗରେ ନିଅନ୍ତି ଏବଂ ନିଶ୍ଚିତ ମୃତ୍ୟୁରୁ ରକ୍ଷାପାଆନ୍ତି । ତେଣୁ ନାବିକମାନେ Abbotଙ୍କ ଏହି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟପାଇଁ ସହୃଦୟର ସହିତ ଧନ୍ୟବାଦ ଜଣାନ୍ତି । ଦିନେ Sir Ralph the Rover ସେଇ ବାଟ ଦେଇ ଜାହାକ ଚଳାଇ ଆସୁଥିଲେ । ସେ ପଥର ଉପରେ ଭାସମାନ ବସ୍ତୁ ସହ ସଂଲଗ୍ନ ଘଣ୍ଟି ଦେଖିଲେ ଏବଂ ନାବିକମାନଙ୍କଠାରୁ The Abbotଙ୍କ ବିଷୟରେ ପ୍ରଶଂସା ଶୁଣିଲେ । ହିଂସାରେ ତାଙ୍କର ହୃଦୟ ଜଳିଉଠିଲା । ନିଷ୍ପଭି କଲେ The Abbot of Aberbrothokଙ୍କର ଏହି ସୁନାମକୁ ସେ ଭାଙ୍ଗି ଚୁର୍‌ମାର୍ କରିଦେବେ । ନାବିକମାନଙ୍କୁ ଆଦେଶ ଦେଲେ ଜାହାଜକୁ ସେହି ଘଣ୍ଟି ପାଖକୁ ନେଇଯିବା ପାଇଁ । ସେଠାରେ ପହଞ୍ଚି ସେ ଘଣ୍ଟିଟିକୁ କାଟିଦେଲେ । ତାହା କ୍ଷୀଣ ଶବ୍ଦ ସହିତ ବୁଡ଼ିଗଲା । Sir Ralph ତାକୁ ଚାହିଁ କହିଲେ – ଏଥର ଏଠିକି ଯେଉଁ ନାବିକମାନେ ଆସିବେ ସେମାନେ ଆଉ The Abbotଙ୍କୁ ପ୍ରଶଂସା କରିବେ ନାହିଁ । କାରଣ ତାଙ୍କ ଘଣ୍ଟି ଆଉ ଏଠି ନାହିଁ । ଏହି Inchcape ଘଣ୍ଟିକୁ ଧ୍ୱଂସ କରି ନିଜର ହୃଦୟର ନିଭୃତ କୋଣରେ ଅମାପ ଗର୍ବକୁ ବହନ କରି ଜାହାଜ ଆଗକୁ ନେଇ ଚାଲିଲେ Sir Ralph । ସେ ସମୁଦ୍ରରେ ଅନେକ ଦିନ ଭ୍ରମଣ କରି ଅନ୍ୟ ଜାହାଜମାନଙ୍କରୁ ପ୍ରଚୁର ଉପସ୍ଥିତି ଦୃଶ୍ୟମାନ ହେଲା ନାହିଁ । ସକାଳେ କ୍ଷିପ୍ର ଗତିରେ ପ୍ରବହମାନ ବାୟୁର ଗତି ସନ୍ଧ୍ୟାବେଳକୁ ସ୍ଥିର ହୋଇଗଲା । Sir Ralph ଡେକ୍ ଉପରେ ଠିଆ ହୋଇ ଚାରିଆଡ଼କୁ ଚାହିଁଲେ । ସେ କେଉଁଆଡ଼େ ବି ସ୍ଥଳଭାଗ ଦେଖିପାରିଲେ ନାହିଁ । ତଥାପି ବି ସେ ନାବିକମାନଙ୍କୁ ବ୍ୟସ୍ତ ନ ହେବାପାଇଁ କହିଲେ । ଆଶ୍ବାସନା ଦେଲେ ଖୁବ୍ ଶୀଘ୍ର ଆଲୋକର ପ୍ରତୀୟମାନ ହେବ । କାରଣ ଅଳ୍ପ ସମୟ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ଜହ୍ନ ଉଇଁବ ଓ ପରିଷ୍କାର ଦେଖାଯିବ ।

କେହି ଜଣେ ନାବିକ କହିଲେ ସେମାନେ ବୋଧେ Inchcape Rock ନିକଟରେ ପହଞ୍ଚିଗଲେଣି । ଆଉ ଜଣେ ନାବିକ କହିଲେ ଯଦି ସେମାନେ Inchcape Rockର ସେହି ଘଣ୍ଟିର ଶବ୍ଦ ଶୁଣିପାରିଥା’ନ୍ତେ କି ? ଢେଉର କ୍ଷିପ୍ରତାରେ ଜାହାଜ ଆଗକୁ ମାଡ଼ି ଚାଲିଲା । ଅନ୍ଧାରରେ କିଛି ଦେଖାଯାଉ ନ ଥାଏ । ଜାହାଜଟି ପିଟି ହୋଇଗଲା ଏକ ଶିଳାଖଣ୍ଡରେ ଏବଂ ଖଣ୍ଡ ବିଖଣ୍ଡିତ ହୋଇଗଲା । ନାବିକମାନେ ଚିତ୍କାର କରି ଉଠିଲେ – ହେ ଭଗବାନ ! ଏଇଟା ତ Inchcape Rock । Sir Ralph ନିଜ କୃତକର୍ମ ପାଇଁ ନିଜକୁ ନିନ୍ଦୁଥା’ନ୍ତି । ଏଥିପାଇଁ ସମୟ ବହୁତ ବିଳମ୍ବ ହୋଇଯାଇଥିଲା । ସେ ସେଦିନ ଯଦି Inchcape Rockର ଘଣ୍ଟିଟିକୁ କାଟିଦେଇ ନ ଥା’ନ୍ତେ, ଓ ନାବିକମାନେ ନିଶ୍ଚିତ ମୃତ୍ୟୁମୁଖରୁ ରକ୍ଷା ପାଇପାରିଥା’ନ୍ତେ । Sir Ralphଙ୍କର ସମସ୍ତ ଚେଷ୍ଟା ବଞ୍ଚିବାପାଇଁ ବିଫଳ ହେଲା । ସେ ଅତଳ ସମୁଦ୍ରର ଗର୍ଭରେ ବୁଡ଼ିଗଲେ । ସେତେବେଳେ ସେ ଏକ ଭୟଙ୍କର ଘଣ୍ଟି ଶବ୍ଦ ଶୁଣିଲେ, ସତେ ଯେପରି ତାହା Inchcape ଘଣ୍ଟି ଶବ୍ଦ ଥିଲା । ବୋଧହୁଏ ସାଗର ତଳ ଶୟତାନ ସେ ଘଣ୍ଟିଟିକୁ ବଜାଉଥଲା ।

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Personal Letters and Notes

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Invitation to English 3 Solutions Writing Personal Letters and Notes Textbook Activity Questions and Answers.

CHSE Odisha 11th Class English Writing Personal Letters and Notes

The art of Writing Letters

Letters form an integral part of inter-personal communication. There are different tyeps of letters – personal letters which may be informal or casual, business letters, letters of public concern which appear in the newspapers, etc. which are formal in nature.
The name ‘personal letter’, generally refers to letters written to friends and relations. Such letters are usually full of news, and are usually written in conversational style. It has six parts :
1. The address of the sender
2. The date
3. The salutation or greeting
4. The body of the letter
5. The subscription or complimentary close
6. The signature

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Personal Letters and Notes

Let us look at these parts one by one.

1. The Address of the sender
This is written on the top right-hand comer of the page. Look at the punctuation.
For example,

181, Saheed Nagar
Bhubaneswar.

2. The date is written below the sender’s address

8 August 20

3. The salutation
When writing to a friend, address him by name :
Dear Sarat,
Not Dear friend Sarat.
If you are writing to the parents or brothers or sisters or intimate friends, you could write
My dear Father,
My dear Mummy, etc.
The punctuation after the salutation agrees with the punctuation of the sender’s address. A comma can be placed after the salutation if you have used commas in writing your address at the top.

4. The body of the letter.
This is the most important part of the letter. A good personal letter must be simple and pleasant to read. It is full of small details which appeal to the person you are writing to. The tone of the letter must be personal: you should write as you would speak to him if he were present before you.

5. The Subscription.
The most eomon form of closing a letter to a friend is

Yours sincerely
Yours sincere friend
Yours ever, etc.

To both friends and relations you can write

Yours affectionately

Some other closng phrases that can be used in personal letters

Ever sincerely
Yours
Your loving son
Love

6. The Signature
A letter to a friend or a close relation does not require your full signature. You should write only the first name, or the name by which you are known to the friend you are writing to : not

Sarat Kumar Mohanty
but only Sarat

7. The Address on the Envelope
Usually the address is written towards the lower half of the envelop leaving space at the top for stamps. The titles, Mr, Mrs and Ms are used before the names. Sometimes postcards are used to write personal letters. Then it is not necessary to use all the six parts in the letter. The date, the message and the signature or initials of the sender will be enough.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Personal Letters and Notes

Activity 1

The following letter has a few errors. Correct them in order to improve the letter.

_______________
(Fill in the date)

From,
Mr. Ashok Kumar Das.
Mandara Bagicha Para.
Bhabanipatna.
To,
Mr, Biswanath Mishra.
420, Kalpana Flats.
Old Town, Bhubaneswar.
Dear friend
Well and wish to hear the same. In particular, I passed the examination in the first class. I am applying for admission in the local government college. What are your plans ? What college do you intend to join. Hope, you will successful. Thanking you.

I remain
Your sincere friend,
A. K. Das

You must have marked that there are errors in every part of the letter. Could you correct them ? Show the revised version to a friend of yours and discuss the points of revision. If necessary, ask your teacher.
Answer:
Revised letter

Mandar Bagicha Para
Bhawanipatna
14 Dec. 20

Dear Bisu,
I passed the examination in first class. I wish to hear the same in particular, from you. I am applying for admission in the local governmental college. What are your plans ? Which college do you intend to join ? Hope, you will be successful.

Yours sincerely,
Surendra

Biswanath Mishra
420, Kalpana Flats
Old Town, Bhubaneswar – 2

Errors in the first letter:
(1) The addresses and names of the receiver have been wrongly placed.
(2) Address (excluding the name) and date should be written on the top in the right-hand comer.
(3) Salutation – Dear friend is wrong.
(4) Sentences in the main part are not in order.
(5) They are replete with grammatical errors.
(6) Ending is wrong.
All these errors have been corrected in the above letter.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Personal Letters and Notes

Activity 2

The two paragraphs are given below from the body of a personal letter. Do you find anything odd about them? One part of the letter has to be rewritten in order to make it sound personal and informal. Which part is it? Identify the part and rewrite it. “I have just returned after a wonderful holiday with you. I thought I should write to you immediately and tell you how I enjoyed every minute of my stay with you. Your cousins are such jolly companions and I will never forget the fun we had together. However, I shall be failing in my duty if I do not express my profound gratitude to your parents who spared no pains to extend warm hospitality to me during my stay there.”
Answer:
The second paragraph lacks substance in the context of a personal letter which is informal, but here it is formal to the core. The ending should be ‘the hospitality of your parents has moved me. I look forward to visiting your home and staying there for some time.’

Activity 3

(a)

Angul
24 April, 20

Dearest Jeje,
How are you? You haven’t come to see us for a long time. We are going to be in Angul all summer. Why don’t you visit us? We would love to have you.
Lots of love,
Yours.

(b)

Cuttack
20 October, 20_

Dear Kunu,
Thanks ever so much for asking me to your party. Of course, I’ll be there! And I look forward to staying the night with you.
Cheers!
Yours,
Sikta

(c)
Mr. and Mrs. Kundu request the pleasure of your company at the wedding of their daughter Rani to Raja Mohanty at Nayapalli Kalyan Mandap, Bhubaneswar at
10.30 p.m. on March 16, 20.
R.S.V.P.

(d)

Sambalpur
15 May, 20_

Dear Omunu,
It was lovely hearing from my favorite grandson. Thank you, for inviting me to spend the summer with you but I’m afraid I have to go to Mumbai in June for a heart operation. If I’m all right, I’ll visit you in December.
All my love,

(e)

Sahid Nagar
Bhubaneswar
17 October. 20_

Dear Sikta,
Just a short note to say we’re having a party on Diwali night and were wondering if you could join us. You could stay the night with us if it gets late.
Do let us know soon.
Love,

(f)

Nayapalli
Bhubane swar
5.3.20__

Mr. and Mrs. R.K. Sahu thank Mr. and Mrs. Kundu for their kind invitation to the wedding of their daughter Rani on 16.3.2000 but regret their inability to attend, on account of a prior engagement

Which invitation and reply are the most formal? Why do you think so?
Answer:
a – d
b – e
c – f
Invitation ‘c’ and the corresponding reply ‘f are the most formal because they neither contain any salutation nor do they end with an expression of affection.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Personal Letters and Notes

Activity 4

Look at the letters in activity 3 again. Which expressions in these letters can be used for the following purposes?
to open a letter ____________________________
to say thank you ____________________________
to close a letter ____________________________
to invite somebody ____________________________
to accept an invitation ____________________________
to decline (refuse) an invitation ____________________________
Answer:
to open a letter How are you? It was lovely hearing from you.
to say thank you Thank you for, thanks ever so much for
to close a letter Lots of love. Cheers! All my love.
to invite somebody Why don’t you visit us? Request the pleasure of your company. Wondering if you could join us.
to accept an invitation I look forward to
to decline an invitation I’m afraid I have. Regret their inability.

Activity 5

Work in pairs to produce letters of invitation to suit the situations suggested below.

(a) You are going on a holiday
to Ooty. You want to invite
a friend to come with you.

You are going away on holiday
day. Do you want to invite
someone to live in your
house while you are away.

You are starting a new
restaurant and you want
to invite some of your
friends to a party you are
arranging for the launch
of your new restaurant.

Send your letter to another pair of your classmates. Keep the layout below in mind while writing the letters.
(b)

Send your letter to another pair of your classmates. Keep the layout below in mind while writing the letters.

Read the letters you get and decide whether you want to accept or decline the invitation. Then draft a reply, using the hints below :
(c)

Read the letters you get and decide whether you want to accept or decline the invitation

Answer:
(a)

27, Krishna Nagar
Secunderabad
12.3.20

Dear Sameer,
How are you? It’s a long time since we met. This summer we are going to Ooty and will be spending the vacations there. We were wondering if you could join us at Ooty. We could all have an enjoyable time there.
Do let us know soon.
Love,
Sanjay

(b)

80, Kharavela Nagar
Bhubaneswar
2 January, 20

Dear Suman,
We would be very happy if you could join us for the dinner party on 12 January 2010 at 7.30 pm on the occasion of the launching of our new restaurant.
Do let us know soon.
Yours,
Sudhir,

(c)

Railway Colony
Mancheswar
Bhubaneswar
10.12.20

Dear Ravi,
How are you? When we met last time you were complaining about not having a quiet place to study. Would you like to have a whole house to yourself this summer? And a secluded one too. It would be great, isn’t it? Well, we are going to our granny’s for the whole summer. We would be very grateful if you could stay in our house while we are away. Our maidservant could cook for you and of course, Deepu will keep visiting you now and then to see what you need. Can you help?
Please let us know.
Love,
Mausi.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Personal Letters and Notes

Replies:

(a)

Saheed Nagar
Bhubaneswar
18.3.20

Dear Sanjay,
Thank you very much for inviting me to Ooty for the summer. I would love to come but I am afraid I cannot because I have already enrolled in a computer course which will continue during the vacation. I hope to come and meet you during Christmas. Hope you will enjoy yourself.
Your loving friend,
Sameer.

(b)

28, Kalpana Area
Bhubaneswar
5 January 20

Dear Sudhir,
Thank you very much for asking me to your party. I would love to be there to taste all the delicacies of your new restaurant. And by the way, Congratulations! You have succeeded in making your dream come true.
With Best Wishes,
Yours,
Suman

(c)

HA, B.J.B. Nagar
Bhubaneswar
18.12.20

Dear Mausi,
Thank you very much for reposing so much confidence in me. I would have really liked to spend the summer at your place but I am afraid I cannot. Dad has already asked me to stay with him at Rourkela so that he can coach me in mathematics and science. I can’t put this off because I’ll have to appear for the entrance next month. Sorry to have disappointed you.
Your loving nephew,
Ravi

Activity 6

It is usual to send a ‘thank-you note’ when you receive an invitation, even if you do not want to accept the invitation. Draft a ‘thank-you note’ in reply to the invitation you received in Activity 5, which you may either accept or decline. Use the suggestions given below :

Draft a ‘thank-you note’ in reply to the invitation you received in Activity 5, which you may either accept or decline

Answer:

Saheed Nagar
Bhubaneswar
18.3.20

Dear Prabhat,
Just a note to thank you for inviting me to spend the summer vacation at Ooty with your parents. It was so thoughtful and kind of you to do so. I am afraid I will be unable to join you because I am doing a computer course that will continue beyond the vacations. I hope you enjoy yourself thoroughly at Ooty. Anyway, excuse me for being unable to join you and convey the same to all.
Best Wishes,
Yours,
Submit.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Personal Letters and Notes

Activity 7

Read the letter below, and write two similar letters of invitation.
(a) to an elderly aunt, asking her to visit you for the Dussera Festival:
(b) to a young nephew, asking him to stay for the month of June.

Read the letter below, and write two similar letters of invitation.

Answer:

Plot No. 201
Apamanagar
Chauliaganj
2 September

Dear Aunty,
If you have not made plans for your Dushera holidays this year, perhaps you would like to come and stay with us at Cuttack. It is a long time since we met and all my family members would like to see you again. During your stay here, we shall enjoy the famous puja festival here to the brim. Do come. We look forward to seeing you.
Yours affectionately,
Sarika

Saheednagar
Plot No. 202
Bhubaneswar
1 December 20

Dear Ravi,
I am happy to learn that your examination is over. Your school will be closed for a month. Instead of staying there, I would like you to come here for a month. I am sure you will have a wonderful time in our midst.
We look forward to meeting you soon,
Your affectionate uncle,
Sarbeswar

Activity 8

Study the letter below as a model letter of refusal.

Study the letter below as a model letter of refusal.

Write two similar letters of refusal,
(a) because your sister (brother) is going into hospital;
(b) because you have arranged to go on holiday.

Answer:
(a)

Shantivihar
Plot No 105
1 September 20

Dear Aunty,
I am happy to learn that you have invited me to the Dussera festival with you. I am indeed thrilled. I would like to accept your invitation, but I am sorry that I cannot go to you. Unfortunately, my sister is going to the hospital every day for physiotherapy in connection with his acute ankle problem. This will continue for another month. I accompany her every day. I do hope you will realize my problem, and accuse me of declining your warm invitation.
Yours affectionately,
Rahul

(b)

Vinay Mahal
Main Road
Jatni
14 June 20

Dear Mohan,
Thank you very much for your invitation to lunch next Monday. I would like to accept it, but we have arranged much in advance to go on a holiday to some important places in India. We are leaving at 1 p.m. the very same day. I am sure you will understand my predicament and excuse me for not attending your lunch.
Yours sincerely,
Subrat

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Personal Letters and Notes

Activity 9

Imagine that you are writing to some friends from a well-known holiday resort and write a few sentences describing the weather, food, etc. You can choose suitable adjectives from the list below.

cold delicious boring friendly hot awful
exciting rude nice interesting spicy sunny
windy beautiful helpful warm

Answer:

Panth Nivas
Pun
12.05.20

Dear Varun,
We arrived here today rather late in the night as the train was running late. However, we were given a warm reception by the Panth Nivas staff who served us spicy hot tandoori chicken and roil As we sit here in the open-air restaurant we can hear the roar of the waves background and the moonlight creating beautiful shadows on the casuarina trees that line the beach. It is a very pleasant, though a windy night. I can’t wait to sleep and get up early tomorrow to watch the sunrise. I am nervous with excited.
I hope to write to you again.
Love,
Suresh

Activity 10

Here is some pictures. Use the sentences which follow the pictures to write a letter to accompany each picture. Choose a beginning, a middle, and an end from among the ones given on the next page.

Choose a beginning, a middle, and an end from among the ones given on the next page.

The beginning :

The beginning

The middle :

The middle

The end:

The end

Answer:
(1)

Sterling Resort
Doda Valley, Kashmir
12.05.20

Dear Rabi,
We arrived safely in Kashmir on Monday evening after a hectic bus journey. The weather is fantastic and the scene all around is snow-covered mountain peaks. Exhilarating! Truly it is a paradise on earth. Unfortunately, however, I broke my leg skiing yesterday. Now I can’t walk and I have to stay in the hotel all day. It’s extremely boring and I can’t stand lying down on the bed and reading books the whole day while others enjoy themselves. Anyway, we are going back home on Thursday.
Love,
Ratha

Answer:
(2)

Panth Nivas
Puri
12.05.20

Dear Miti and Niki,
Here we are on the beach!
It’s terrible here! It’s hot and there are thousands of people everywhere. There’s no place where you can have some privacy. The food is awful.
Will be back home on Saturday. Thank goodness!
Best wishes,
TitI

Answer:
(3)

Yemen
12.01.20

Dear Umesh,
This hill station is wonderful! The weather is gorgeous, the people are very friendly and the food is delicious. Yesterday, we went to a carpet market like the one in the picture. It was extremely beautiful.
I don’t want to come home!
Love,
Ramakanta

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Personal Letters and Notes

Activity 11

Here are some more pictures. Choose one and imagine that you have gone there for a holiday. What would you write to your friends about this place? You can write about:
– the people
– the food
– what you did/saw yesterday
– something interesting that happened to you

Here are some more pictures. Choose one and imagine that you have gone there for a holiday

Answer:
(1)

Paris
10.10.20

Dear Pulin,
Paris is wonderful!
The weather is just fantastic. The food is bland and the people very helpful. The scenes and sights are extremely beautiful. Yesterday we had been to the Eiffel Tower which you can see in the picture. It is the most important landmark of Paris.
Will be back home on Tuesday.
With Best wishes,
Priya

Answer:
(2)

Rourkela
2.1.20

Dear Sukant,
Greetings from Rourkela!
Our tour of the steel plant proved disastrous. A fire broke out in the smelting plant and we had to vacate the premises immediately. That was a horrifying experience. The whole town is full of smog, and that makes it terribly hot and sticky out here. I can’t wait to get back home.
Love,
Supreeti

Answer:
(3)

Bombay
10.05.20

Dear Kuni,
We are here in Bombay!
The weather is hot and sultry and the city is extremely crowded. The food is very bad and not at all to our taste. However, it’s a wonderful shopping center here. Cotton is damn cheap.
Will be back home on Sunday.
Love,
Kusum

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Personal Letters and Notes

Activity 12

A. You will find the letter of a famous person below. Which of the people mentioned below the letter could have written the letter? Why do you think so?

You will find the letter of a famous person below

(a) Neil Armstrong, the first person on the moon.
(b) Florence Nightingale, the famous Nurse in the Crimean War.
(c) Edmund Hillary, the first person to climb Mount Everest.
(d) Christopher Columbus in America
(e) Ronald Amundsen, the first person to reach the South Pole.
Answer:
Edmund Hillary, was the first person to climb Mount Everest and put up his country’s national flag on its top.

B. Now imagine that you are some other person (from the list of names above) and write a letter to a friend. Work in pairs. Do not sign your name. You can write about :
– the place
– the weather
– the food
– the people
– what you have done
– some things very interesting

When you are ready, give your letter to another pair. They have to guess who it is from.
Answer:
(a)

20 July, 20

Dear Bathsheba,
We landed here on the moon yesterday. It’s cold and eerie here with no gravitational pull. Today with my space suit on, I took a walk or rather jumped all over the moon’s surface collecting rock and soil samples. The silence is frightening.
Already feeling homesick.
Love,
Neil.

(b)

21 Oct., 20

Dear Roberts,
The war is getting bloodier day by day. Thousands of dead bodies lie on the battlefield, their stench filling the air. Tending to be sick and dying; almost every minute of the day is exhausting but I am glad to be of help to the soldiers.
Hoping that the war will end soon.
Cheer up.
Florence.

(d)

America
July 20

Dear Christina,
Landed here on Sunday. The land here is virgin and wild. There are dangerous-looking Indians here wearing colorful head-dresses. But there is nothing to fear. They flee at the sound of our guns being shot.
Missing you.
Yours,
Columbus.

(e)

South Pole
Feb 20

Dear Victor,
Made it! It’s extremely cold here and the food’s frozen but the sacrifices are small considering the achievement. Yesterday we sighted some polar bears. Fishes are plentiful. The vast desert of snow and mountains makes me lonely.
Missing you.
Yours,
Ronald.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Personal Letters and Notes

Activity 13

A. Sometimes you can send a short letter to give a friend some news. Ravi Kumar has just moved house and he wants to give his friends his new address. His letter is given below, but some parts are missing. What do you think he wrote? Complete the letter.

Sometimes you can send a short letter to give a friend some news

Answer:

Kalpana Flats
Old Town
Bhubaneswar
26th November

Dear Niki,
I’m sorry I haven’t written for a long time. How are you? We have just moved house from Uttara Chhak to the Kalpana Flats. Our new address is given above. Tika has joined her new school. She finds it quite exciting. Some of her classmates from the old school have also joined her. So she has friends too and is enjoying herself. Otherwise, life is just the same. I get up, I go to school, I eat, I sleep, and I get up. Very boring.
Anyway, write soon and do visit us when you can.
Best wishes,
Kunu

B. Imagine that you have not seen the other students in your class for a long time. Write a letter to one of them. Tell him/her how you are and give some news about yourself. (You can invent something if you like. For example, you have won Rs. 10,000 in a lottery or you are going on a long trip to Delhi.) You can begin as follows :
Dear ………………………………..,
How are you? I haven’t seen you for such a long time …………………………………..,
Answer:

68, Metro Towers
Acharya Vihar
Bhubaneswar
30th Sept. 20

Dear Lovely,
How are you? I haven’t seen you for such a long time. Why haven’t you come to the classes for three weeks? Are you sick? A lot of progress has been made in Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies. Mrs. Das our Maths teacher has retired in the mean time school and another new teacher has joined the school in her place. She’s young and beautiful and she teaches well too. Well, you’ll be surprised to know that I have won first prize in the Debate Competition. Pratik stood second and Namrata third. I received prize money of 3000 rupees. Daddy is going to buy me a Yamaha synthesizer with it. Of course, he is going to add more than 1000 to it. That’s going to be my birthday gift. I can’t wait to get it and show it to you. Do write to me at the earliest and let me know if I can do anything for you.
Missing you a lot.
Love,
Pallavi.

Activity 14

(a) Using the following clues draft an invitation :
Mr. and Mrs. S. Pattnaik — eldest son Zubin — Enu — daughter of Mr. K. Mohantv — Purunapara. Bhawanipatna — Wednesday, 7 February, 20 — 8 a.m. — the bride‘s residence — reception — Thursday, 8 February — 7 p.m. — their residence — Mandar Bagichapara, Bhawanipatna. R.S. V.P.
(b) A neighbor, who is not very good at writing letters, asks for your help to reply to the invitation above. He would like to attend the wedding. Draft a reply for him.
(c) Your father has been invited to the wedding by Mr. and Mrs. Pattnaik. But as he has to go to Delhi on some urgent business, he is unable to attend the wedding. He has asked you to reply to the invitation as he has no time. Draft a reply.

Answer:
(a)
Mrs and Mr S. Pattnaik
request the pleasure of your company at the wedding of their eldest son Zubin with Enu, the daughter of Mrs. and Mr. K. Mohanty of Purunapara, Bhawanipatna on Wednesday, 7 February, 20_ at 8.00 a.m. in the bride’s residence and thereafter to the reception at our residence (Mandarba, Gichapara, Bhawanipatna) on Thursday, 8 February 20…, at 7.00 p.m.

R.S.V.P.

(b)

Acharya Vihar
Bhubaneswar
3.2.20

Mr. and Mrs. B. K. Sahu thank Mr. and Mrs. S. Pattnaik for their kind invitation to the wedding of their eldest son, Zubin on 7.2.20 and reception thereafter on 8.2.20. They would be indeed very happy to attend the wedding and the reception thereafter.

(c)

Niladrjvjhar
Plot No. 168
13 January 20

Mr. and Mrs. B. K. Mishra thank Mr. and Mrs. S. Pattnajk for their kind invitation to the wedding of their eldest son Zubin on 7.2.20(XJ but regret their inability to attend on account of a prior business engagement in Delhi.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Personal Letters and Notes

Activity 15

Satrupa telephones her friend Anusuya. Anusuya’s brother Prakash takes the call. Here is the conversation.
Prakash : 1-yellow, this is 2543867.
Satrupa : Good morning. Is that Prakash? Satrupa here.
Prakash : Morning. Stupa. How are you?
Strupa : Oh, fine. Can I speak to Anusuya, please?
Prakash : Sorry, I am afraid she’s not around. She has gone to a friend’s house. Any message?
Strupa : Yes, you see there is a beautiful film on at the Maharaja. Use bought two tickets for the afternoon show for Anusuya and myself. The show begins at 3 p.m. Everyone says the opening scene is not to be missed. If Anusuya
doesn’t turn up on time, I’ll have to go in.
Prakash : Where did you say the film was?
Satrupa : At the Maharaja. Near Acharya Vihar.
Prakash : All right, I’ll give her the message.
Satrupa : Thanks, Prakash. Bye.
Prakash : Bye.

Anusuya does not return by 10 a.m. and as Prakash has to go to college, he leaves a note for his sister. Imagine that you are Prakash. Now write the note using the clues given below.

Anusuya,
Satrupa ______________________, _____________, ___________ two tickets _________. wants you __________. ____________ _________ till 2.45 p.m. If _____________________. Prakash

Answer:
Anusuya,
Satrupa had rung you this morning. She has bought two tickets for the afternoon show at the Maharaja. She wants you to join her. She will wait outisde the hall till 2.45 p.m. If you do not turn up, she will have to go in.
Prakash

Activity 16

Sikta was alone at home when the postman came. She ran up to the gate and talked to him.
Sikta : Good afternoon, Postman Uncle.
Postman: Good afternoon, Sikta. Is your daddy in?
Sikta : No, unice. He hasn’t returned from the office.
Postman: When do you think he’ll return?
Sikta : Around 7.30 p.m. Do you have anything for him?
Postman: Yes, A fat registered parcel.
Sikta : Where is it from?
Postman: I think it’s from EFLU, Hyderabad.
Sikta : I see. It must be important. Can I receive the parcel on my daddy’s behalf?
Postman: I’m sorry. It can’t be given to anyone else. Tell your daddy to collect it
tomorrow. I’ll be at the Post Office from 2 to 3 p.m.
Sikta : Okay, uncle. I’ll tell him to collect the parcel tomorrow. Bye.
Postman: Bye.

Sikta writes down the note for her father lest she should forget. She begins thus :
Daddy,
The postman came this afternoon around 5.30 pm. He had _____________________ Sikta.
Now complete the note.

Answer:
Daddy,
The postman came this afternoon around 5.30 p.m. with a fat registered parcel possibly from EFLU, Hyderabad for you. I asked him if I could receive it on your behalf, but he declined. He asked you to collect it from the Post Office from 2 to 3 pm.
Sikta

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Personal Letters and Notes

Activity 17

Write a note based on the following conversation as Ashutosh would report it to his father.

Asutosh : Good afternoon. Who would you like to speak to?
Stranger : I’m Satya Mohanty from Ritz Travels. I’ve come to see your father, Mr. Saroj Patnaik. He wanted me to call on him to discuss his travel plans to the States.
Asutosh : I’m afraid he won’t be back until the day after tomorrow. He had gone to Bangalore for a meeting. But I’ll let him know you called.
Mr Mohanty : Please do so and give him these forms. He should fill them in as early as possible. If he wants to travel in May, he must apply for a passport and a visa immediately. It usually takes three months to get everything ready.
Asutosh : Thank you, Mr. Mohanty. Fil gives him your message and the forms. I’ll also ask him to call you as soon as he comes.
Mr Mohanty : Thank you. Goodbye.
Asutosh : Goodbye, Mr. Mohanty.

Answer:
Daddy,
Satya Mohanty from Ritz Travels had come to see you. He wanted to meet you to discuss your travel plans to the States. When I said that you wouldn’t be back till the day after tomorrow, he left these forms for you to fill in and apply for the passport immediately if you want to travel in May. In this view, it usually takes three months to get everything ready. I also told him that I would tell you to call him back when you return.
Asutosh

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 10 Area Under Plane Curves Ex 10

Odisha State Board Elements of Mathematics Class 12 CHSE Odisha Solutions Chapter 10 Area Under Plane Curves Ex 10 Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 10 Area Under Plane Curves Exercise 10

Question 1.
Find the area bounded by
(i) y = ex, y = 0, x = 4, x = 2
Solution:
Area = \(\int_2^4\)ex dx
= \(\left[e^x\right]_2^4\)
= e4 – e2

(ii) y = x2, y = 0, x = 1
Solution:
Area = \(\int_0^1\)x2 dx
= \(\left[\frac{x^3}{3}\right]_0^1\)
= \(\frac{1}{3}\)

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 10 Area Under Plane Curves Ex 10

(iii) xy = a2, y = 0, x = α, x = β (β > α > 0)
Solution:
Area = \(\int_\alpha^\beta y\)y dx
= \(\int_\alpha^\beta \frac{a^2}{x}\) dx
= a2\([\ln x]_\alpha^\beta\)
= a2 ln (β/α)

(iv) y = sin x, y = 0, x = \(\frac{\pi}{2}\)
Solution:
Area = \(\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\)sin x dx
= \([-\cos x]_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\)
= -cos\(\frac{\pi}{2}\) + cos θ = 1

Question 2.
Find the area enclosed by
(i) y = ex, x = 0, y = 2, y = 3
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 10 Area Under Plane Curves Ex 10 Q.2

(ii) y2 = x, x = 0, y = 1
Solution:
Area = \(\int_0^1\)x dy
= \(\int_0^1\)y2 dy
= \(\left[\frac{y^3}{3}\right]_0^1\)
= \(\frac{1}{3}\)

(iii) xy = a2, x = 0, y = α, y = β (β > α > 0)
Solution:
Area = \(\int_\alpha^\beta\)x dy
= \(\int_\alpha^\beta \frac{a^2}{y}\)dy
= a2\([\ln y]_\alpha^\beta\)
= a2 ln (β/α)

(iv) y2 = x3, x = 0, y = 1
Solution:
Given curve is y2 = x3
⇒ x = y2/3
It passes through the origin. So the required area
= \(\int_0^1\)x dy
= \(\int_0^1 y^{\frac{2}{3}}\) dy
= \(\left[\frac{y^{\frac{5}{3}}}{5 / 3}\right]_0^1\)
= \(\frac{3}{5}\)

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 10 Area Under Plane Curves Ex 10

Question 3.
(i) Determineellipse the area with in the ellipse
\(\frac{x^2}{a^2}\) + \(\frac{y^2}{b^2}\) = 1
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 10 Area Under Plane Curves Ex 10 Q.3(1)
The ellipse is symmetrical about x-axis and y-axis.It is divided into 4 equal parts by the coordinate axes. So required area
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 10 Area Under Plane Curves Ex 10 Q.3(1.1)

(ii) Find the area of the circle x2 + y2 = 2ax.
Solution:
Given circle is x2 + y2 = 2ax
⇒ x2 – 2ax + a2 + y2 = a2
⇒ (x – a)2 + y2 = a2 … (1)
The centre of the circle is (a, 0) and radius is a.
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 10 Area Under Plane Curves Ex 10 Q.3(2)

(iii) Find the area of the portion of the parabola y2 = 4x bounded by the double ordinate through (3, 0).
Solution:
Given parabola is y2 = 4x
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 10 Area Under Plane Curves Ex 10 Q.3(3)

(iv) Determine the area of the region bounded by y2 = x3 and the double ordinate through (2, 0)
Solution:
Given curve is y2 = x3
⇒ y = ±x3/2 … (1)
The curve passes through the origin and symmetrical about x-axis because the power of y is even.
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 10 Area Under Plane Curves Ex 10 Q.3(4)

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 10 Area Under Plane Curves Ex 10

Question 4.
(i) Find the area of the regions into which the circle x2 + y2 = 4 is divided by the line x + √3y = 2.
Solution:
Given circle and the straight line are x2+ y2 = 4 and x+ √3y = 2
The circle has the centre at (0, 0) and radius ‘2’.
The eqn. (2) can be written as
y = –\(\frac{1}{\sqrt{3}}\)x + \(\frac{2}{\sqrt{3}}\)
Slope of the strainght line = –\(\frac{1}{\sqrt{3}}\)
The line makes and angle of 150° with x-axis making intercept \(\frac{2}{\sqrt{3}}\) from y-axis.
It intersects x-axis at (2, 0).
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 10 Area Under Plane Curves Ex 10 Q.4(1)
Solveing (1) and (2),
ge wet (2 – 3√y)2 + y2 = 4
4 + 3√y2 – 4√3y + y2 = 4
4y2 – 4√3y = 0
y(y – √3) = 0
y = 0 or y = √3
When y = 0, x = 2
When y = √3, x = -1
Thus the straight line intersects the circle at (2, 0) and (-1, √3).
Area of the portion ACBA.
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 10 Area Under Plane Curves Ex 10 Q.4(1.1)

(ii) Determine the area of the region between the curves y = cos x and y = sin x, bounded by x = 0.
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 10 Area Under Plane Curves Ex 10 Q.4(2)
The curves y = cos x and y = sin x are shown in the above figure. The region included between these two curves in [0, \(\frac{\pi}{4}\)] is OABO.
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 10 Area Under Plane Curves Ex 10 Q.4(2.1)

(iii) Find the area enclosed by the two parabolas y2 = 4 ax and x2 = 4ay.
Solution:
The given parabolas are y2 = 4ax and x2 = 4ay.
The graphs of the two parabolas are shown in the figure.
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 10 Area Under Plane Curves Ex 10 Q.4(3)
⇒ x4 = 64 a4
⇒ x4 – 64 a3x = 0
⇒ x (x3 – (4a)3) = 0
⇒ x (x – 4a) (x2 + 4ax + 16a2) = 0
⇒ x = 0, 4a
When x = 0, y = 0 and
when x = 4a, y = 4a
Thus the two parabolas intersect at (0, 0) and (4a, 4a).
Area between two parabolas
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 10 Area Under Plane Curves Ex 10 Q.4(3.1)

(iv) Determine the area common to the parabola y2 = x and the circle x2+ y2 = 2x.
Solution:
Gien parabola is y2 = x
Given circle is
x2 + y2 = 2x ⇒ (x – 1)2 + y2 = 1
The centre is at (1, 0) and radius is 1.
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 10 Area Under Plane Curves Ex 10 Q.4(4)
Solving (1) and (2) we get
x2 + x = 2x ⇒ x2 – x = 0 ⇒ x(x – 1) = 0
⇒ x = 0, x = 1
When x = 0, y = 0 and when x = 1, y = 1.
Thus both the parabola and circle intersect at (0, 0) and (1, 1).
Required Area
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 10 Area Under Plane Curves Ex 10 Q.4(4.1)

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Non-Detailed Chapter 5 Childhood

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Invitation to English 2 Solutions Non-Detailed Chapter 5 Childhood Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

CHSE Odisha 11th Class English Solutions Non-Detailed Chapter 5 Childhood

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Childhood Text Book Questions and Answers

Unit – I

Gist :
Going down the memory lane, Nehru states that his childhood was a dull and protective one. He grow up in an environment where his cousins often talked about arrogant and humiliating manners of the English people towards Indians and the latter’s duty to tolerate it. Besides, they discussed numerous facts connected with the difference between the rulers and the ruled. The author failed to understand anything. In spite of killing an Indian, an Englishman was declared innocent by a jury that comprised his own countrymen. Even the most crowded railway compartment were reserved for the English people. On the other hand, Indians were deprived of getting a seat, although they remained empty. Reservation was avilable for the former so far as benches and chairs in the public parks were concerned. Strangely enough, an Englishman was entitled to possess an unreserved compartment. As a result, the author developed anger towards the foreign rulers of his country. An Indian’s aggressive attack gladdened him. The way one of his cousins treated an Englishman and more frequently with Europeans and Asians is a case in point. Quarrels with them were common in the course of railway journeys in particular. Despite his angry feelings towards the foreign rulers, Nehru had no such feeling against individual Englishmen.

Glossary :
related: connected (ସଂଯୁକ୍ତ)
sheltered : protected (ସୁରକ୍ଷିତ)
uneventful : dull (କୁଣ୍ଠିତ)
overbearing : arrogant, proud (ଅହଂକାରୀ, ଗର୍ବୀ)
Eurasians : Europeans and Asians (ଇଉରୋପୀୟ ଓ ଏସୀୟ)
Instances: cases (ମାମଲା)
conflicts : difference (ପାର୍ଥକ୍ୟ)
acquitted : not found guilty (ଦୋଷୀ ସାବ୍ୟସ୍ତ ହୋଇନାହିଁ )
filled with : full of (ପୂର୍ଣ)
resentment : anger (କ୍ରୋଧ)
alien : foreigner (ବିଦେଶୀ)
infrequently : occasionally (ବେଳେବେଳେ)
encounters : meeting (ସଭା)
pick : start (ଆରମ୍ଭ କର)
oneness : unity (ଏକତ୍ଵ ଭାବ; ଏକତା)
offensive : rude (ଅଭଦ୍ର)
resent: hate (ଘୃଣା)
in my heart : sincerely (ଆନ୍ତରିକତାର ସହିତ)

Think it out:

Question 1.
Why did Nehru resent the behaviour of Englishmen in general in India?
Answer:
The English people treated Indians with disdain and arrogance. In spite of killing an Indian, they were declared innocent by a jury of their own countrymen. Reservations in railway trains, were meant only for English people, however crowded they might be. Indian people were deprived of travelling in them, in spite of remaining empty. Seats even in unreserved compartment were not allotted to them, but to an Englishman. Reservation concerning benches and chairs in public parks was meant for EuropeAnswer: His cousins talked about these facts and he listened to them as a child. Therefore, Nehru resented the behaviour of Englishmen in general in India.

Question 2.
How did he feel about the individual Englishman in India?
Answer:
In spite of resentment against the presence and unjust behaviour of the British government, Nehru didn’t have any feeling of animosity against individual Englishmen. English Governess took care of Nehru. At time he saw, the presence of English friends of his father’s calling on him. He rather heartily admired the English.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Non-Detailed Chapter 5 Childhood

Unit -II

Gist :
Nehru recollects how their house echoed with his father’s roaring laughter that became famous in Allahabad. It happened when he was in a relaxing mood after the friends left his house. Sometimes curiosity led the writer to peep and understand the conversations of these great people. If he was seen doing so, he forcibly taken to the room. Fear seized him. His father made him sit on his knee for a while. Once he caught sight of his father and his friends drink whisky. He rushed to his mother, horrorstricken and told her that his father was drinking blood. The author deeply loved his father. To him, he was the epitome of strength and courage and cleverness, eclipsing all other men. The author had witnessed his father losing his temper at servants and others. To him, his father seemed to be ferocious at that time. The way he treated a servant made him tremble in fear, blended sometimes with anger. Nevertheless, his father was endowed with a sense of humour, a strong will and self-control. When he became old, his devastating temper abated in a great measure.

Glossary:
resound : echo (ଇକୋ)
Tremendous : profound (ବିରାଟ)
peep: Look quickly and furtively (ଶୀଘ୍ର ଏବଂ ଚତୁରତାର ସହ ଦେଖ)
embodiment: a typical living example (ଏକ ସାଧାରଣ ଜୀବନ୍ତ ଉଦାହରଣ)
treasure (v) : to keep something as extremely valuable (ଧନ)
shivered : trembled (ଥରି ଉଠିଲା)
fright : fear (ଭୟ)
iron : very strong (ବହୁତ ଶକ୍ତିଶାଳୀ)
indulge in : to do something that one likes (କିଛି କରିବାକୁ ଯାହା ପସନ୍ଦ କରେ)

Think it out :

Question 1.
How did Nehru’s father spend his evenings in Allahabad?
Answer:
Nehru’s father usually spent his evenings in the midst of his friends in his house. He relaxed with them after the day’s stress. The house would echo with his roaring laughter. His laugh carved out a name for itself in Allahaband. Nehru’s father
enjoyed drinking whisky with his friends.

Question 2.
How does Nehru express his admiration for his father?
Answer:
Nehru admires his father profusely. To him, his father was the epitome of strength, courage and cleverness. He was superior to all in these respects. He cherished the hope that he would be like him in future. In spite of possessing devastating temper, his father possessed a strong sense of humour and a determined will. With the growth of age, his father’s temper abated.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Non-Detailed Chapter 5 Childhood

Unit -III

Gist :
Nehru remembers how he felt a prey to his father’s terrible ill-temper, when he was about five or six. One day he greedily looked at two fountain-pens on his father’s office table. Debating with himself that his father would not need both of them at the same time and this prompted him to take one. Later a mighty search for it was on. Nehru grew panicky at his guilt, but he did not confess it. They found out the pen. The author’s wrong deed came to light before everybody. The author was given a terrible thrashing. He wilted under severe pain and utter shame. Mother was the source of solace to him at that’moment, but he had not any grumbling for his father for inflicting punishment on him. His admiration and affection for him remained as strong as ever, but fear was always there. He never feared his mother, because she would always approved him for anything he did. Because of her overwhelming love for him, Nehru tried to influence her a bit. He confided everything to his mother, but never to his father. He praised his mother’s beauty and loved her astonishingly small and beautiful hands. Nehru’s mother hailed from Kashmir.

Glossary :
recollections : memory (ସ୍ମୃତି)
victim : prey (ଶିକାର)
mighty : massive (ବିରାଟ)
got frightened : got panicky (ଭୟଭୀତ ହେଲା)
confess : admit (ସ୍ୱୀକାର କର)
proclaim (v) : declare (ଘୋଷଣା କର)
mortification : shame (ଲଜ୍ଜା)
disgrace : dishonour (ଅପମାନ)
quivering : trembling (କମ୍ପିତ)
aching : injured (ଆହତ)
ill-will : bad intention (ଖରାପ ଉଦ୍ଦେଶ୍ୟ)
admiration : praise (ପ୍ରଶଂସା)
condone : approve anything (କ୍ଷମା କରିବା)
indiscriminating : overwhelming (ପ୍ରକମ୍ପିତ)
confide : have confidence (ଆତ୍ମବିଶ୍ୱାସ ରଖନ୍ତୁ)
petite : small, thin, attractive (ଛୋଟ, ପତଳା, ଆକର୍ଷଣୀୟ)
dominate : influence (ପ୍ରଭାବ)
amazingly : astonishingly (ଆଶ୍ଚର୍ୟ୍ୟଜନକ ଭାବେ)

Think it out

Question 1.
Narrate briefly how Nehru became a victim of his father’s temper. What was the effect of this incident on him?
Answer:
When he was about five or six, Nehru caught sight of two fountain-pens on his father’s office table and looked at them greedily. He debated with himself if his father would use both at the same time. So he took one of them, Later his family made a massive search for the lost pen. Nehru got panicky, but didn’t admit his guilt. The pen was found out. Father burst into anger and inflinced a severe blow on him. Nehru suffered pain and shame. Mother applied various creams and ointments to his aching and trembling body.

Question 2.
What impression of Nehru’s mother do you get from this unit?
Answer:
This unit presents Nehru’s mother in a bright light. She was a forgiving woman. She approved everything Nehru did in his childhood, because of her abundant and overwhelming love for him. He told everything to his mother, as she seemed closer to him. Nehru’s mbther was thin, short and attractive. He praised her beauty and loved her astonishingly small and beautiful hands and feet. Nehru’s mother hailed from Kashmir.

Unit -IV

Gist :
The author cherishes the memory of his father’s Munshi Mubarak Ali, who hailed from a rich family of Badaun that had met with ruin and partial destruction as a result of the Rebellion of 1857 and the English troops respectively. This tragedy made Mubarak gentle and patient with everybody and with children in particular. In him, Nehru found a safe shelter in his moments of sorrow or trouble. In Nehru’s childhood, he seemed to be a picture of very ancient and full of knowledge of the past. Mubarak was a great story-teller. When Nehru grew up, his trustworthy Mubarak Ali was no more. He listened to the stories from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata narrated by his mother and aunt and this contributed to Nehru’s knowledge of Indian folkfore and mythology during his childhood.

Glossary:
confidant: trusted person (ବିଶ୍ୱସ୍ତ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି)
well-to-do : rich (ଧନୀ)
exterminate (v) : destroy (ବିନାଶ କର)
affliction : suffering (ଦୁଃଖ କଷ୍ଟ)
forbearing : patient ରୋଗୀ
haven : safe place (ନିରାପଦ ସ୍ଥାନ)
refuge : shelter (ଆଶ୍ରୟସ୍ଥଳୀ)
ancient : old (ପୁରାତନ)
lore : knowledge (ଜ୍ଞାନ)
snuggle up : get closer (ନିକଟତର ହେବା)
innumerable : countless (ଅଗଣିତ)
Arabian Nights : Thousand One Night’s Tale of the Arabian Nights (ଥାଉଜେଣ୍ଡ ବାନ ନାଇଟ୍ସ ଟେଲ ଅଫ ଦ ଆରବିଆନ୍ ନାଇଟ୍ସ)
precious : valuable (ମୂଲ୍ୟବାନ)
possession : treasure (ରତ୍ନଭଣ୍ଡାର)
inexhaustible : never-ending (ଚିରନ୍ତନ)

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Non-Detailed Chapter 5 Childhood

Think it out :

Question 1.
How does Nehru cherish the memory of Mubarak Ali?
Answer:
Mubarak Ali, his father’s Munshi, and Nehru’s one of the early trustworthy persons, came from a rich family. Unfortunately, the Rebellion of 1857 ruined his family and the English troops had partially destroyed it. In spite of great suffering, Mubarak never lost his heart. This tragedy made him gentle and patient with everybody. He was a source of consolation to Nehru’s trouble. He was a remarkable story-teller and the narrator of the painful happenings in 1857 and 58. When Nehfu grew up, Mubarak was no more.

Question 2.
How did Nehru acquire the knowledge of Indian folklore and mythology during his childhood?
Answer:
Nehru was fortunate to listen to stories from the old Hindu mythology during his childhood. Besides, he lent his years to the epics such as, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. His mother and aunt always narrated these stories to him. Nehru’s aunt, the widow of Pandit Nand Lai, possessed a vast knowledge of old indian books. She knew stories that knew no end. In this way, Nehru acquired the knowledge of Indian folklore and mythology during his childhood.

Unit -V

Gist :
Nehru did not have clear ideas of religion during his childhood. Father and his older cousins dealt with it very lightly. Nehru rather enjoyed various religious ceremonies performed by the women of the family. Sometimes he went to the Ganges for a dip with his mother. Sometimes they visited temples in Allahabad and so on. But all this did not greatly influence him. Nehru goes back to his childhood days when festivals such as, the Holi, the Divali, the Janamsthami were celebrated with pomp and grandeur. The Muslims also celebrated the Mohurrum. The two Id days found their Munshiji in the big mosque for prayers. He was elegantly dressed. The author was nicely treated in his house. Most of the other Hindus did not observe some special celebrations which were important for the Nehru’s family and other Kashmiris. The Naoraz is a case in point. All of them put on new dresses and the young people were given small amounts of money as tips.

Glossary:
hazy : not clear (ଅସ୍ପଷ୍ଟ)
notions : ideas (ବିଚାର)
casual : temporary (ଅସ୍ଥାୟୀ)
revelry : noisy fun, merrymaking (ହୋ-ହଲ୍ଲା ମଜା, ହୁଳହୁଳି)
squirt : sprinkle (ସିଞ୍ଚନ କରିବା)
lit up : lighted (ଆଲୋକିତ)
conquest : victory (ବିଜୟ)
assembled : gathered (ଏକତ୍ରୀତ)
attire : dress (ବେଶଭୂଷା)
dainties : tasty food (ସୁସ୍ୱାଦୁ ଖାଦ୍ୟ)
tips : to give a small amount of money (ଅଳ୍ପ କିଛି ଟଙ୍କା ଦେବା ପାଇଁ)

Think it out:

Question 1.
How does Nehru recall the religious atmosphere in his home during his childhood?
Answer:
Nehru had hazy ideas of religion during his childhood. Father and his older cousins treated the matter in a lighter vein. Nevertheless, some sort of religious atmosphere prevailed in his family. The women of the family took part in various ceremonies and rituals from time to time. Nehru rather enjoyed it, yet he tried to take a leaf out of the casual attitude of the grown-up men of the family. Sometimes, he go to the Ganges with his mother or aunt for a dip and visited temples in Allahabad or Benares.

Question 2.
How did Nehru family observe various festivals when he was a child?
Answer:
Nehru’s family observed various festivals such as, the Holi, the Divali, the festival of light, the Janamsthami, the Dasehra and Ram Lila, Rakshabandhan, Bhayya Duj and the Naoroz in a very enthusiastic manner. Festivity was in the air, during the Holi and the Divali. They all observed the Holi by sprinkling water at each other and the Divali by lighting their houses with thousands of dim light in earthen cups. The tableaux and processions connected with the Dusehra and Ram Lila attracted multitude of people.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Non-Detailed Chapter 5 Childhood

Unit -VI

Gist:
Nehru had great fascination for his birthdays. He enjoyed them to his heart’s content during his childhood. He was the focus of these particular days. Early in the morning he was weighed in a very big balance against some bags packed with wheat and other articles. Then they were given away among the poor. Nehru was clad in clothes. He received gifts. Later, a party took place on the occasion. He felt the central figure of his birthday ceremony. His complaint against this occasion that it did not come all the time. Of course, he tried to revolt for more continuous birthdays. Once he accompanied the whole family went to a distant town to attend a marriage. The journeys were quite enjoyable. The marriage house was packed with many families and as a result, he never felt lonely. These occasions filled all the children’ with great joy.

Glossary:
array: put on a ceremonial dress (ଆନୁଷ୍ଠାନିକ ପୋଷାକ ପରିଧାନ କରନ୍ତୁ)
grievance: complaint (ଅଭିୟୋଗ)
agitation: revolt (ବିଦ୍ରୋହ କରିବା)
advancing: growing (କ୍ରମବର୍ଦ୍ଧିଷ୍ଣୁ)
journeyed: travelled (ଯାତ୍ରା କଲେ)
numerous: many (ଅନେକ)
our … mischief (ଆମର) : Nehru and other children enjoyed playing and doing mischief to the brim

Think it out:

Question 1.
How did Nehru enjoy his birthdays during his childhood?
Answer:
Nehru enjoyed his birthdays to his heart’s content during his childhood. He played the most important part in his birth anniversary. He was full of excitement that day. Early in the morning he was weighed in a very big balance against some bags packed with wheat and other articles and they were given away to the poor. He was clad in new clothes and received gifts. His family hosted a party in the evening.

Question 2.
What was his grievane against this occasion?
Answer:
Nehru’s main grievance against his birthdays during his childhood that they did not come frequently. They occurred so rarely. Of course, he tried to start a revolt for more frequent birthdays. At that time, he was not aware of one stark truth that birthdays signalled the growth of ag

Unit – VII

Gist :
Nehru hits at the extravagant ceremonies in India. The rich and the poor spend lavishly on marriage. It is a mere waste. As a result, they are worthy of blame. Their vulgar show lacks artistic and aesthetic value. The middle classes are most affected. The poor do not mind spending carelessly, they incur heavy loans from the money lenders. Their social customs drive them to a quagmire of poverty. Of course, the poor lead terribly dull and boring lives. An occasional marriage celebration brings them a sort of happiness. In it, they find themselves in a world where life’s toil and tiredness do not exist.

These occasions are a source of consolation in thier miserable existence. Here they laugh and make merry. Nehru wants them to give up such show at any cost. However, he is sympathetic to the poor with regard to their pompous wedding ceremonies. He holds the same attitude towards the middle classes. These marriages make them united socially in a great measure. The poor and middle class people meet their distant relations and old friends after a long time. Vastness of India’s size deprives them of being together so easily. Therefore marriage celebrations have gained popularity.

Glossary:
condemnation : blame (ଦୋଷ ଦେବା)
extravagant : spending a lot of money (ପ୍ରଚୁର ଅର୍ଥ ବ୍ୟୟ କରି ଚଳୁଛନ୍ତି)
display : show (ପ୍ରଦର୍ଶନ କରିବା)
aesthetic: showing artistic taste (କଳାତ୍ମକ ରୁଚି ଦେଖାଇବା)
burdensome: hard to bear (ସହିବାକୁ କଷ୍ଟ ହୁଏ)
monotonous : boring (ଅବଶୋଷଣ)
toil: hard work (କଠିନ ପରିଶ୍ରମ)
refuge: shelter (ଆଶ୍ରୟସ୍ଥଳୀ)
domesticity: family life (ପାରିବାରିକ ଜୀବନ)
prosaic: uninteresting (ଅନାସକ୍ତ)
lessen: reduce (ହ୍ରାସ କରିବା)
rival: opponent (ପ୍ରତିଦ୍ୱନ୍ଦ୍ୱୀ)

Think it out:

Question 1.
How did Nehru enjoy himself when his family visited relatives living in distant towns to take part in wedding ceremonies?
Answer:
Not necessary. (This unit does not contain the answer.)

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Non-Detailed Chapter 5 Childhood

Question 2.
How does Nehru view customs of Indian marriages?
Answer:
Nehru’s view on customs of Indian marriages is critical out and out. The rich and the poor, in his opinion, are worthy of blame because of their wasteful and pompous show. They spend a lot of money on marriage ceremonies. Besides, waste, they sometimes seems to be untasteful that lacks artistic value of any sort. It is indeed painful.

Question 3.
Why is he sympathetic to the poor with regard to their extravagant wedding ceremonies?
Answer:
In spite of their extravagant display, the poor’ evoke Nehru’s sympathy. It is true that their poverty is attributed to their social customs. Their life is excessively dull and boring. An occasional marriage brings cheers to their lives. They feast, laugh and make merry on these occasions. They get a respite from their dreary domestic work and hard toil.

Question 4.
What is Nehru’s observation on the brighter side of wasteful marriage ceremonies?
Answer:
Nehru sees the brighter side of wasteful marriage ceremonies. These marriages pave the way for social unions. As a result, distant relations and old friends got a chance to meet each other after a long gap. It is difficult for friends to meet and for many to meet at the same times is more difficult if one takes India’s vast size into account.

Unit – VIII

Gist:
Nehru focusses on the status of Kashmiri women in the society. They never adopted purdah system. They adopted it partially in relation to non-Kashmiris. Their social status was marked by the greater freedom they enjoyed in the society then many others in North India. Kashmiri feats and ceremonies showed a sign of their togetherness. Of course the boys and girls lacked the freedom of modern West. In this way the author’s early life passed. At times his family quarrels reached a dangerous pitch. His father got angry. When these hapenings caught his attention, Nehru felt very sad.

Father’s interference sent shock waves down their spins. The little incident of his childhood lingers in memory. At the age of seven or eight, riding was a daily routine for him. A sawar from a cavalry unit always accompanied him. One evening Nehru fell down and as a result his small horse, a good-looking animal, partly Arab, came back alone to his home. At that time his father \vas hosting a tennis party. A great shocked feeling ran through all and all the party led by his father went in search of him. All kinds of vehicles were pressed into action. They met Nehru on the way and he was given a special treatment.

Glossary:
seclusion : isolation (ବିଚ୍ଛିନ୍ନତା)
prevailing : existing (ପ୍ରଚଳିତ)
inevitable : unavoidable (ଅପରିହାର୍ୟ୍ୟ)
squabble : quarrel (ବାଦବିବାଦ)
assumed unusual proportions : reached a high pitch (ଏକ ଉଚ୍ଚ ପିଚ୍ରେ ପହଞ୍ଚିଥିଲେ)
reached…..ears : Nehru’s father heard (ଶୁଣିଲେ ନେହେରୁଙ୍କ ବାପା)
disagreebale : unpleasant (ଅରୁଚିକର)
intervention : interference (ହସ୍ତକ୍ଷେପ)
cavalry (ଅଶ୍ୱାରୋହୀ ବାହିନୀ) : in the past, the post of an army consisting of soldiers who rode horses
pony : a small horse (ଏକ ଛୋଟ ଘୋଡା)
pretty : good-looking (ସୁନ୍ଦରୀ ସୁନ୍ଦରୀ)
consternation : a shocked, or worried feeling (ଏକ ଚକିତ, କିମ୍ବା ଚିନ୍ତିତ ଅନୁଭବ)
set out : started (ଆରମ୍ଭ)
deed : work (କାର୍ୟ୍ୟ)

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Non-Detailed Chapter 5 Childhood

Think it out:

Question 1.
How does Nehru focus on the status of Kashmiri women in the society?
Answer:
Nehru collects those times when the Kashimiri women enjoyed greater status in society. They lived more freely than many other women in North India. They never experienced the isolation of other women. They did not have any veil. They matched the free social life of men and women. Every Kashimiri’s house was open for every Kashmiri. Men and women took part in Kashmiri feasts and ceremonies.

Question 2.
How does he record his adventure with horse-riding during his childhood?
Answer:
Nehru graphically records his adventure with horse-riding during his childhood. At the age of eight he frequently went for a ride in the company of a sawar. One evening, Nehru fell off his good-looking small horse. As a result, it got back home without him. At that time his father was hosting a tennis party. A shocked feeling ran through all and the entire family and party led by his father set out in search of him. They met him on the way. He was accorded a fabulous treatment.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Childhood Important Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Read through the extract and answer the questions that follow.
In the evenings usually many friends came to visit father and he would relax after the tension of the day and the house would resound with his tremendous laughter. His laugh became famous in Allahabad. Sometimes I would peep at him and his friends from behind a curtain trying to make out what these great big people said to each other. If I was caught in the act I would be dragged out and, rather frightened, made to sit for a while on father’s knee. Once I saw him drinking claret or some other red wine. Whisky I knew. I had often seen him and his friends drink it. But the new red stuff filled me with horror and I rushed to my mother to tell her that father was drinking blood. I admired father tremendously. He seemed to me the embodiment of strength and courage and cleverness, far above all the other men I saw, and I treasured the hope that when I grew up I would be rather like him. But much as I admired him and loved him I feared him also. I had seen him losing his temper at servants and others and he seemed to me terrible then and I shivered with fright, mixed sometimes with resentment, at the treatment of a servant. His temper was indeed an awful thing and even in after years I do not think I ever came across anything to match it in its own line. But, fortunately, he had a strong sense of humour also and an iron will, and he could control himself as a rule. As he grew older this power of control grew and it was very rare for him to indulge in anything like his old temper.

Questions :
(i) Describe Nehru’s childhood memories as outlined in the first part of the extract.
(ii) Throw light on the temper displayed by his Nehru’s father.

Answers :
(i) Nehru’s childhood memories as outlined in the extract were a blend of fear and curiosity. He recollects his father’s roaring laughter in the midst of his friends. Sometimes driven by curiosity, Nehru looked secretly at him and his friend’s from behind a curtain to understand what they were talking. If he was caught while doing so, he was pulled, and fear-stricken, he had to sit for a while on his father’s knee. Nehru had also seen father and his friends drank whisky. He, full of horror, ran to his mother to apprise her of his father’s act of drinking blood.
(ii) Nehru’s father was a man of devastating temper. He had seen his father losing his temper at his servants and others. His treatment of a servant made Nehru tremble in fear. As a result, at times, he was filled with anger at his father. However, his father’s old temper did not last long. With the growth of age, his habit almost became a thing of the past.

Question 2.
Read through the extract and answer the questions that follow.
But more than all these festivals I was interested in one annual event in which I played the central part – the celebration of the anniversary of my birth. This was a day of great excitement for me. Early in the morning I was weighed in a huge balance against some bagfuls of wheat and other articles which were then distributed to the poor, and then I arrayed myself in new clothes and received presents, and later in the day there was a party. 1 felt the hero of the occasion. My chief grievance was that my birthday came so rarely. Indeed I tried to start an agitation for more frequent birthdays. I did not realize then that a time would come when birthdays would become unpleasant reminders of advancing age. Sometimes the whole family journeyed to a distant town to attend a marriage, either of a cousin of mine or of some more distant relation or friend. Those were exciting journeys for us, children, for all rules were relaxed during these marriage festivities and we had the free run of the place. Numerous families usually lived crowded together in the shadi-khana, the marriage house, where the party stayed, and there were many boys and girls and children. On these occasions I could not complain of loneliness and we had our heart’s fill of play and mischief, with an occasional scolding from our elders.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Non-Detailed Chapter 5 Childhood

Questions :
(i) Nehru enjoyed his birthdays to his heart’s content. Do you agree?
(ii) How did Nehru enjoy himself when his family visited relatives living in distant towns to take part in wedding ceremonies?

Answers :
(i) Yes, Nehru certainly enjoyed his birthdays to his heart’s content. He played the pivotal role in the celebration of the anniversary of his birth. He was full of great excitement on his birthday. A big balance was used to weigh him against some bags packed with wheat and other articles. They were then given away to the poor. Nehru was clad in new clothes and received presents. His family hosted a party. In his moment of happiness and excitement, Nehru forgot that a time would be inevitable when birthdays would be reminders of growing age.
(ii) Sometimes the entire Nehru family went to distant town to take part in a marriage either of his cousin or of some other more distant relation or friend. Nehru and other children found these journeys quite exciting. Those were the occasions when they freely laughed and made merry. There was a crowd of many families living together in the marriage house. Nehru’s enjoyment knew no end in the marriage ceremonies.

Question 3.
Read through the extract and answer the questions that follow.
Kashmiris have had one advantage over many others in India, especially in the north. They have never had any purdah, or seclusion of women, among themselves. Finding this custom prevailing in the Indian plains, when they came down, they adopted it, but only partly and in so far as their relations with others and non-Kashmiris were concerned. That was considered then in northern India, where most of the Kashmiris stayed, an inevitable sign of social status. But among themselves they stuck to the free social life of men and women, and every
Kashmiri had the free entree into any Kashmiri house. In Kashmiri feasts and ceremonies men and women met together and sat together, though often the women would sit in one bunch. Boys and girls used to meet on a more or less equal footing. They did not, of course, have the freedom of the modern West. So passed my early years. Sometimes, as was inevitable in a large family, there were family squabbles. When these happened to assume unusual proportions, they reached my father’s ears and he was angry and seemed to think that all such happenings were due to the folly of women. I did not understand what exactly had happened but I saw that something was very wrong, as people seemed to speak in a peculiarly disagreeable way or to avoid each other. I felt very unhappy. Father’s intervention, when it took place, shook us all up.

Questions :
(i) What picture of Kashmiri women do you find in the extract?
(ii) Describe Nehru’s recollection of family quarrels during his childhood.

Answers :
Kashmiri women stole a march over many others in north’ India. They enjoyed a greater freedom in the society than those living in this part of the country. They never used any sort of veil among themselves. They only partly adopted this system in interacting with others and non-Kashmiris. On the whole, Kashmiri women enjoyed a great social status. Kashmiri house freely welcomed all, men and women alike. They enjoyed the feasts together. Going down the memory lane, Nehru recollects family quarrels in a large family like his. When these unpleasant happenings took a very ugly turn, they could not go unnoticed. Nehru’s father got angry. He seemed to think that all such happenings were attributed due to the stupidity of women. Nehru failed to make out what exactly took place in the family and this made him sad.

Introducing the Author:
Jawaharlal, independent India’s first Prime Minister, was also one of the finest writers of English prose. Intellectual fervour and statesmanly ferosity seldom go together. He belonged to that galaxy of writers, who are considered to be of vital intellectual dimension. His books, which include Glimpses of World History, The Discovery of India and his autobiography and many letters and speeches, are the proof of his literary skill. He has made a substantial contribution to Enligsh literature. Reading Nehru’s writings produce a kind of intoxication.

About the Story :
Childhood, an extract from Nehru’s autobiography as the title suggests, throws light on Nehru’s memories of childhood. He deals with many things such as, his high regards for his father, religious atmosphere in his house, enjoyment of his birthdays and so on.

Summary :
The topic begins with Nehru’s recollection of the discussions of his cousins. He failed to make out, what they said. But their talks were built around the arrogant and humiliating behaviour of the English rulers towards the people of India. Indians were subjected to blatant injustice of the Englishmen. In Spite of killing an Indian, they were declared innocent by a jury of their own countrymen. Reservations in railway trains, were meant only for Enlgish people, however crowded they might be. Indian people were deprived of travelling in them, in spite of remaining empty.

Seats even in unreserved compartment were not allotted to them, but to an Englishman. Reservation concerning benches and chairs in public parks was meant for EuropeAnswer: His cousins talked about these facts and he listed to them as a child. Therefore, Nehru resented the behaviour of Englishmen in general in India. Despite his hatred for the presence and unjust behaviour of the British government, Nehru didn’t have any feeling of animosity against individual Englishmen. English Governess took care of Nehru. At time he said, the presence of English friends of his father, calling on him. He rather heartily admired the English.

Nehru’s father usually spent his evening in the midst of his friends in his house. He relaxed with them after the day’s stress. The house would echo with his roaring laughter. His laugh carved out a name for itself in Allahaband. Nehru’s father enjoyed drinking whisky with his friends. Nehru admires his father profusely. To him, his father was the epitome of strength, courage and cleverness. He was superior to all in these respects. He cherished the hope that he would be like him in future. In spite of possessing, devastating temper, his father possessed a string sense of humour and a determined will. With the growth of age, his father’s temper abated.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Non-Detailed Chapter 5 Childhood

Nehru walking down the memory lane, remembers one painful incident in his life. When he was about five or six, Nehru caught sight of two fountain-pens on his father’s office table and looked at them greedily. He debated with himself if his father would use both at the same time. So he took one of them. Later his family made a massive search for the lost pen. Nehru got panicky, but didn’t admit his guilt. The pen was found out. Father burst into anger and inflicted a severe blow on him. Nehru suffered pain and shame. Mother applied various creams and ointments to his aching and trembling body. Nehru throws light on his mother. She was a forgiving woman. She approved everything Nehru did in his childhood, because of her abundant and overwhelming love for him. He told everything to his mother, as she seemed closer to him. Nehru’s mother was thin, short and attractive. He praised her beauty and loved her astonishingly small and beautiful hands and feet. Nehru’s mother hailed from Kashmir.

Nehru also does not forget to recollect how he cherishes the memory of Mubarak Ali, his father’s Munshi and his own trustworthy person, who came of a rich family. Unfortunately, the Rebellion of 1857 ruined his family and the English troops had partially destroyed it. In spite of great suffering, Mubarak never lost his heart. This tragedy made him gentle and patient with everybody. He was a source of consolation to Nehru’s trouble. He was a remarkable story-teller and the narrator of the painful happenings in 1857 and 58. When Nehru grew up, Mubarak was no more.

Nehru was fortunate to listen to stories from the old Hindu mythology during his childhood. Besides, he lent his years to the epics such as, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. His mother and aunt always narrated these stories to him. Nehru’s aunt, the widow of Pandit Nand Lai, possessed a vast knowledge of old Indian books. She knew stories that knew no end. Therefore, Nehru acquired the knowledge of Indian folklore and mythology during his childhood. Nehru had hazy notions of religion during his childhood. He recalls the religious atmosphere in his home during his childhood. Father and his older cousins dealt with it very lightly. Nerhu rather enjoyed various religious ceremonies performed by the women of the family. Sometimes he went to the Ganges for a dip with his mother.

Sometimes they visited temples in Allahabad and so on. But all this did not greatly influenced him. Nehru’s family observed various festivals such as, the Holi, the Divali, the festival of light, the Janamsthami, the Dasehra and Ram Lila, Rakshabandhan, Bhayya Duj, and the Naoroz in a very enthusiastic manner. Festivity was in the air, during the Holi and the Divali. They all observed Holi by sprinkling water at each other and the Divali by lighting their houses with thousands of dim lights in earthen cups. The tableaux and processions connected with the Dusehra and Ram Lila attracted multitude of people. Nehru had great fascination for his birthdays. He enjoyed his birthdays to his heart’s content. He played the most important part in his birth anniversary. He was full of excitement that day. Early in the morning he was weighed in a very big balance against some bags packed with wheat and other articles and they were given away to the poor. He was clad in new clothes and received gifts.

His family hosted a party on the occasion. In those days, he was not aware of the fact that there would be a time when birthdays would become stark reminders of growing age. Nehru’s main grievance against his birthdays during his childhood that they did not come frequently. They occurred so rarely. Of course, he tried to start a revolt for more frequent birthdays. Nehru hits at the extravagant ceremonies in India. The rich and the poor spend lavishly on marriage. It is a mere waste. As a result, they are worthy of blame. Their vulgar show lacks artistic or aesthetic value. The middle classes are most affected. The poor do not mind spending carelessly, they incur heavy loans from the money-lenders. Their social customs drive them to a quagmire of poverty. Of course, the poor lead terribly dull and boring lives. An occasional marriage celebration brings them a sort of happiness. In it, they find themselves in a world where life’s toil and tiredness do not exist. These occasions are a source of consolation in thier miserable existence. Here they laugh and make merry. Nehru wants them to give up such show at any cost.

However, he is sympathetic to the poor with regard to their pompous wedding ceremonies. He holds the same attitude towards the middle classes. These marriages make them united socially in a great measure. The poor and middle class people meet their distant relations and old friends after a long time. Vastness of India’s size deprives them of being together so easily. Therefore marriage celebrations have gained popularity. Nehru collects those times when the Kashmiri women enjoyed greater status in society. They lived more freely than many other women in North India. They never experienced the isolation of other women. They did not have any veil. They matched the free social life of men and women. Every Kashmiri’s house was open for every Kashmiri people. Men and women took part in Kashmiri feasts and ceremonies. The topic comes to a close with Nehru recording his adventure with horse-riding during his childhood. At the age of eight, he frequently went for a ride in the company of a sawar. One evening, Nehru fell off his good-looking small horse. As a result, it got back home without him. At that time his father was hosting a tennis party. A shocked feeling ran through all and the entire family led by his father set out in search of him. They met him on the way. He was accorded a fabulous treatment.

ସାରାଂଶ :

ପଣ୍ଡିତ ଜବାହରଲାଲ ନେହେରୁଙ୍କ ବାଲ୍ୟକାଳ ସୁରକ୍ଷିତ, କିନ୍ତୁ ଘଟଣାବହୁଳ ନଥିଲା । ପରିବାରର ବୟସ୍କ ଲୋକେ ତାଙ୍କ ସମ୍ପର୍କୀୟ ଭାଇଙ୍କ ବିଷୟରେ କଥାବାର୍ତ୍ତା ହେଉଥୁବାର ସେ ଶୁଣୁଥିଲେ; କିନ୍ତୁ କିଛି ବୁଝିପାରୁନଥିଲେ । ବେଳେ ବେଳେ ସେ ଇଂରେଜ ଓ ୟୁରେସିଆମାନଙ୍କର ଦାୟିକପଣିଆ ବିଷୟରେ ଶୁଣିଥିଲେ । ସେମାନେ ଭାରତୀୟମାନଙ୍କୁ କିଭଳି ହେୟ ମନେକରୁଥିଲେ ତାହା ଶୁଣି ବାଳକ ନେହେରୁ ଦୁଃଖାଭିଭୂତ ହେଉଥିଲା । ଶାସକଗୋଷ୍ଠୀ ଓ ଶାସିତମାନଙ୍କ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ମଝିରେ ମଝିରେ କଳହ ହେଉଥ‌ିବା ବିଷୟରେ ନେହେରୁ ପରିବାରରେ ଆଲୋଚନା ହେଉଥିଲା । ଏହା ଏକ ଅଖ୍ୟାତି ବିଶିଷ୍ଟ ଘଟଣା ହେଉଥିଲା ଏବଂ ଭାରତୀୟମାନେ ନ୍ୟାୟୋଚିତ ବିଚାରରୁ ବଞ୍ଚିତ ହେଉଥିଲେ ।

ରେଳଗାଡ଼ି ଯେତେ ଭିଡ଼ ହେଉ ପଛକେ ହେଉଥିଲା ଏବଂ ଭାରତୀୟମାନେ ନ୍ୟାୟୋଚିତ ବିଚାରରୁ ବଞ୍ଚିତ ହେଉଥିଲେ । ରେଳଗାଡ଼ି ଯେତେ ଭିଡ଼ ହେଉ ପଛକେ ଇଂରେଜ ୟୁରେସିଆମାନଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ରେଳଡ଼ବା ସଂରକ୍ଷିତ ରହୁଥିଲା ଏବଂ କୌଣସି ଭାରତୀୟଙ୍କୁ ସେ ଡବା ମଧ୍ୟକୁ ପ୍ରବେଶ କରିବା ନିଷିଦ୍ଧ ଥିଲା । ଏପରିକି ସଂରକ୍ଷିତ ନଥିବା ଡବାଗୁଡିକ ମଧ୍ୟ ଇଂରେଜମାନଙ୍କ ଦ୍ବାରା ଦଖଲ କରାଯାଉଥିଲା । ସାଧାରଣ ପାର୍କଗୁଡିକରେ ବେଞ୍ଚ ଓ ଚୌକିଗୁଡ଼ିକ ମଧ୍ୟ ଗୋରାମାନଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ସଂରକ୍ଷିତ ରହୁଥିଲା । ଏହିସବୁ ବିଷୟଶୁଣି ନେହେରୁଙ୍କ ମନ ଇଂରେଜମାନଙ୍କ ପ୍ରତି ଘୃଣାପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ହୋଇ ଉଠୁଥିଲା । ଯଦି ସେ ଶୁଣିବାକୁ ପାଆନ୍ତି ଯେ, କୌଣସି ସ୍ଥାନରେ ଭାରତୀୟ ଜଣେ ଇଂରେଜ ଲୋକକୁ ମାଡ଼ ଦେଇଛି ସେ ଭାରି ଖୁସି ହେଉଥିଲେ । ବିଶେଷକରି ଯଦି ନେହେରୁଙ୍କ ବନ୍ଧୁ ବା ସମ୍ପର୍କୀୟ କେହି ଏପରି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟରେ ଦଳିତ ହେଉଥିଲେ ତେବେ ତାଙ୍କ ଆନନ୍ଦର ସୀମା କହିଲେ ନସରେ । ୟୁରେସିୟମାନେ ଇଂରେଜମାନଙ୍କୁ ପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ସମର୍ଥନ କରୁଥିଲେ ଏବଂ ଭାରତୀୟମାନଙ୍କୁ ନାନାପ୍ରକାର କଷ୍ଟ ଦେଉଥିଲେ ।

ନେହେରୁଙ୍କୁ ବାଲ୍ୟକାଳରୁ ଶ୍ଵେତାଙ୍ଗ ବିଦେଶୀ ଶାସକମାନଙ୍କ ପ୍ରତି ଘୃଣାଭାବ ଥିଲା । କିନ୍ତୁ କୌଣସି ବ୍ୟକ୍ତିବିଶେଷଙ୍କୁ ସେ ଘୃଣା କରୁନଥିଲେ । ତାଙ୍କ ପିତାଙ୍କ ଅନେକ ଗୋରାବନ୍ଧୁ ତାଙ୍କ ପରିବାରକୁ ଆସୁଥିଲେ । ତାଙ୍କର ଜଣେ ଇଂରେଜ ଗୃହଶିକ୍ଷୟିତ୍ରୀ ଥିଲେ । ସାଧାରଣତଃ ସନ୍ଧ୍ୟାବେଳେ ତାଙ୍କ ପିତାଙ୍କୁ ସାକ୍ଷାତ କରିବା ପାଇଁ ଅନେକ ବନ୍ଧୁ ଆସୁଥିଲେ । ବହୁ ସମୟ ପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ ଆଲୋଚନା ହେଉଥିଲା । ତାଙ୍କ ପିତା ଅଶ୍ଵସ୍ତ ବୋଧ କରୁଥିଲେ । ନେହେରୁ ଲୁଚି ସବୁ ଦେଖନ୍ତି ଓ ଶୁଣନ୍ତି । ଯସି ସେ ଏହି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟରତ ବେଳେ ଧରାପଡନ୍ତି ତେବେ ମୋତିଲାଲ ନେହେରୁ ତାଙ୍କୁ ନେଇ ନିଜ କୋଳରେ ବସାନ୍ତି ଓ ସେ ବନ୍ଧୁମାନଙ୍କ ସହ ପିତାଙ୍କ ଆଲୋଚନା ଓ ସୁରାପାନ ମଧ୍ଯ ଦେଖନ୍ତି । ଥରେ ତାଙ୍କ ପିତା ସ୍ଵିସ୍କ ବା ପ୍ଲାରେଟ୍ ଏକ ପ୍ରକାର ନାଲି ସୁରାପାନ କରୁଥିବା ବେଳେ ନେହେରୁ ଦେଖ‌ିଲେ ଓ ସେ ଭୀଷଣ ଭୟଭୀତ ହୋଇ ନିଜ ମାତାଙ୍କ ନିକଟକୁ ଦୌଡ଼ିଲେ ଏବଂ ତାଙ୍କୁ କହିଲେ ଯେ ବାପା ରକ୍ତଦାନ କରୁଛନ୍ତି ।

ନେହେରୁ ନିଜ ପିତାଙ୍କର ବହୁ ପ୍ରଶଂସା କରୁଥିଲେ । ବାପା ତାଙ୍କ ପାଇଁ ବଳ, ସାହସିକତା ଓ ଚତୁଋତାର ଅବତାର ଥିଲେ । ବାଳକ ନେହେରୁ ନିଜ ପିତାଙ୍କ ପରି ହେବା ପାଇଁ ଦୃଢ଼ ଆଶା ପୋଷଣ କରିଥିଲେ । ଭକ୍ତି ଓ ପ୍ରଶଂସା ସହ ସେ ବାପାଙ୍କୁ ଭୟ ମଧ୍ୟ କରୁଥିଲେ । ନିଜ ଭୃତ୍ୟମାନଙ୍କ ପ୍ରତି ମୋତିଲାଲ ପ୍ରଚଣ୍ଡ କ୍ରୋଧ କରୁଥିଲେ । ଏହା ଦେଖ୍ ନେହେରୁ ଭୟରେ ଥରୁଥିଲେ । ତାଙ୍କ ବାପାଙ୍କ ପରି କେହି ରାଗୀଲୋକ ସେ ଦେଖୁ ନଥ‌ିବା ଉଲ୍ଲେଖ କରିଛନ୍ତି । ପ୍ରଚଣ୍ଡ କ୍ରୋଧ ସାଙ୍ଗକୁ ତାଙ୍କର ରସିକତା, ଲୌହ ଇଚ୍ଛା ତାଙ୍କୁ ସହଜରେ ଆୟତ୍ତାଧୀନ କରିପାରୁଥିଲା । ବୟସ ଅଧିକ ହେବା ସଙ୍ଗେ ସଙ୍ଗେ ଆତ୍ମସଞ୍ଜମ ଶକ୍ତି ମଧ୍ୟ ବଢିବାକୁ ଲାଗିଲା । ବାଲ୍ୟକାଳର ଗୋଟିଏ ଘଟଣା ବିଷୟରେ ସେ ଉଲ୍ଲେଖ କରିଛନ୍ତି । ତାଙ୍କର ବୟସ ସେତେବେଳେ ପ୍ରାୟ ପାଞ୍ଚ ବର୍ଷ କି ଛ’ ବର୍ଷ ହେବ ସେ ବାପାଙ୍କ ଅଫିସ୍ ଟେବୁଲ୍ ଉପରେ ଦୁଇଟି ଝରକଲମ ଦେଖୁଲେ । ତାଙ୍କର ଲୋଭ ହେଲା । ମନେ ମନେ ବିଚାରିଲେ ବାପା ତ ଥରକେ ଦୁଇଟିଯାକ କଲମ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରିବେ ନାହିଁ, ତେଣୁ ସେ ଗୋଟିଏ କଲମ ଲୁଚାଇ ନେଇଆସିଲେ । ତା’ପରେ ଏକ ବଡ଼ଧରଣର କଲମ ଖୋଜା ଅଭିଯାନ ଆରମ୍ଭ ହେଲା । ଏଣେ ନେହେରୁ ମଧ୍ୟ ନିଜ ଦୋଷ ସ୍ଵୀକାର କରୁନାହାନ୍ତି ।

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Non-Detailed Chapter 5 Childhood

ବାପା ଭୀଷଣ ରାଗି ଗଲେଣି । ଶେଷରେ କଲମ ଧରାପଡ଼ିବାରୁ ବାପା ନେହେରୁଙ୍କୁ ଏକ ବ୍ରହ୍ମଚାପୁଡା ଦେଲେ । ଖୁବ୍ ମାଡଖାଇଲେ । ଅନେକ ଦିନ ପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ କ୍ଷତସ୍ଥାନଗୁଡ଼ିକରେ କ୍ରିମ୍ ଓ’ ଅଏଣ୍ଟମେଣ୍ଟ ବୋଳାଗଲା । ଛୋଟ କୋମଳ ଶରୀରଟା ଖାଲି ଥରୁଥାଏ ନେହେରୁ ନିଜ ମା’ଙ୍କୁ ଖାତିର କରୁନଥିଲେ । ତାଙ୍କ ମା’ ତାଙ୍କର ସବୁ ଦୋଷ କ୍ଷମାକରି ଦେଉଥିଲେ । ସେ ନେହେରୁଙ୍କୁ ଅତ୍ୟଧିକ ସ୍ନେହ ଓ ପ୍ରେମ କରୁଥିଲେ । ବେଳେବେଳେ ନେହେରୁ ମା’ଙ୍କ ଉପରେ ହାକିମ କରୁଥିଲେ । ବାପାଙ୍କ ଅପେକ୍ଷା ତାଙ୍କର ଅଧିକାଂଶ ସମୟ ମା’ଙ୍କ ଗହଣରେ କଟୁଥିଲା ଏବଂ ସେ ନିଜର ଗୁପ୍ତ କଥା ମା ଙ୍କୁ ହିଁ କହୁଥିଲେ । ନେହେରୁ ନିଜ ମା’ଙ୍କ କ୍ଷୁଦ୍ରାକୃତିକୁ ପସନ୍ଦ କରୁଥିଲେ । ନେହେରୁଙ୍କ ଅନ୍ୟଜଣେ ବିଶ୍ବସ୍ତ ବନ୍ଧୁ ଥିଲେ ତାଙ୍କ ପିତାଙ୍କ ମୁନ୍‌ସୀ ମୁବାରକ ଅଲ୍ଲୀ । ସେ ବଦୌନ ଇଲାକାରୁ ଜଣେ ଧନୀ ପରିବାରରୁ ଆସିଥିଲେ । ୧୮୫୭ ସିପାହୀ ବିଦ୍ରୋହ ତାଙ୍କ ପରିବାରକୁ ନଷ୍ଟ କରିପକାଇଲା । ବୃଦ୍ଧ ମୁବାରକ ଅଲ୍ଲୀ ସର୍ବହରା ହେଲାପରେ ବଡ଼ ବିନୟୀ, ଧୈର୍ଯ୍ୟଶାଳୀ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି ହୋଇଥିଲେ । ନେହେରୁ ଓ ପରିବାରର ଅନ୍ୟପିଲାମାନେ ତାଙ୍କଠାରୁ ଅନେକ କାହାଣୀ ଶୁଣୁଥିଲେ । ନେହେରୁଙ୍କ ଯୁବକବେଳେ ମୁସିଜୀଙ୍କ ବିୟୋଗ ଘଟିଲା, କିନ୍ତୁ ବହୁକାଳ ପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ ନେହେରୁଙ୍କ ମନରେ ମୁନ୍‌ସିଜୀଙ୍କ ସ୍ମୃତି ଜାଗ୍ରତ ଥିଲା । ଏହାଛଡା ସେ ହିନ୍ଦୁ ପୁରାଣ ନେହେରୁଙ୍କ ଧର୍ମ ବିଷୟରେ ଭଲ ଧାରଣା ନଥିଲା । ତାଙ୍କ ପିତା ଓ ପିତାଙ୍କ ସମ୍ପର୍କୀୟ ବଡ଼ ଭାଇ ଧର୍ମ ପ୍ରତି ବିଶେଷ ଆଗ୍ରହ କରୁନଥିଲେ । ପରିବାରର ମହିଳାମାନେ ନାନାପ୍ରକାର ପୂଜାକାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କରୁଥିଲେ । ଗଙ୍ଗାରେ ବୁଡ଼ ପକାଇଥିଲେ ।

ବେଳେବେଳେ ନେହେରୁ ସେମାନଙ୍କ ସହ ବୁଡ଼ ପକାଇବାକୁ ଗଙ୍ଗାସାଗର ଯାଉଥିଲେ । ଆହ୍ଲାବାଦ କିମ୍ବା ବନାରସରେ ଥିବା ମନ୍ଦିର ଦର୍ଶନ ପାଇଁ ଯାଉଥିଲେ । କେବେ କେବେ ସେ ସନ୍ନ୍ୟାସୀମାନଙ୍କୁ ଦର୍ଶନ କରୁଥିଲେ କିନ୍ତୁ ଏସବୁ ସତ୍ତ୍ଵେ ସେ ଧର୍ମପ୍ରତି ମନ୍ଦିର ଦର୍ଶନ ପାଇଁ ଯାଉଥିଲେ । କେବେ କେବେ ସେ ସନ୍ନ୍ୟାସୀମାନଙ୍କୁ ଦର୍ଶନ କରୁଥିଲେ କିନ୍ତୁ ଏସବୁ ସତ୍ତ୍ଵେ ସେ ଧର୍ମପ୍ରତି ବିଶେଷ ଆଗ୍ରହ ଦେଖାଇ ନଥୁଲେ କି ସେସବୁର କୌଣସି ପ୍ରଭାବ ତାଙ୍କ ଉପରେ ପଡୁନଥିଲା ପଣ୍ଡିତ ନେହେରୁ ନିଜ ବାଲ୍ୟକାଳରେ ଭାରତରେ ପାଳିତ ହେଉଥିବା ବିଭିନ୍ନ ପର୍ବପର୍ବାଣିମାନଙ୍କଦ୍ୱାରା କିଭଳି ପ୍ରଭାବିତ ଓ ଆନନ୍ଦିତ ହେଉଥଲେ ସେ ବିଷୟରେ ଉଲ୍ଲେଖ କରିଛନ୍ତି । ହୋଲି ପର୍ବ ବେଳେ ସାରା ସହର ଆନନ୍ଦରେ କୋଳାହଳପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ହେବା ସଙ୍ଗେ ସଙ୍ଗେ ଖେଳ ଏକ ଅପୂର୍ବ ଆନନ୍ଦ ସୃଷ୍ଟି କରିଥିଲା । ଦୀପାବଳୀ, ଜନ୍ମାଷ୍ଟମୀ, ଦଶହରା ଓ ରାମଲୀଳା ଇତ୍ୟାଦି ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କ ମନରେ ଢ଼େର ଆନନ୍ଦ ଦେଉଥିଲା ।

ସହରର ପିଲାମାନେ ରାମଲୀଳା ମଇଦାନରେ ରାବଣବଧ ଓ ରାମଚନ୍ଦ୍ରଙ୍କ ଲଙ୍କା ଆକ୍ରମଣ ଦେଖ୍ ଖୁବ୍ ଆନନ୍ଦିତ ହୁଅନ୍ତି । ଏହାଛଡ଼ା ମହରମ ପର୍ବର ଶୋଭାଯାତ୍ରା ଦେଖିବାକୁ ଅନେକ ଲୋକ ସମାଗମ ହେଉଥିଲେ । କାଶ୍ମୀରମାନଙ୍କ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ଏକ ପର୍ବ ପାଳନ ହୁଏ ଯାହା ଭାରତର ଅନ୍ୟାନ୍ୟ ସ୍ଥାନରେ ପାଳିତ ହୁଏ ନାହିଁ । ଏହି ପର୍ବକୁ ‘ନୌରୋଜ’ କୁହାଯାଏ । ସମ୍ବତ ପଞ୍ଜିକାନୁସାରେ ଏହା ନବବର୍ଷ ଦିବସରୂପେ ପାଳିତ ହୁଏ । ନେହେରୁଙ୍କ ଜନ୍ମଦିନ ଉତ୍ସବ ଖୁବ୍‌ ଜାକଜମକରେ ପାଳିତ ହେଉଥିଲା । ତାଙ୍କ ମନରେ ଏକ ଅବଶୋଷ ଯେ ଏହା ବର୍ଷରେ ବହୁବାର ପାଳିତ ନ ହୋଇ ବର୍ଷକୁ ଥରେ ମାତ୍ର ପାଳିତ କାହିଁକି ହେଉଛି । ପିଲାବେଳେ ତାଙ୍କ ଜନ୍ମଦିନ ଉତ୍ସବରେ ସେ ଏକ ତରାଜୁରେ ବସୁଥିଲେ । ଅନ୍ୟ ପଟେ ଗହମ ଓ ଅନ୍ୟାନ୍ୟ ଦ୍ରବ୍ୟ ଓଜନ କରାଯାଇ ଦରିଦ୍ରମାନଙ୍କ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ବିତରଣ କରାଯାଉଥିଲା ।

ନେହେରୁ ନୂଆ ବସ୍ତ୍ର ପିନ୍ଧୁଥିଲେ, ଅନେକ ଉପହାରମାନ ପାଉଥିବାବେଳେ ତାଙ୍କ ପରିବାରର ସଦସ୍ୟମାନେ ବିବାହ ଉତ୍ସବରେ ଯୋଗ ଦେବାପାଇଁ ଦୂରସ୍ଥାନମାନଙ୍କୁ ଯାତ୍ରା କରୁଥିଲେ । ପିଲାମାନଙ୍କ ମନରେ ଆନନ୍ଦର ସୀମା ରହୁନଥିଲା । ନେହେରୁ ଆଡ଼ମ୍ବରପୂର୍ଣ ବିବାହ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକୁ ତୀବ୍ର ସମାଲୋଚନା କରିଛନ୍ତି । ଧନୀ କିମ୍ବା ଗରିବ ଭାରତୀୟମାନେ ବିବାହ ବ୍ରତାଦି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକ୍ରମରେ ପ୍ରଚୁର ଅର୍ଥ ଖର୍ଚ୍ଚ କରୁଥିଲେ । ମଧ୍ୟବିତ୍ତ ପରିବାର ଓ ନିମ୍ନଶ୍ରେଣୀର ଲୋକମାନେ ଏହି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟରେ ଅଯଥା ଋଣଗ୍ରସ୍ତ ହୋଇ ସର୍ବସ୍ଟାନ୍ତ ହେଉଥିଲେ । କିନ୍ତୁ ପ୍ରାଚୀନ ପରମ୍ପରାରୁ ବାଦ ପଡୁନଥିଲେ । ସମାଜ କ’ଣ କହିଲା, ଲୋକେ କ’ଣ କହିବେ, ଏକଥା ସେମାନଙ୍କୁ ସର୍ବହରା କରୁଥିଲା । ଏହାଛଡ଼ା ଭାରତ ଭଳି ଏକ ମହାନ ଦେଶରେ ବନ୍ଧୁମାନଙ୍କୁ ସାକ୍ଷାତ କରିବା ଏକ ବ୍ୟୟସାପେକ୍ଷ ବ୍ୟାପାର ।

କାଶ୍ମୀରବାସୀମାନେ ବିଶେଷ କରି ମହିଳାମାନେ ପର୍ଦାପ୍ରଥା ପାଳନ କରୁନଥୁଲେ କି ନିର୍ଜନ ଗୃହରେ ଲୁଚି ରହୁନଥଲେ । ସେମାନଙ୍କ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ସ୍ବାଧୀନ ଜୀବନ ପଦ୍ଧତି ପ୍ରଚଳିତ ଥିଲା । ପୁରୁଷ ଓ ମହିଳାମାନେ ଏକତ୍ର ବିବାହ ଆଉ ଉତ୍ସବରେ ରୁଣ୍ଡ ହେଉଥିଲେ । ଏକତ୍ର ବସି ଭୋଜି ସଭାରେ ଖାଇବା ପିଇବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ହେଉଥିଲା । ବାଳକବାଳିକାମାନେ ଏକାଠି ମିଳିମିଶି ହସଖୁସିରେ ମାତୁଥିଲେ । ପରିଶେଷରେ ନେହେରୁ ବାଲ୍ୟକାଳରେ ଗୋଟିଏ ସ୍ମରଣୀୟ ଘଟଣା ଉଲ୍ଲେଖ କରି ପ୍ରବନ୍ଧଟିକୁ ସମାପ୍ତ କରିଛନ୍ତି । ସେତେବେଳେ ନେହେରୁଙ୍କୁପ୍ରାୟ ସାତ ଆଠ ବର୍ଷ । ନିଜ ସର ସହ ସେ ପ୍ରତ୍ୟହ ଅଶ୍ଵାରୋହଣ ଶିକ୍ଷା କରୁଥିଲେ । ଦିନେ ସନ୍ଧ୍ୟାବେଳେ ସେ ଘୋଡ଼ାଉପରୁ ପଡ଼ିଗଲେ ଏବଂ ଘୋଡ଼ାଟା ତାଙ୍କୁ ଛାଡ଼ି ଏକା ଘରକୁ ଫେରିଲା । ନେହେରୁଙ୍କୁ ନଦେଖୁ ସମସ୍ତେ ବ୍ୟସ୍ତ ହେଲେ । ବାପା ଓ ଅନ୍ୟମାନେ ନାନା ସ୍ଥାନରେ ବାହାରି ଚାରିଆଡ଼େ ଖୋଜିଲେ । ବାଟରେ ଭେଟ ହେଲା ଏବଂ ନେହେରୁ ସତେ ଯେପରି ଏକ ସାହସିକ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକରିଛନ୍ତି ସେଭଳି ବ୍ୟବହାର ପାଇଲେ ।

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Invitation to English 1 Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

CHSE Odisha 11th Class English Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening Text Book Questions and Answers

Think it out

Question 1.
How is ‘woods’ different from ‘forest’?
Answer:
‘Woods’ is different from the forest, because the former refers to an area of trees, smaller than a forest.

Question 2.
Where does the rider stop?
Answer:
The rider stops by some woods.

Question 3.
Why does he stop?
Answer:
The beauty of the woods tempts him to stop and enjoy the beauty of snow wood.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

Question 4.
“He will not see me stopping here” – what does this expression mean?
Answer:
The expression ‘He will not see me stopping here’ means the owner of the woods living in the village will not see the poet stopping by the woods.

Question 5.
Why does the horse give his harness bells a shake?
Answer:
The poet, riding across the countryside, stops by snow-wrapped woods. The horse is accustomed to stopping at farmhouses, but on the present occasion, he finds it strange that though his master has stopped, there is no farmhouse nearby. Therefore, the horse gives his harness bells a shake as if to ask whether his master has stopped there by mistake

Question 6.
What is ‘the only other sound’ besides that of harness bells?
Answer:
The only other sound besides the harness bells is the sound of easily flowing wind and falling snow.

Question 7.
Why does the poet use the expressions ‘dark’, ‘deep’, and ‘darkest’?
Answer:
The poet uses the expressions ‘dark’, ‘deep’, and ‘deepest’ to express the fact that he is fascinated by the natural beauty of the woods.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

Question 8.
How do the speaker, the owner of the woods, and the horse react to the beauties of nature?
Answer:
It may be noted that the fascination of the woods is felt only by the speaker, not by the horse (who is a sub-human) or by the practical man (the owner of the woods).

Question 9.
What picture of natural beauty do you get from the poem?
Answer:
The beauty we get from the poem is natural. It is one of near-silence. The lovely, dark, and deep woods prove this fact.

Question 10.
In the final stanza, the speaker says that he is not yet ready to ‘sleep’. What has he to do before he can take a rest?
Answer:
The poet has his routine duties to do before he can take a rest.

Question 11.
What does the expression, “The darkest evening of the year”, suggest? Does it mean ‘the longest night of the year’ or ‘the most depressing state of his mind’? Give a reasoned answer.
Answer;
The expression ‘the darkest evening of the year’ means the darkest night of the year. Because he has a long way to go. Besides, the poet’s delight in contemplating the woods filling up with snow seems to him to be an abandonment of his responsibilities when he realizes that he has an appointment to keep with his death.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

Question 12.
A four-line stanza is called a quatrain. How many quatrains are there in the poem?
Answer:
There are four quatrains in the poem.

Post-Reading Activities.

Question 1.
Arrange the following sentences in their logical order to narrate the theme of the poem.
(a) He passes by the woods which are ‘lovely, dark and deep’.
(b) The poet is riding his horse to a destination.
(c) But he remembers that he has ‘promises to keep’ before he can rest.
(d) It is snowing and the wind blows gently.
(e) The beauty of the woods tempts him to stop and enjoy the sight.
(f) It is an evening in winter.

Answer:
(f) It is an evening in winter.
(d) It is snowing and the wind blows gently.
(b) The poet is riding his horse to a destination.
(a) He passes by the woods which are ‘lovely, dark and deep’.
(e) The beauty of the woods tempts him to stop and enjoy the sight.
(c) But he remembers that he has ‘promises to keep’ before he can rest.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

Question 2.
Note the rhyme scheme in the first quatrain. It is AABA (‘know’, ‘though’, ‘here’ ‘snow’). What is the rhyme scheme in other quatrains?
Answer:
The rhyme scheme is BBCB (queer, near, lake, year), CCDE (shake, mistake, sweep, flake), and EEEE (deep, keep, sleep, sleep) in 2nd, the 3rd, and 4th quatrains respectively.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening Important Questions and Answers

A. short Answer Type Questions with Answers

1. Read through the extract and answer the questions that follow.

Whose woods these are I think I know ……
His house is in the village though;
He will not see me stopping here
To watch his woods fill up with snow.

My little horse must think it queer
To stop without a farm house near
Between the woods and frozen lake
The darkest evening of the year.

He gives his harness bells a shake
To ask if there is some mistake
The only other sound’s the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.

The woods are lovely, dark and deep
But I have promises to keep
And miles to go before I sleep
And miles to go before I sleep.

Questions :
(i) Where does the owner of the woods live?

(ii) ‘He will not see me stopping here.’ Who is ‘He’ here?

(iii) Describe the woods.

(iv) What is the theme of the poem?

(v) Explain the significance of the repetition of :
‘And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep.’

Answers :
(i) The owner of the woods lives in a village.

(ii) Here ‘he’ is the owner of the woods.

(iii) Robert Frost gives a beautiful description of the woods. They are lovely, dark, and deep. The sight of the woods being gradually covered with snow is so fascinating that the poet would like to watch it a little longer. The woods are outside the village and their owner does not live here. The poet knows him. Woods that constitute the essence of the poem suggests perilous enchantment.

(iv) The theme of the poem lies in the speaker’s delight in contemplating the woods filling up with snow seems to him to be an abandonment of his responsibilities when he realizes that he has an appointment to keep with death.

(v) The repetition of these lines is quite significant. It brings out the poet’s strong determination. He knows that death is the end of life. Instead of enjoying the fascinating beauty of the woods, he goes on to fulfill the mission of his life. He remembers that he has ‘promises to keep’, duties to perform, and a long journey to complete before he can rest. The repetition of these lines beautifully exemplifies this and indicates the depth of the poet’s feelings.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

2. Read through the extract and answer the questions that follow.

Whose woods these are I think I know …..
His house is in the village though;
He will not see me stopping here
To watch his woods fill up with snow.

My little horse must think it queer
To stop without a farmhouse near
Between the woods and frozen lake
The darkest evening of the year.

He gives his harness bells a shake
To ask if there is some mistake
The only other sound’s the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.

The woods are lovely, dark, and deep
But I have promises to keep
And miles to go before I sleep
And miles to go before I sleep.

Questions :
(i) Explain the expression ‘whose woods’.

(ii) What does the line ‘I think I know’ signify?

(iii) What interpretation does this extract admit?

(iv) What moment does the poem capture?

(v) ‘Besides going to sleep, the poet must perform duties.’ What else does the last stanza convey?

Answer:
(i) The implied question is whether the woods belong to the owner or the person who watches or enjoys them. Or is it of God?

(ii) The line ‘I think I know’ signifies characteristically a Frostian hovering between eloquence and silence, understanding and reticence.

(iii) This extract lends itself to a variety of interpretations: Why does the speaker stop by some woods? The reader may ask some pertinent questions: Does the speaker move on rather reluctantly? What is Frost’s attitude toward nature?

(iv) The poem captures a moment of pure delight in mid-winter – a fleeting mood of reflection on the beauty of snow-capped woods before the poet must go on with routine duties.

(v) The last stanza also conveys the poet’s death wish.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) with Answers
Choose the correct option.
Warm-up
Do you know…… inspiring it is.
Question 1.
The poem “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” is written by :
(a) John Keats.
(b) Robert Frost.
(c) Thomas Hardy.
(d) William Wordsworth.
Answer:
(b) Robert Frost.

Question 2.
This poem was a great favorite of :
(a) R. N. Tagore.
(b) Sarojini Naidu.
(c) Jawaharlal Nehru.
(d) Khushwant Singh.
Answer:
(c) Jawaharlal Nehru.

Question 3.
The attraction in this poem is of :
(a) matter.
(b) nature.
(c) a great person.
(d) a great responsibility.
Answer:
(b) nature.

Question 4.
The speaker stops his horse by some_______on a snowy evening.
(a) forest.
(b) river bank.
(c) woods.
(d) sea beach.
Answer:
(c) woods.

Question 5.
The journey through the woods is suggestive of a journey through__________itself.
(a) sea
(b) life
(c) heaven
(d) hill
Answer:
(b) life

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

The Text
Stanza – I
Whose woods………. with snow.
Question 6.
‘Woods’ here means :
(a) forest.
(b) jungle.
(c) an area of trees, smaller than a forest.
(d) a hillside.
Answer:
(c) an area of trees, smaller than a forest.

Question 7.
From this line ‘Whose woods these are I think I know”, it is clear that these woods belong to :
(a) a person to whom the poet knows.
(b) the animals who live in it.
(c) the forest authority.
(d) none of the above.
Answer:
(a) a person to whom the poet knows.

Question 8.
The owner of the woods lives in a :
(a) town.
(b) hilltop.
(c) village.
(d) Riverside.
Answer:
(c) village.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

Question 9.
He will not see me stopping here. In this sentence ‘He’ refers to :
(a) the author of the poem.
(b) the owner of the woods.
(c) the God.
(d) the Nature.
Answer:
(b) the owner of the woods.

Question 10.
The poet watchers that woods are covered with :
(a) snow.
(c) fruits.
(b) hilltop.
(d) Riverside.
Answer:
(a) snow.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

Stanza – II
My little………. of the year.
Question 11.
My little horse must think it queer. In this sentence, the word ‘little’ means :
(a) small.
(c) nothing.
(b) humble.
(d) short.
Answer:
(b) humble.

Question 12.
What does the word ‘queer’ mean?
(a) Search.
(c) strange.
(b) stop.
(d) sound.
Answer:
(c) strange.

Question 13.
Where do they usually stop?
(a) at a guest house.
(b) at an inn.
(c) at a cottage.
(d) at a farmhouse.
Answer:
(d) at a farmhouse.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

Question 14.
What has made the horse feel strange and uncomfortable?
(a) stopping on the way where there is no farmhouse.
(b) stopping in the mid of the forest where life is full of danger.
(c) stopping in a frozen land where life is at risk.
(d) none of the above.
Answer:
(a) stopping on the way where there is no farmhouse.

Question 15.
At what time of the day the poet was passing by the woods?
(a) morning.
(c) evening.
(b) afternoon.
(d) at night.
Answer:
(c) evening.

Stanza – III
He gives ………… downy flake
Question 16.
In the first line of stanza III, there is the word ‘harness bells’ which is tied to the neck of an animal. Which is that animal?
(a) ox.
(b) horse.
(c) bullock.
(d) donkey.
Answer:
(b) horse.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

Question 17.
Why does the horse shake the harness bells?
(a) to show some fun
(b) to show some urgency
(c) to show some mistake
(d) to show that he is hungry
Answer:
(c) to show some mistake

Question 18.
Apart from the sounds of harness bells, there are other two natural sounds near the woods. What are they?
(a) sounds of animals and spring.
(b) sounds of stones and rustling of trees.
(c) sounds of easy wind and downy flake.
(d) sounds of spirits and ghosts.
Answer:
(c) sounds of easy wind and downy flake.

Question 19.
What do you mean by the word ‘downy flake’?
(a) down falling water.
(b) down falling stones.
(c) down falling logs.
(d) down falling snow.
Answer:
(d) down falling snow.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

Stanza – IV
The woods are ………… before I sleep.

Question 20.
How were the woods according to the poet?
(a) dense, dangerous, and difficult.
(b) natural, attractive, and enjoyable.
(c) lovely, dark, and deep.
(d) none of the above.
Answer:
(c) lovely, dark, and deep.

Question 21.
Why is the poet not willing to stay near the wood?
(a) He has urgent work.
(b) He has promises to keep.
(c) He has no interest to stay.
(d) His horse is unwilling to stay.
Answer:
(b) He has promises to keep.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

Question 22.
‘And miles to go before I sleep’. This statement of the poet indicates :
(a) a long journey of life before he leaves for heavenly rest.
(b) a long distance to be traveled by the poet.
(c) a long life of rest and sleep.
(d) none of the above.
Answer:
(a) a long journey of life before he leaves for heavenly rest.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

Detailed Summaries and Glossary
Stanza – I (Lines 1-4)

Gist with Glossary
Gist :
The poet, who has to ride long distances in order to fulfill what he has promised, finds himself by the woods late in the evening. It is snowing. So he stops for a while to lose himself in the enjoyment of natural beauty. He thinks he knows the owner of the woods, and also that the owner cannot see him admiring the woods, as he lives in a village away from the woods.

Glossary:
woods: an area of trees, smaller than a forest ( ଛୋଟକାଟିଆ ଜଙ୍ଗଲ )
whose woods: These woods are outside a village and the poet knows the owner of the woods who lives in the village.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

Stanza – II (Lines 5-8)

Gist with Glossary
Gist :
The poet’s horse cannot understand why there should be a stop when there is no firm house in sight and also in such an uncomfortable situation as it is snowing. The horse is accustomed to stopping at farmhouses. The master has, as a matter of fact, stopping not for rest but for a brief enjoyment of the beauty of the woods.

Glossary:
Little : humble and ordinary (ସାଧାରଣ ).
Queer : strange (ଆଶ୍ଚର୍ଯ୍ୟ) .
think it queer….. near: The poet says that the horse considers it surprising that the master stops in the midst of the woods and not near any farmhouse.
Frozen Lake : lake turned into ice (ବରଫ ପାଲଟିଥ‌ିବା ହ୍ରଦ).

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

Stanza – III (Lines 9-12)

Gist with Glossary
Gist :
The poet’s horse is not impressed by the woods. It does not understand why they have stopped in such a lonely place, especially as there is no sign of any farmhouse nearby. The horse shakes his harness bells as if to ask whether his master has stopped there by mistake. But the only sound that is there is the swift movement of the wind and the fall of the flakes of snow.

Glossary:
Harness Bells: small bells attached to a strap/band around the neck of a horse. (ଘୋଡ଼ା ବେକର ଘଣ୍ଟି )
Easy Wind: easily flowing wind. (ମୃଦୁ ପବନ)
Flakes: pieces of snow that are soft, light, and white. (ନ ର ମ ହାଲୁକା ଧଳା )
Downy Flakes: downfalling snow. (ତଳକୁ ଖସୁଥ‌ିବା ବରଫ)

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

Stanza – IV (Lines 13-16)

Gist with Glossary
Gist:
The beauty of the woods tempts the poet powerfully to stop the journey and to lose himself in the enjoyment of natural beauty. But he remembers that he has ‘promises to keep’, duties to perform, and a long journey to complete before he can rest. The intensity of the poet’s feeling finds a beautiful expression in this stanza.

Glossary:
Promises : assurance to perform certain duties and miles….. (କଉଁ ବ୍ଯ ପାଳନର ପ୍ରତିଜ୍ଞା)
before I sleep: the poet brings out the idea that he has to perform a long, long journey, and before it is completed, he can have no rest. The repetition is indicative of the depth of the poet’s feelings. ‘
Mile : a distane of 1.6 kilometres (1.6 କି.ମି. ଦୂରତ୍ବ)

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

Introducing The Poet

Robert Lee Frost, perhaps the best-loved of American poets, was born in San Francisco, California, on 26 March 1874. On the death of his father when he was only ten, he was taken to Lawrence, Massachusetts. Frost attended Lawrence High School and Dartmouth College, which he left after a few months. He taught in school, tried his hand at farming, and also worked as a newspaperman. In 1885 he married Elinor White, his former sweetheart at the high school. Though he enrolled at Harvard University as a special student in 1897 he left it after only two years.

In 1912 the Frosts moved to England. A Boy’s Will, Frost’s first book of poems, was published in England in 1913. North of Boston in 1914, contains some of the finest of Frost’s lyrics. In 1915 the Frosts returned to America and settled on a farm in New Hampshire. Other significant collections of his poems are Mountain Interval (1916), New Hampshire (1923), West-Running Brook (1928), A Further Range (1936), A Witness Tree (1942), and Steeple Bush (1947).

The complete poem of Robert Frost appeared in 1949. He gave public readings of his poems at several American Universities. In his later years, he achieved the status of a folk hero. He died in Boston in 1963. He was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for poetry four times in 1924, 1931, 1937, and 1943. Surprisingly however his first book of poetry was published in England in 1913. No American publisher had accepted it.

It is not difficult to understand why Frost is Americans’ favorite poet. He writes very simply about familiar, ordinary things. However, the simplicity is only on the surface, Frost’s poems actually talk about ideas and thoughts that are deep, not ordinary. The poems talk about truth, they teach you wisdom. Frost is a poet whose style is as fine as a goldsmith’s skill. His poems are delightful to read. Frost himself has said, that for him, a poem begins in delight and ends in wisdom.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

About The Poem

Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening presents the thoughts that pass through the poet’s mind as he stops his horse in wood on an evening when the snow has begun to fall. The poet conveys the idea that the beauties of nature can be very attractive but man has to perform his duties and keep his promises. He has to continue the journey of life and cannot afford to spend his time only watching the scenic beauties of nature. The poet brings out this message through a presentation of the conflict between the lovely woods and the promises that he has to keep.

Summary

The poem starts with a concrete situation arising from the ordinary life of a man but moves on to philosophic speculation about the relationship between man and nature. It is a dark and quiet evening of winter, and it is snowing. The poet, riding a horse to a destination, passes by woods that are lovely, dark, and deep. These woods are outside a village. The poet knows the owner of the woods who lives in the village.

The beauty of the woods tempts him powerfully to stop the journey and to lose himself in the enjoyment of natural beauty. He says that the horse considers it surprising that the master stops in the midst of the woods and is not near any farmhouse. The horse is accustomed to stopping at farmhouses, but on the present occasion, his reaction is natural.

He knows if his master, in the course of riding across the countryside stops at all, he stops at some farmhouse where both can find food and rest. The master has, as a matter of fact, stopped in such a lonely place not for the rest but for a brief enjoyment of the scenic beauty of the woods. The horse shakes his harness bells as if to ask whether his master has stopped there by mistake.

There are no other sounds except the swift movement of the wind and the fall of snowflakes which are soft, light, and white as feathers. The poem ends on a note of wisdom. In spite of wishing to enjoy the natural beauty, the poet cannot linger there. He moves on as he has to cover long distances in order to keep his promises. He cannot stay back the mission in his life still awaits completion. He remembers that he has ‘promises to keep’, duties to perform a long journey to complete before he can rest

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Solutions Poem 1 Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

ସାରାଂଶ:
ମଧ୍ୟରେ ଯେଉଁ ସମ୍ପର୍କ ବିଦ୍ୟମାନ, କବି ତାକୁ ଏକ ଦାର୍ଶନିକ ଦୃଷ୍ଟିଭଙ୍ଗୀରୁ ଦେଖୁଛନ୍ତି । ଶୀତକାଳର ଗୋଟିଏ ନୀରବ ସନ୍ଧ୍ୟା । ଅନ୍ଧକାର ପୃଥ‌ିବୀକୁ ଆଚ୍ଛାଦିତ କରିଛି । ଆକାଶରୁ ଝରିପଡ଼ୁଛି ବରଫରାଶି । କବି ଅଶ୍ୱାରୋହଣ କରି ତାଙ୍କର ସୁଦୂର ଲକ୍ଷ୍ୟସ୍ଥଳ ଅଭିମୁଖେ ଯାତ୍ରା କରୁଛନ୍ତି । ଚାରିପଟରେ ଘନ ଜଙ୍ଗଲ । କବିଙ୍କ ଭାଷାରେ, ‘ସୁନ୍ଦର, ଅନ୍ଧକାରାଚ୍ଛନ୍ନ ଓ ଘଞ୍ଚ’’ ଗ୍ରାମାଞ୍ଚଳର ଉପକଣ୍ଠରେ ବିସ୍ତୃତ ହୋଇ ରହିଛି ସେହି ଅରଣ୍ୟ । ଏହି ଜଙ୍ଗଲର ମାଲିକଙ୍କୁ କବି ଜାଣନ୍ତି । ସେ ନିକଟସ୍ଥ ଗ୍ରାମର ଅସ୍ଵାସୀ । ଜଙ୍ଗଲର ସୌନ୍ଦର୍ଯ୍ୟ କବିଙ୍କୁ ପ୍ରଲୁବ୍‌ଧ କରୁଛି । ଶକ୍ତିଶାଳୀ ତା’ର ଆକର୍ଷଣ । ଯାତ୍ରାକୁ ସ୍ଥଗିତ ରଖି ପ୍ରାକୃତିକ ସୁଷମା ଭିତରେ ନିଜକୁ ହଜାଇ ଦେବାପାଇଁ ସେହି ଅରଣ୍ୟ ତାଙ୍କୁ ଯେପରି ଆମନ୍ତ୍ରଣ କରୁଛି । ଯାତ୍ରା ବନ୍ଦକରି ବନାନୀର ଶୋଭା ଦର୍ଶନ କରୁଥିବା ମାଲିକଙ୍କୁ ଦେଖ୍ ତାଙ୍କର ଘୋଡ଼ା ବିସ୍ମିତ ହୋଇଛି । କାରଣ ରହିଯାଇଥ‌ିବାରୁ ଅଶ୍ଵଟି ବିସ୍ମିତ ହୋଇଛି । ଅଶ୍ଵଟିର ଏହି ପ୍ରତିକ୍ରିୟା ଅତ୍ୟନ୍ତ ସ୍ଵାଭାବିକ । କାରଣ ଖମାରଗୃହ ପାଖରେ ଥିଲେ ଉଭୟ ମାଲିକ ଓ ସେ ଖାଦ୍ୟ ଓ ବିଶ୍ରାମ ପାଇ ପାରିଥା’ନ୍ତେ । ମାତ୍ର କବିଙ୍କର ଉଦ୍ଦେଶ୍ୟ ଭିନ୍ନ । ସେ ବିଶ୍ରାମ ଉଦ୍ଦେଶ୍ୟରେ ଏଠାରେ ଅଟକି ଯାଇନାହାନ୍ତି ।

ଅରଣ୍ୟର ନୈସର୍ଗିକ ସୌନ୍ଦର୍ଯ୍ୟକୁ ମନଭରି ଉପଭୋଗ କରିବାପାଇଁ ସେ ସେଠାରେ ଅଟକି ଯାଇଛନ୍ତି । ମାତ୍ର ଅବୋଧ ପଶୁ ସେ କଥା ବୁଝିବ କିପରି ? ଭାବୁଛି, ତା’ର ମାଲିକ ହୁଏତ ଭ୍ରମବଶତଃ ସେଠାରେ ଅଟକି ଯାଇଛନ୍ତି । ତାଙ୍କୁ ସେ କଥା ମନେପକାଇ ଦେବାପାଇଁ ଘୋଡ଼ାଟି ତା’ର ସାମ୍ପୁରେ ଲାଗିଥିବା ଘଣ୍ଟିକୁ ବଜାଇ ଦେଉଛି । ନିର୍ଜନ ଅରଣ୍ୟର ନୀରବତାର ରାଜତ୍ଵ । କେବଳ ବାୟୁର ମୁଦ୍ରା ପ୍ରବାହ ସେହି ନୀରବତାକୁ ଭଙ୍ଗ କରୁଛି । ନରମ, ହାଲୁକା ଓ ପକ୍ଷୀପର ଭଳି ମୁଲାୟମ ତୁଷାର କେବଳ ଝରିପଡ଼ୁଛି । କବିଙ୍କର ମୁଗ୍ଧସଭା ସେହି ଜଙ୍ଗଲର ଆକର୍ଷଣକୁ ଛାଡ଼ି ଆଗ୍ରସର ହେବାପାଇଁ ପ୍ରତିଜ୍ଞାବଦ୍ଧ । ଇଚ୍ଛା ଥିଲେ ବି ସେ ନିରୁପାୟ । କାରଣ ଲକ୍ଷ୍ୟସ୍ଥଳରେ ପହଞ୍ଚିବା ପାଇଁ ତାଙ୍କୁ ସୁଦୂର ପଥ ଯାତ୍ରା କରିବାକୁ ହେବ । କାରଣ ତାଙ୍କୁ ତାଙ୍କର ପ୍ରତିଜ୍ଞା ପୂରଣ କରିବାକୁ ହେବ । ଯେପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ ସେହି ଲକ୍ଷ୍ୟ ହାସଲ ହୋଇନାହିଁ, ସେପର୍ଯ୍ୟନ୍ତ ତାଙ୍କର ବିଶ୍ରାମ ନାହିଁ । ତାଙ୍କର ଠିକ୍ ମନେଅଛି, ତାଙ୍କୁ ଗୋଟାଏ ଦୀର୍ଘ ପଥ ଅତିକ୍ରମ କରିବାକୁ ହେବ, ତାଙ୍କର କର୍ତ୍ତବ୍ୟ ସାଧନ କରିବାକୁ ହେବ । ତା’ ପୂର୍ବରୁ ସେ ବିଶ୍ରାମ ନେଇପାରିବେ ନାହିଁ ।

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise

Odisha State Board Elements of Mathematics Class 12 Solutions CHSE Odisha Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Textbook Exercise questions and Answers.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise

Question 1.
∫\(\sqrt{1-\sin 2 x}\) dx
Solution:
I = ∫\(\sqrt{1-\sin 2 x}\) dx
= ∫\(\sqrt{(\cos x-\sin x)^2}\) dx
= ∫(cos x – sin x) dx
= sin x + cos x + c

Question 2.
∫\(\frac{d x}{1+\sin x}\)
Solution:
I = ∫\(\frac{d x}{1+\sin x}\)
= ∫\(\frac{1-\sin x}{\cos ^2 x}\)
= ∫sec2 x – sec x tan x dx
= tan x – sec x + c

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise

Question 3.
∫\(\frac{\sin x}{1+\sin x}\) dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.3

Question 4.
∫\(\frac{\sec x}{\sec x+\tan x}\) dx
Solution:
I = ∫\(\frac{\sec x}{\sec x+\tan x}\) dx
= ∫\(\frac{\sec x(\sec x-\tan x)}{\sec ^2 x-\tan ^2 x}\) dx
= ∫sec2 x – sec x tan x dx
= tan x – sec x + c

Question 5.
∫\(\frac{1+\sin x}{1-\sin x}\) dx
Solution:
I = ∫\(\frac{1+\sin x}{1-\sin x}\) dx
= ∫\(\frac{(1+\sin x)^2}{\cos ^2 x}\) dx
= ∫[sec2 x+ tan2 x+ 2sec x tan x) dx
= ∫[2sec2 x – 1 + 2sec x tan x) dx
= 2tan x – x + 2sec x + c

Question 6.
∫tan-1 (sec x + tan x) dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.6

Question 7.
∫\(\frac{\cos 2 x-\cos 2 \alpha}{\cos x-\cos \alpha}\) dx
Solution:
I = ∫\(\frac{\cos 2 x-\cos 2 \alpha}{\cos x-\cos \alpha}\) dx
= ∫\(\frac{\left(2 \cos ^2 x-1\right)-\left(2 \cos ^2 \alpha-1\right)}{\cos x-\cos \alpha}\) dx
= 2 ∫(cos x + cos α) dx
= 2 sin x + 2x cos α + c

Question 8.
∫tan-1\(\sqrt{\frac{1-\cos 2 x}{1+\cos 2 x}}\) dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.8

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise

Question 9.
∫\(\frac{d x}{\sqrt{x+1+} \sqrt{x+2}}\)
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.9

Question 10.
∫\(\frac{2+3 x}{3-2 x}\) dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.10

Question 11.
∫\(\frac{d x}{\sqrt{x}+x}\)
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.11

Question 12.
∫\(\frac{d x}{1+\tan x}\)
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.12

Question 13.
∫\(\frac{x+\sqrt{x+1}}{x+2}\) dx (Hints put : \(\sqrt{x+1}\) = t)
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.13

Question 14.
∫sin-1\(\sqrt{\frac{x}{a+x}}\) dx (Hints put : x = a tan2 t)
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.14

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise

Question 15.
∫ex\(\left(\frac{2+\sin 2 x}{1+\cos 2 x}\right)\) dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.15

Question 16.
∫\(\frac{\left(x^2+1\right) e^x}{(x+1)^2}\) dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.16

Question 17.
∫\(\frac{x^2-1}{x^4+x^2+1}\) dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.17

Question 18.
∫\(\frac{x^2 d x}{x^4+x^2+1}\)
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.18

Question 19.
∫\(\sqrt{\cot x}\) dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.19
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.19.1

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise

Question 20.
∫\((\sqrt{\tan x}+\sqrt{\cot x})\) dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.20

Question 21.
∫\(\frac{\mathrm{dx}}{x\left(x^4+1\right)}\)
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.21

Question 22.
∫\(\frac{\mathrm{dx}}{e^x-1}\)
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.22

Question 23.
∫\(\frac{(x-1)(x-2)(x-3)}{(x+4)(x-5)(x-6)}\) dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.23

Question 24.
∫\(\frac{d x}{\left(e^x-1\right)^2}\)
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.24

Question 25.
∫\(\frac{d x}{\sin x \cos ^2 x}\)
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.25

Question 26.
\(\int_2^4 \frac{\left(x^2+x\right) d x}{\sqrt{2 x+1}}\)
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.26

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise

Question 27.
\(\int_{-a}^a \sqrt{\frac{a-x}{a+x}}\) dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.27
Let a2 – x2 = t2
-2x dx = 2t dt
x = -a ⇒ 0 t = 0
x = a ⇒ t = 0
= 0
I = aI1 – I2 = aπ

Question 28.
\(\int_0^{\pi / 2}(\sqrt{\tan x}+\sqrt{\cot x})\) dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.28

Question 29.
\(\int_0^{\pi / 2} \frac{\cos x d x}{1+\cos x+\sin x}\)
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.29

Question 30.
\(\int_0^1\)x (1 – x)n dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.30

Question 31.
\(\int_0^{\pi / 2}\)sin 2x log (tan x) dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.31

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise

Question 32.
\(\int_0^{\pi / 2} \frac{\sin ^2 x d x}{\sin x+\cos x}\)
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.32
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.32.1

Question 33.
\(\int_0^{\pi / 2} \frac{\sin ^2 x d x}{1+\sin x \cos x}\)
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.33
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.33.1

Question 34.
\(\int_0^{\pi / 2} \frac{x d x}{\sin x+\cos x}\)
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.34

Question 35.
Prove that \(\int_0^\pi\) x sin3 x dx = \(\frac{2 \pi}{3}\)
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.35

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise

Question 36.
\(\int_{\pi / 5}^{3 \pi / 10} \frac{\sin x d x}{\sin x+\cos x}\)
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.36

Question 37.
\(\int_0^\pi\)|cos x| dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.37

Question 38.
\(\int_1^4\)(|x – 1| + |x – 2| + |x – 3|) dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.38

Question 39.
\(\int_{-\pi / 2}^{\pi / 2}\)(sin |x| + cos |x|) dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.39

Question 40.
\(\int_0^\pi\)log (1 + cos x) dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Additional Exercise Q.40

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Argument or Persuasion

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Invitation to English 3 Solutions Writing Argument or Persuasion Textbook Activity Questions and Answers.

CHSE Odisha 11th Class English Writing Argument or Persuasion

2.4 Argument And Persuasion

Argument is that form of writing the main purpose of which is to persuade your readers (or listeners) to adopt a certain attitude, point of view, or course of action.

Read the following views, expressed by six different speakers, on the importance of English in India, in a debate in Femina.

a. Years ago the sun did not set on the British Empire, but the sons and daughters of India still speak English. ‘Please’ and ‘sorry’ are very much a part of our vocabulary. In most’states higher education is imparted in the English language. The white man’s language still holds the same fascination today as they did a century ago. More Indians are speaking and writing in English than ever before. A separate class of Indo-English writers, acclaimed internationally, exists today. Telephone directories, advertisements, films, music, etc. are in English. Hence, the language has been integrated into our culture.

b. English is an important language in India today. For all important business transactions, paperwork and documentations is in English (like banking, shares, certificates). The gifts we have received from the British are the postal and telegraph services, railways and the English language. As the industrial revolution first took place in England, most of the mechanical engineering terminology is in English. For instance, there is no Hindi equivalent for the term ‘internal combustion’. It is very important to know English.

c. Knowledge of English language has helped me to communicate not only with my audience abroad but even with Indians of various states. English is an Indian language. If Indian states try and promote their languages, there is nothing wrong in it. But at the same time, English language and literature should not be neglected. It is an interesting language with a rich literature.

d. English is an Indian language. Any Indian who is slightly educated understands English, It is the langauge of science and technology. It connects us with the world. In India, people who know English often dominate non- English speaking Indians. There is no harm in learning and speaking in English, but to follow western culture along with the language is not appropriate.

e. English is one of the languages spoken by Indians. But it is wrong to believe that to achieve or to get a job one must know English. Most people in India feel that to earn their bread they should know English. In Germany, China and Japan people hardly understand English. Among the Indians the ‘mental slavery’ to English still exists.

f. It is a wrong belief that English is an important Indian language. Only two percent of Indian speak it. In fact, it is a language that often leads to complexes. I remember very well when the well-known Russian writer. Rasool Humzatov came to Delhi and narrated his poems, not in English or Russian, but in the regional language. Because he was proud of it. We Indians do not have enough respect and love for our language. Personality, even when I meet people who are well-versed in English, I speak in Hindi.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Argument or Persuasion

It is important to dispel the guilt complexes regarding Indian languages, that all of us have.
The main points raised by the speakers are noted below.
(i) English is the language of higher education.
(ii) The language of international communication.
(iii) Only 2% Indians speak English.
(iv) The language of science and technology.
(v) The belief that one can easily get a job or achieve success is not always true.
(vi) People in China, Japan and Germany hardly understand English.
(vii) Self-respecting people respect their mother tongue/dialect.
(viii) People in India need English.
(ix) Early education of a child must be in the mother tongue.
(x) Indian languages including Indian culture get neglected.
(xi) Language of communication inside India.
(xii) Language of business, commerce and advertisement.

Note that some of the arguments are in favour of English and others against English. Put them in two separate columns, as suggested below. The first one has been done for you. Think, and add your own points.

Note that some of the arguments are in favour of English and others against English

Answer:

Note that some of the arguments are in favour of English and others against English answer

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Argument or Persuasion

Activity 36

We have a number of arguments here, both for and against English. Can you now reach a definite position of your own, after considering both sets of arguments ? Try to produce your own arguments to counter those presented by the speakers : for example, you could argue that English can be replaced by Hindi for the purposes of communication within India, etc. Write a paragraph on any one of these points.

Answer:
One of the main arguments in favour English is that people in India need English. But, in my view, this is not correct. We should know that people in China, Japan and Germany hardly understand English. Nevertheless, they are more prosperous than India. Of course, lately China has felt the importance of English. English is a foreign language and not one of the soil. Only 2% Indians speak English. English has become a medium of education in our colleges and universities.

This is doing an incalculable harm to the proper intellectual growth of students. A fast majority of students fail to understand the lessons imparted through English. The very thinking and understanding of the student is stunted under the weight of an incomprehensible language. The spread of English also hinders the growth of Indian culture. Lastly, though not the least, it can be said that there should be an end to ‘the mental slavery’ that still exists among the Indians.

Activity 37

(i) Given below are some of the views expressed by different speakers on the topic “The Reading habit is dying out” in Femina. Read through each of them.
(ii) Note that some speakers accept the proposition while others reject it. There is one speaker who offers suggestions to improve the reading habits of children. Try to identify the main points in each speech and arrange them under three headings :
(1) in favour of the proposition
(2) against the proposition and
(3) suggestions.
(iii) Add your own points. Be clear about the points you support and those which you do not support.
(iv) Before you start writing on the topic, think of an appropriate beginning. For this, see how the speakers begin their speeches. It will help you in starting your paragraph.

Now read the following speeches.

(a) I agree that reading is a dying habit. A lot has been already written about how television is rapidly stealing a march over reading. The sale of books is diminishing, while the launching of a new television channel has become a regular affair. A lot of children find other ways of passing their leisure hours because they have simply not discovered the wonderland of books and the pleasure it offers. At the age of two or three, they are taught how to read, but as they grow older, they are not taught to use reading for entertainment, information, and knowledge.

Brought up on a diet of textbooks, the child does not get to read anything else. Naturally, when a child finds that the textbooks he/she reads are dull and boring, he/she never feels like reading anything else. There is no addiction more pleasurable than getting hooked on books. Parents should encourage their children to read, but let me point out that most adults don’t read themselves; a cursory glance at the day’s newspaper is all the reading they seem to do. How can they expect their children to develop the habit of reading, when they themselves sit down in front of the TV set in their free time ?

(b) It is definitely true that reading is a dying habit, and one of the major reasons for this decline is the advent of the electronic medium. Even the reading of newspapers has been limited to that headlines and few introductory paragraphs. If one gets the news and can watch a few soap operas for entertainment just by pressing a few buttons, why should anyone then take the trouble of reading? But that’s very sad for we’re losing the very flavor of life.

Just sitting like robots in front of a box that gives us information like robots, like listening to it, watching it — these things kill our intellectual faculties. We’ve failed to realize that the lasting impact on the mind can be provided by the written word alone. Reading gives one time to ponder over things and it enriches our vocabulary too.

(c) The habit of reading is increasing day by day. There is a boom in publishing in India, and our sales have doubled in the last few years. Indian authors are creating ripples in the international literary scene. Our company has linked up with Harper Collins and Pan Macmillan, so international books are being made available to Indian readers at a reasonable price.

Access to technology and infrastructure has made things easier for publishers. It has led to innovations in packaging and graphics. Focused designs have made the appearance of books much more attractive. Printing quality too has improved vastly. The reader today has a good variety to choose from.

(d) I don’t totally agree with the statement that reading is a dying habit. As a librarian for nearly 27 years, I’ve seen students and research scholars. I feel that my reading habit has changed a lot. Students prefer to read magazines and newspapers rather than books. Earlier, during the summer vacations, many students did come to the library for general reading.

today, they have various other options like listening to music and watching television programs. But the library is never empty. Light reading may have declined, but academic reading related to assignments, references, and research, has not.

(e) I don’t think that reading is a dying habit – but that parents and teachers have to play a very important role in inculcating this habit, for they are the role models for children. Since the child has more grasping power than an adult, it is the right age to develop this habit. It is important for parents to spend quality time with their children, to read aloud to children, to listen to what they’ve to say, and answer their questions.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Argument or Persuasion

For the proposition Against the proposition
(i) Television has adversely affected reading (i) Students are not being encouraged to read
(ii) Children pass leisure hours in other ways than reading. (ii) Reading leaves a lasting impression on the mind and enriches one’s vocabulary.
(iii) Dull text books discourage the reading habit. (iii) Habit of reading is incresasing and sale of books proves this.
(iv) Adults don’t read them selves and thus are not good role models. (iv) Books of varied kinds are being read now.
(v) Reading materials are prohibitive in costs. (v) Parents should spend. their time with children; reading is not a dying habit.
(vi) Light reading has declined but not academic reading.

The Reading is a dying habit:
Most people believe that the reading habit is dying out and they are right about it. Even a cursory survey among students reveals that they spend more time watching television than reading books, except during examinations. Besides, children spend their leisure in many other ways rather than reading books. In addition to this, today’s textbooks are so dull and boring and studying has been made such a burden that children or students don’t have the motivation to read books.

Moreover, adults themselves do not read many books. They don’t serve as role models, instead they too spend more time on the T.V. Last but not the least, the cost of books have today become prohibitive. On an average, a book costs seventy-five to hundred rupees. It is all these factors that have made reading a dying habit. It is right that students are not being encouraged to read, that reading is something worthwhile, but suggestion that since sale of books have increased and therefore reading has increased is to miss the point.

A comparative study of sales of electronic consumer items and that of books reveal that the sale of electronic goods is twice as much as those of books. Moreover, those engaged in academic reading are a very negligible minority and they can’t be counted with those who read for pleasure. Similarly the contention that varied books are 1 being read does not prove that there are many readers. This attests the fact that today interests of people have become diversified and therefore to cater to their needs various kinds of books are being published and sold.

For example, a century back we had no books on computers but today there isn’t any library or bookshop which does not possess books on computers. Thus, we can safely conclude that reading is a dying habit. The television is now reining supreme over the minds. The T.V. is ubiquitous even in the smallest of homes while illiteracy is rampant in a place like India.

Activity 38

1. The following are the main points that emerged in a debate on the topic “The presidential form of government is more suitable for our country than the parliamentary form”. But the points are all mixed up. Arrange them under two separate heads for and against.

a. Will ensure strong centre…. curb divisive tendencies.
b. Deprives people of power to elect, recall, approach representatives,
c. Will quicken change towards removal of poverty, equal opportunity, greater production, prosperity.
d. Makes ruling sections/groups more powerful….discourages loc*t! or minority talents, culture, distinctions,
e. Concentrates authority….leads to dictatorship.
f. Reduces expenditure on wasteful elections, political propaganda, party politics.
g. Denies fundamental freedom….curbs human rights; builds fear, cowardice.
h. Simplifies decision making and brings about uniformity, can lead to greater discipline, better economic achievements. Present system breeds inaction, indiscipline, strikes, poor results.
i. Suited to Afro-Asian temperament; recent events prove it too.
j. Is against Indian democratic traditions.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Argument or Persuasion

2. First, make up your mind regarding the line of argument that you would like to follow. Second, think how to begin. Then, develop the outline into a paragraph : you are free to add your own points to the given ones.

Answer:
For:
a. Will ensure strong centre… curb divisive tendencies.
b. Will quicken change towards removal of poverty, equal opportunity, greater production, prosperity.
c. Concentrates authority.., leads to dictatorship.
d. Denies fundamental freedom… curbs human rights: builds fear, cowardice.
e. Suited to Afro-Asian temperament; recent events prove it too.

Against:
a. Deprives people of power to elect, recall, approach representatives.
b. Makes ruling sections more powerful… discourages local or minority talents, culture, distinctions.
c. Reduces expenditure on wasteful elections, political propaganda, party politics.
d. Simplifies decision making and brings about uniformity, can lead to greater discipline, better economic achievements. Present system breeds. inaction, indiscipline, strikes, poor results.
e. Is against Indian democratic traditions.

The presidential form of government is more suitable for our country than the parliamentary form.

It is just about 50 years since our country has been an independent nation. And numerous problems have been plaguing our nation. This has set people thinking in some quarters that there is a need to change our form of government. That would be like throwing the baby with the bathwater. The nation is just a baby with a particular structure and it need not be changed just because it has not grown and matured. In short, the parliamentary form of government does not need to go.

It is argued that the presidential form of government will ensure a strong centre, curb divisive tendencies, quicken changes in economic, social and political spheres, avoid wasteful expenditure on elections and party politics, simplify decision making and lead to greater discipline. There is no denying this fact. A presidential system does quickly bring about such changes but in the long run, as history has time and again shown, proves counter-productive and disastrous.

The rules of Mussolini, Napoleon, Stalin and Hitler are all outstanding examples of this trend. The presidential form of government makes the state larger than the individual, makes personal freedom a dream and gradually stamps out human rights. Finally, it leads to totalitarianism and dictatorship. The fear of facing a 1984-like scenario is ever alive in a presidential form of government. Oligarchy, plutocracy, stratocracy, autocracy and despotism are ominous realities in a presidential form of government.

History amply records this truth. The KGB and the communist party in USSR, the Nazi Party and the storm troppers in Germany are good examples of what happens when power is concentrated in the hands of a few or in one man’s hand. Moreover, a presidential form of government will gradually crush minority talent and minority culture and impose a cultural homogeneity. This would be disastrous in a multiracial, multicultural, multi-lingual, pluralistic society like India.

Its ethos would take the beating and its beauty will be lost. india has existed for ages as a pluralistic society whose greatness has been its power to assimilate and unite in its fold diverse cultures and religions. Tolerance and non-violence have been its mainstay and to abandon them would mean going against the grain of our character as a nation. Such a forced change would prove disastrous for the nation. Hence the parliamentary form of government with its respect for individual right, and its inclination towards unity in diversity, should be given the thumbs up.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Argument or Persuasion

Activity 39

In several cities, television has come to nearly all homes. Some people welcome this while others find it a bad influence and an expensive addition to the drawing-room. Some believe it creates problems – indiscipline, loss of sleep, reduced attention to homework, the danger of bad movies as bad models. Others consider it a good ‘teacher’ – brings vividly a lot of new information, helps farmers, makes stories interesting, provides both entertainment and instruction, saves money spent on bad/indifferent films, food at restaurants, etc., keeps the family together at home. A television company has organised an “essay competition” on the subject ‘Television, your new friend’. At the same time, the ‘Society of Cinema-goers’ has invited essays criticising television. Write on each topic, presenting your views on television, and its uses/abuses.

Points for Points against
i. ______________ i. ______________
ii. ______________ ii. ______________
iii. ______________ iii. ______________
iv. _______________ iv. _______________

Answer:

Points for Points against
(i) A good teacher (i)Creates problem, indiscipline, loss of sleep etc.
(ii) Provides both entertainment and instruction (ii) Reduces attention towards homework
(iii) Leads to the togetherness of the family members (iii) Bad movies act as bad models
(iv) Saves money spent on food at restaurants (iv) An expensive addition to the drawing room

Answer:
Television: its uses and abuses :
Television has truly made the world a global village. Its all-encompassing reach to the remote comers of the globe has made omnipresent medium. Moreover, the fact that it is an audio-visual medium, makes it all the more effective as well as alluring. Thus, it could be put to a wide variety of use. But it is more abused than used. In a developing country like India, television has become the medium by which literacy is spread all over the nation.

Students tune into educative programmes like the country-wide classrooms of the University Grants Commission and Krishi Darshan Programmes cater to the needs of farmers. Similarly programmes on family planning, health awareness, AIDS, nutrition baby care are beamed across the country. Forecasting of weather and climate helps fishermen, farmers and all kinds of people to plan out their future course of action. Storm warning, earthquake warnings and flood warmings have had a greater impact because of visual and graphic details of facts.

Above all, television has become the supreme medium of infotainment. Watching the news or watching a soap opera, a cookery special or a sports channel, a movie or an engaging group discussion, a sermon or a song, the television has it all, controlling and dispersing knowledge all over the world. And yet unconsciously the television is ruling us, stealing our time and making morons out of us.

A couch potato is no more a rarity. A great thinker enumerates the abuses of television as follows. First, television makes people emotionally insensitive. The images of sex and violence that are projected on the screen gradually drive out all human feeling from us and renders us indifferent to such incidents in real life. We accept them as normal. A murder, a rape, a dead body no more shocks us as it did earlier generations. We are gradually being denuded of humane feeling.

Second, television makes viewers morally uncritical and impairs their sense of judgement. With a book, one reads and then ponders over what it has stated but the television gradually impairs this sense of evaluation in us. It hits us so powerfully and forcefully that it bypasses our head and rules our heart. Third, television destroys our ability to concentrate for long on anything. Kids who are brought up on fast moving scenes and cartoon characters thus do not find their teachers exciting, their books seen dull and boring.

Quickfix solutions, capsule presentations, ready-made notes, fast food are the order of the day and television is one great factor in enhancing the pace of life and thereby reducing concentration spans of people. Fourth, television sets up such role models and projects such lifestyles which young people follow with zeal. They are led to believe that all that life is about is having girl-friends, wealth, fame and power. Finally, T.V. is creating dislocations in centres of authority.

Most often a person becomes authoritative because he or she is well- known. Thus a cricket star or a hero tells you to keep away from AIDS and has your attention no matter what he does in his personal life. Thus, his voice is powerful while that of a celibate priest’s is not. As a result there is total psychological, moral and academic confusion in our culture. T.V. is not bad just as money is not bad. It’s the way one uses it that matters. Let the T.V. be our servant and not our master.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Argument or Persuasion

Activity 40

Here are a few more topics for argumentative writing. Prepare outlines and write on each topic.
i. Men and women should/should not be paid equal wages for equal work.
ii. Prohibition will save the country from destruction/Prohibition goes against individual freedom. (Prohibition-disallowing by law the making and sale of alcoholic drinks.)
iii. Cricket commentaries are a national evil./ Cricket commentaries provide entertainment and education.
iv. History breeds narrow-mindedness. It should not be taught in schools/colleges.
v. Driving licenses should not be issued to students in schools/colleges.
vi. Girls should not marry before they are twenty, boys before they are twenty-five.
vii. College education must be made free.

Answer:
(i) Men and women should be paid equal wages for equal work.
For:
(a) Equal pay for equal work ensured in the Indian Constitution.
(b) Women do not work lesser than men/women do equally good work as men.
(c) It is the quality of work which matters and not who did it/wages are given for task completed, and not because someone did the task.
(d) Pay hike and promotions are made on grounds of merit and not on basis of gender.

Against:
(a) Women are less intelligent than men.
(b) Women work less than men.
(c) Women cannot do certain kinds of work because they are not physically fit to do it.

Gender differences have curbed the rights of women in a patriarchal and male dominated society. As a result, in some quarters it is still held that women should not be given equal wages as men. This kind of primitive thinking is a result of male chauvinism and is not justified by facts at hand. It has nothing to do with the question of women receiving equal wages as men. Patriarchal society has always held women as inferior to men. As a result, women were thought to be less intelligent than men.

This argument was thus put forth in favour of giving lesser wages to women. The contention is however not borne out by facts. Women have proved themselves the equals of men in almost all professions and spheres of life whether in science and techlology or in the humanities and social science. As more and more opportunities are being given to them women are proving themselves equal for men in every sphere of life.

Admittedly they are biologically made less strong than men but now-a-days work requires more brain and, therefore, the question of equal pay for equal work arises in the context of what work woman is doing and not what she is not. Besides, women Boxers, wrestlers, athletes, weightlifters. Marathoners etc. have proved that they too can do things like men. However, a strong case can be made for the question of equal pay for equal work for women.

First of all, just as equal opportunity for all is enshrined in our Constitution, so also equal pay for equal work is enshrined in our Constitution. A just and fair society will always provide equal pay for equal work for that is the universal law of natural justice. Considerations of caste, creed, race and sex should never come in way of a person’s wages. Secondly, it is another natural axiom that the meritorious be rewarded. If the woman is equally qualified as man, if she does work equal to man, then she deserves a wage equal to it, as men do.

Pay hike and promotions are decided on merits of individuals and not on considerations of caste and creed or sex. Finally, it may be argued that women in many ways are better than men. They are more sincere, committed, honest, responsible and hard-working than men. Case studies of working men and women has proved this. Thus, women deserve equal pay for equal work because they are in no way inferior to men in their qualifications and in their work.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Argument or Persuasion

(ii) Prohibition will save the country from destruction / prohibition goes against individual freedom.
For:
(1) Drinkers are bread winners, drinking therefore denudes the bread supply.
(2) Drinkers are physically violent; they indulge in wife beating and also a general nusiance.
(3) Drinking leads to hazardous health problems, the cost of which has to be borne buy family / govt.

Against:
(1) Prohibition curbs freedom of an individual.
(2) Prohibition breeds illegal trade in liquour.
(3) Prohibition results in loss of revenue to state.

Prohibition will save the country:
Drinking and smoking are two-sides of the same coin. They are equally dangerous and hazardous not only for the individual but also for the nation as well. Therefore, it is necessary to implement and ensure prohibition, for this alone can save the country from destruction. The opponents of prohibition are of the view of that it curbs freedom of the individual. They are right but of course individual freedom has always been curbed by social limitations to ensure that every other individual enjoys his or her liberty.

A man has the right to walk on the road as long as he does not infringe anybody else’s right to walk on the road. If drinking results in social disharmony, then it must be prohibited. A doctor prescribes a bitter pill to heal a person in spite of the protests of an individual. A whole individual can be a useful citizen. Secondly, anti-prohibitionists talk of the breeding of illegal trade in liquor.

True indeed: prohibition breeds an illegal trade in sale of liquor and the very purpose of prohibition is thereby defeated. But illegal trade can be prevented, an alert police, a cooperative public can detect and stop this trade. This has been proved earlier in Andhra Pradesh where women enforced prohibition and curbed illegal trade. Finally, there is the loss of revenue to the state. This too is true. But it can be argued that the cost of having host of diseased drinkers is higher than that of loss on revenue due to prohibition.

It is fallaciously thought that the cost of treating a man with drinking related health hazards is borne by families of those individuals but the national loss in this context is not taken into account. Moreover, less corruption and generation of revenues in other trades can nullify the loss accruing from prohibition. Non-prohibition on the other hand, has high costs in terms of familial, societal and national loss.

Consumption of country liquor by males who are bread winners in lower income groups have left families bereft of the basic needs of food, shelter and clothing. Broken families, loss of childhood, denial of education and health are the result. The social costs in terms of crime, prostitution, child labour, drug addiction, and a host of other problems emerging from such households, are immense.

Moreover, drinkers gradually lose self-esteem, self-confidence and slowly lose skills. They become irresponsible and unfit for work. This happens even among people of higher income group. Their erratic behaviour, tendency to shimk from duty and going on unauthorised leave hurts sectors in which they work thereby adding to the national loss. Finally, it may be reiterated that the cost of rehabilitating a person with drink- related health hazards is exorbitant.

Whether it is the government that finances this, the company or the individual, all of them result in a national loss. On the other hand, the money saved by individuals on enforcement of prohibition results in per capita gain though it may not accrue to the revenue of the state. Prohibition is therefore a better option than the freedom to drink. For prosperity of the family leads to prosperity of the nation.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Argument or Persuasion

(iii) Cricket commentaries are a national evil / Cricket commentaries provide entertainment and education.
For:
– Is a waste of time
– A hobby of the leisure class
– Take too much air time and T.V. time.
– Does not benefit the state or nation.
– Denies equal weight to other sports.

Against:
– Commentary is an art.
– Commentary provides entertainment and education.
– Commentaries provide job and earn revenue.

The very mention of cricket commentaries as a national evil gives rise to passions because the game of cricket is the favourite of a large majority of the upper and middle classes of people. Nevertheless a reasoned analysis of its pros and cons reveals that cricket as well as its commentary is a national evil. First of all cricket commentaries involve a colossal waste of time. During a cricket match, offices are deserted and so are schools and colleges.

People in factories and business establishments slow down work and sometimes even stop working. Moreover, a game of cricket takes a lot of time. A test match spans three to five days while the one day game consumes 8 hours. An avid fan of cricket who listens to its commentary pays little attention to work because the match is held mostly during office hours, school and college hours from 9.00 a.m. to 4.00 p.m.

Time is money and therefore the damage to the economy during a cricket match is irreversible. On an average if a man watches cricket for 4 hrs. a day for 60 days, there is a waste of 24 hrs or a total of 10 days in a year. If the number of those watching or listening to commentaries is even a minimum of 2 million then there is an astounding waste of 20 million days.

The corresponding loss to the economy is therefore colossal. Besides this, cricket commentaries occupy too much of air space as well as as visual space on the T.V. The radio and the television could be used to broadcast other | programmes of social interest during this time. An even greater lacunae is the unequal media coverage that other sports receive. The priority that is given to cricket by the media and T.V. networks does not encourage sportspersons of other games.

While sponsorers are available to- support cricket matches there are very few sponsorers to support the broadcasting of other sports. Further, the revenue generated from commentaries on cricket matches is mostly 1 deposited in the offices of the T.V. Network which has bought the rights to brodcast the match. Revenue to the state in this context is paltry. Opponents of this view that commentaries are a national evil hold that they are educative and entertaining.

But it may be reasonably shown that their educative value is minimal and marginal. As for entertainment that is a very transitory form Of entertainment. The same can be said of its value as an art. It is art of transitory value and does not have any permanent or lasting effect. As for the contention that it provides jobs, it can be said that employment opportunities as commentators are very minimal, limited only to a few individuals and that it is not to be taken as a profession. Thus after weighing the pros and cons it may be emphatically said that cricket commentaries are a national evil.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Argument or Persuasion

(iv) History breeds narrow-mindedness. It should not be taught in schools/colleges.
For:
(1) History breeds crude nationalist.
(2) It is full of crimes.
(3) It provides a confused heap of facts.
(4) It records popular beliefs.

Against:
(1) History is interesting and useful.
(2) It helps us to escape the burdens of life.
(3) It is a sound teacher.
(4) It provides us moral inspiration.
(5) It widens our intellectual outlook.

History generated crude nationalism among the students. It records the glory and achievements of some countries and the failures of others. Germany under Hitler was a case in a point. The students who read it learn nothing. History is a record of war and blood-shed. If we scan the pages of history, we learn a lot about many bloody battles fought among different nations. History takes us to a world where lies a confused heap of facts. It is difficult to understand and analyse them. These facts lack colour.

Above all, it acquaints us with some popular beliefs. There is nothing innovative about them. All these facts mentioned above adversely affect the minds of the people. Therefore, history should not be taught in schools/colleges. We should see the bright side of history. It launches man on a thrilling adventure of a journey to the past. It awakens in him the racial memories that he slumbering in the depths of time. The study of history strengthens one’s faith, however, wavering, in the ultimate decency of things.

History must not be read as a collection of dry and old facts and dates, but as living representation of the past which has a significance for the present. The study of history is interesting, useful and amusing. It helps us to escape the burdens of life. Moreover, history is a sound teacher. The records of the past interpreted in practical by noble men and women, supply moral tonic which must be administered to each generation. Study of this subject widens our outlook. Besides, history makes our intellectual horizon touch new heights. It also sensitizes our minds. Therefore, history should be taught in schools and colleges.

(v) Driving licenses should not be issued to students in schools/colleges.
For:
(1) Driving licenses make the students wayward.
(2) They become law-breakers.
(3) They live in a world of fancy.

Against:
(1) Issuing driving licences to school/college makes them responsible.
(2) They save their time.
(3) They become law-abiding.

Issuing driving licenses make school/college students carefree. They move freely in their bikes/four-wheelers without caring anybody. They become liberty drunk. They never feel the importance of why they have been issued driving licenses. They make use of their vehicles for a constructive purpose. They are young. In the full flush of their youth, they drive recklessly, flouting the traffic rules.

Sometimes they meet with accidents. Some die premature deaths, some escape with a miracle and others suffer fractures. These students find themselves cut off from the outside world when they drive their bikes or cars. On the other hand, we must not be blind to the other side of these facts. School/college students should be issued driving licenses, because they are mature. Fear of parents and accidents makes them responsible. They do not want to waste the latter’s money by misusing driving licenses.

They drive their vehicles very carefully. Time is precious. They save it as a result of using bikes or cars. These students become law- abiding. They are alive to the traffic rules. They understand why they have been given bikes/four wheelers by their parents. In view of these facts, driving licenses should be issued to school/college students.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Argument or Persuasion

(vi) Girls should not marry before they are twenty, boys before they are twenty- five.
For:
(1) Girls become highly educated.
(2) They get a chance to fulfil their dreams. .
(3) They enjoy empowerment.
(4) They become independent and are free from the drudgery of household work.
(5) They become ideal mothers and wife.
(6) Boys are no different.
(7) They want higher education.
(8) They become independent.

Against:
(1) They should be educated.
(2) Marriage before 20 makes them typical house-wives.
(3) They are immature to understand the ways of the world.
(4) They go astray.
(5) They are deprived of enjoying impowerment.
(6) Boys cannot be highly educated.
(7) They cannot be independent to the core.

Girls should be highly educated in word and spirit. Very few girls continue their studies after their marriage. They try their best to fulfil their dreams and achieve then- goals. Today we see many a woman enjoy empowerment. They have become high- profile entrepreneurs, bureaucrats and academicians. They are now successful political leaders. They brim with confidence. They become independent by earning their livelihood. Educated wives get a respite from the monotany of their household works.

Education makes them conscious of their duties to their husbands and children. They never become a burden on society. Boys are no different from the girls. A certain age is indispensable for building their career, but marriage before 25 puts bars in fulfilling the dreams, hopes and aspiration. Failures to achieve their goals drive them to a state of frustration. As a result of higher education, they earn handsome income and become assets to their families.

On the other hand, if the girls marry before twenty, they cannot enjoy the things they want. They become neither highly educated nor enjoy real empowerment. They become typical house-wives and don’t get a chance to experience what is happening in the external world. Frustration grips them. They don’t understand the language of independence. They often go astray and as a result, bring disgrace to society. Boys suffer the same fate.

Their marriage before twenty-five seldom allow them to go for higher education according to their will. They soothe with frustration for not achieving their goals. They fail to rise to the expectations of their parents. They are shorn of confidence. They can’t be fiercely independent. Therefore, girls should not marry before they are twenty, boys before they are twenty-four.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Argument or Persuasion

(vii) College education must be made free.
For:
(1) Scope for higher education, irrespective of caste, creed or colour.
(2) It makes everyone confident.
(3) It leads to independent among the students.
(4) It provides broader exposure to the outside world.

Against:
(1) Ordinary students have no value.
(2) Free college education creates indiscipline.
(3) Wastage of public money.
(4) There is no room for further academic development, there is no much fund for research.

Free college education provides a scope for higher education for all sorts of students, irrespective of caste, creed and colour. They all feel a state of what higher education is. This makes them brim with confidence. Some of the poor students get a chance to dream big and are determined to achieve someting in life. College education makes them independent, because, they get a chance to earn their livelihood.

They are now exposed to the happenings of the external world. As a result, they can contribute to the well-being of their country and fellow-beings. On the other hand, the issue has a darker side. Free college education encourages many ordinary students to sit in their classes. They should have been given vocational education. Instead of reading sincerely, they create indiscipline in the college and as a result, spoil the academic environment.

Besides, free college education costs our public exchequer beyond imagination. The common tax-payer’s money is injudiciously spent. Academic development suffers a serious jolt as a result of paucity of finance. Research work lags far behind. In view of these facts, college education should not be free.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Exposition

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Invitation to English 3 Solutions Writing Exposition Textbook Activity Questions and Answers.

CHSE Odisha 11th Class English Writing Exposition

Expository Writing

Exposition is an orderly presentation of facts and ideas. It exposes or shows. All exposition is informative. In an exposition, you answer various questions that might be asked of an object, an event, or an idea – questions like these:
What is it?
What does it consist of?
What is it for?
How is it put together?
What good is it?
What does it mean?
What is the cause of it?
What will be the result of it?
There are several methods of writing an exposition of these, exposition by definition and exposition the rough analysis are the most important.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Exposition

Activity 31

Develop paragraphs of your own, using the following plans. The given topic should form part of the opening sentence.
(a) Topic: There were several things I liked (disliked) about my high school.
Sentence 1: Topic sentence
Sentences 2, 3, 4, 5: The things I liked (disliked)
Sentence 6: Conclusion

(b) Topic: It is easier for someone to express himself in speech than in writing.

It is easier for someone to express himself in speech than in writing.

Answer:
(a) There were several things I liked in my high school. Firstly, we had good teachers who not only taught us well but were also very friendly with us. Secondly, we were never burdened with homework. Instead, we were asked to read what was taught in the class at home. Thirdly, there were a lot of extra-curricular activities which helped in developing our personality. Finally, we had an Old Boys Association which helped us keep in touch with our classmates and to know about the development of our school. Thus, my high school was really unique in many ways.

(b) Is it easier for someone to express himself in speech than in writing? Or is writing easier than speech? Linguists are divided in their views. Some say that speech is easier than writing because one learns to speak spontaneously without having to attend school. They also argue that speech takes less time to learn than writing. Others, however, dispute these views.

They contend that writing is easier than speech because it involves graphic images which the child can easily learn even before imitating speech. They also are of opinion that writing is accessible to speech-disadvantaged children and therefore, more universal. Thus, linguists are equally divided over the question of which is easier, speech or writing.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Exposition

Activity 32

Write a paragraph on each of the following topics, using Chesterton’s model at page 39.
(a) Types of students
(b) Types of teachers
(c) Kinds of books we read
(d) Kinds of friends

Answer:
(a) Types of students :
Roughly speaking, there are three kinds of students in our college. The first may be called bookworms. They can always be seen pouring over books in the library when they travel by bus while having food and so on. This kind has no interest in games and most often they love to be indoors rather than play outside. The second sort may be called truants. These students take pleasure in not attending classes. They bunk college, go to films, play cricket and create a nuisance on the campus.

To them, we owe all the strikes and indiscipline in the college. The third kind is called Casanova’s. You can see them talking in hushed whispers with girls under a tree, in the corridors, accompanying them to the bus stop, or shadowing others who are not yet in their hold. The studies are secondary and they end up as unemployed youth who dream of their golden day in college.

(b) Types of teachers :
There are different types of teachers. Firstly, there are teachers who are dedicated to the core. They inspire their students to reach newer heights in the future. Their devotion to teaching is matchless. Secondly, there are teachers who just teach students for the sake of teaching. They are never serious about it. They lack dedication to their profession. Thirdly, there are those who pretend to be ideal teachers. They are dull. They always aim at earning money by paying lip service to their profession. These teachers bring disgrace to society.

(c) Kinds of books we read :
Books are of many types but they can be generally divided into good and bad. Good books are man’s most important teachers. They instruct and entertain, make men wise and ignorant, men of knowledge. Bad books, on the other hand, waste men’s time and introduce evil thoughts into their minds. They neither enlighten the mind nor broaden the imagination in the right direction. Thus good books ought always to be chosen over bad ones.

(d) Kinds of friends :
We have friends of several kinds. First, there is gossip. He can never keep our secrets and always lets us down by telling everything about us to others. Second, there is the coward. He is seldom able to stand on his own feet but that is not any danger. Keep him in the team for any enterprise and he’ll take off whenever he smells any danger to himself. Third, there is the flatterer. He always sings your praises and never tells you the truth. He is neither dependable nor trustworthy. He stays with one as long as he profits from his company and then he changes loyalty. Fourth, there is the slanderer.

This kind of friend feigns friendship but behind your back, he talks ill of you. Then there is the follower. This kind rarely takes his own initiative in doing anything for you. He’s a good supporter, a loyal disciple but you can’t hand him any responsibility and sit quietly. He needs nudging and guiding. There’s yet another kind called the parasite. He feeds on you, eats of you, borrows your notes, your money, your cycle, etc. He is always dependable. Finally, there is the one and only true friend. He is rare to find. But this is the kind of friend who is dependable, responsible, and trustworthy.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Exposition

Activity 33

1. Write a paragraph ending with the sentence: “I’m afraid I didn’t like the film at all and wouldn’t recommend it to anyone.”
2. Write a short paragraph beginning with the sentence: “I had a very happy childhood.”
3. Write separate paragraphs from the point of view of the taxi driver and the truck driver, using the following outline. An accident between a truck and a taxi – an old man was killed – a buffalo was seriously injured – a policeman arrived on the scene – a doctor drove the dead body to the hospital.
4. Write a paragraph to be included in a letter to a pen-friend telling him/her how you celebrate Diwali.

Answer:
(1) Refugee is not worth watching. Its story is a stock one: Laila-Majnu, Romeo-Juliet like and perhaps borrowed from Daruwalla’s “Love in the Salt Desert.” There is no life in Abhishek Bacchan’s acting. As for action, there is not much that it has to boast off. Walking like a shepherd with a staff in his hand and a band around his head. Bacchan evokes pity rather than empathy, he does not inspire and he does not display much emotion, seems so wooden. Besides, photography, music, and choreography aren’t great either. In short, I’m afraid I didn’t like the film at all and wouldn’t recommend it to anyone.

(2) I had a very happy childhood. Father, Mother, Grandpa, and Grandma, all of us lived together. Every morning, Grandma would play with me and tell me tales. In the evening Grandpa would take me on walks and in the night I used to huddle in my mother’s lap and sleep. Those days were wonderful. It was all play and no work, no worries, no fears, only love. And every summer we went off to Puri to frolic in the sun and sand, I wasn’t afraid of the sea. Daddy put me on his shoulders and walked into the sea. The smell of the surf and the thundering of the waves excited me then as it excites me now. Truly I can never forget the joys of my childhood days.

(3) The Truck-driver’s point of view: It was almost noon as I carried a truckload of bricks to be delivered at the Institute of Physics. I was on N.H.5 and had already neared Acharya Vihar Square. I was to take a right turn at the square to get into the road leading to Sainik School. Traffic was thin and a buffalo was standing right in the turn and urinating. A taxi was coming from the Sainik School road. I put on the dippers indicating a left turn. I slowed down as I had to avoid the buffalo.

Suddenly, the taxi emerged, flashing its lights. I had already taken the turn while the taxi was speeding straight ahead. I applied the brakes but the vehicle did not halt because of the load. Instead, it careened past the taxi, hit an old man standing serenely and rammed into the ditch beside the N.H.5. My head hit the steering wheel and I became unconscious. When I woke up I was in the capital hospital. The Taxi driver’s point of view: I was returning from Sainik School after dropping a fare.

It was noon and I was supposed to pick up my little children from the convent school. I should have been there by 11.30 a.m. but it was already half an hour behind. Hence I was rushing with thoughts of my children waiting hungrily at school. As I was approaching Acharya Vihar Square, I saw a truck coming toward me. It was turning into the road. I was in a hurry. I did not want to wait till the truck had turned and so did not slow down my speed.

Instead, I flashed my headlights requesting priority of way but the adamant truck driver did not heed to my signal, it was turning. I applied the brakes but it was too late, I rammed into- a buffalo, swerved sharply to the right, grazed past the rear of the truck’s body, and then hit a telephone pole against which the car stopped. Fortunately, I escaped unhurt with only minor pain in my back. But then my problems were, not over. A policeman arrived from nowhere, accosted me, and asked me to get out of the car.

Meanwhile, people who were crowded around informed us that an old man had fallen down unconscious. There was a doctor among them and he suggested that we take him to the hospital. As the old man was brought to my taxi, the doctor noted that he had already died. However, I requested the doctor to keep quiet and immediately drove to the hospital with the dead body. I was lucky not to have been manhandled by people. But I must say it is all the truck driver’s fault. I did not kill the old man.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Exposition

(4) Paragraph included in the letter

121, Kharavel Nagar,
Bhubaneswar
20 August 20

Dear Joseph,
Greeting from India!
I received your letter and your picture postcard at the same time. I will cherish the card for a long time to come. The picture of the Millennium Dome is crystal clear. It looks very beautiful. Well, you had written to me about how everyone in England celebrates Guy Fawkes day. You did have a lot of fun, really. I could see that from your letter. Do you know, here, back in India we too celebrate something similar to Guy Fawkes? There it commemorates the gunpowder plot but in India, we celebrate a festival called Diwali, the festival of lights.

It symbolizes the victory of good over evil, of light over darkness commemorating the victory of the forces of Shri Rama over the evil forces of Ravana. The festival falls every year in the month of October or November. On that day, we offer Puja to Shri Rama, distribute sweets among friends and neighbors and prepare for the night. We purchase crackers of all sorts and dry them in the sun. We also prepare wick lamps. The lamps and wicks are purchased from the market.

Then oil is poured into the lamps and the wick is set on it. These are then kept in a row on terraces, the boundary wall, on window sills, and everywhere where there is space to keep them. When night falls, these lamps are lit. There must be thousands and thousands of lamps lit in every house, in every street, town, city, district, and state. The house is thus lit like a Christmas tree. It looks beautiful and gay. After this starts the ceremony of lighting fire-crackers. Everyone, from a child to an old man enjoys lighting fire-crackers and bursting them.

This goes on till the last hours of the morning. Often, Diwali is celebrated for two days. Of course, one of these days is only declared a national holiday but then there is no holding back for persons who enjoy Diwali. They take leave and enjoy this festival. This reminds of Guy Fawkes day, isn’t it? Well, do write to me about how you celebrate Christmas. I am eager to hear from you.

With warm regards.
Your loving friend,
Subrat Das.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Exposition

Activity 34

Do you have friends whose mothers are working? What problems do they have? Put these problems in the blanks in the list ‘
1. Getting pampered
2. Bad company
3. Neglecting studies
4. Aggressive attitude
5. Too much TV
6. Psychological problems.
7. Widening communication gap
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
Answer:
They have a widening communication gap.
They have psychological problems.
They are getting pampered.
They neglect studies.
They have bad company.

The list below contains some advantages that children of working mothers enjoy.
Now think of other advantages and add them to the list. Are these advantages real? If not, why?
1. Complete freedom
2. No nagging for homework
3. Enjoy yourself freely
4. Have full privacy
5. Gain in confidence
6. Be more, independent
7. Do what you like
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
Answer:
These advantages are not real, because, without the mother’s presence at this stage, the children never feel the importance of their formative years which shape their future in a great measure.
They develop adaptability. 
They develop a sort of creativity.
They are free from worries.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Exposition

Now write a passage of 2 or 3 paragraphs on ‘ Working mothers and their children
2. Dear ………………..,
My mother started working seven years ago. My first problem is that I have to keep ringing her up to find things in the house. Second, living with a ten-year-old sister is not as easy as it seems. My younger sister is supposed to take permission from me, but most of the time she doesn’t listen to me. Then I get angry and she rings up my mom who scolds me. Third, I don’t really have much freedom because I have to call my mother to take her permission. She has placed so many restrictions on me that I feel caged in. Fourth, Let me confess that at home I listen to music, watch TV and spend a lot of time with my friends, neglecting my studies. Besides, although my parents never pamper me, they always pamper my sister, my be because she is much younger. Very often I feel neglected when they do that. Lastly, I really wish that my mother or father were at home, especially some months before the boards.
3. Dear…………………,
I think it’s the best way. I don’t think I’d like to see more of my parents at home. I like my free time. At home I read, listen to music, fiddle around with the computer, play badminton and tennis, and even I have started writing because I don’t have any other entertainment. The other definite plus is that 1 get my own privacy, and I have also become more independent, in fact, when my maternal or paternal grandparents come over, then I feel closed in somehow. Since I do my own things, I am pretty confident about everything. But having someone at home is obviously a big advantage. I can never tell myself to study. I often wish my mother were at home to tell me
and help me. Worst of all, 1 waste a lot of my time worrying about security and about meals.

Answer:
Passage 3 throws light on the impact of a working mother on her child. Here the latter likes to be away from its parents. At home, the child enjoys reading, listening to music, playing badminton and tennis, and so on. Lack of any other entertainment makes the child start writing something. The most remarkable thing about it is its own privacy. As a result of its working mother, the child somewhat develops | closeness with its maternal or paternal grandparents. It becomes confident still, the child wishes the mother were at home for help. Worrying about security and about meals takes a lot of its time.

Activity 35

Read the following letters published in an issue of India Today. These letters \ tell us what is wrong with sports in India.

(a) The story on Indian sports (“A Shocking Mess”, August 15) reveals only the tip of the problem. Officialdom and corruption have so spoiled our system that every effort is made to stall an achievement. While sportsmen live like beggars, deprived of quality gear, the managers live like kings.
R. SINGH, NEW DELHI

(b) With neither motivation nor money to galvanize them, it’s no wonder that many players bid goodbye to sports once they get a sound footing elsewhere. It is high time that those who actually know about different sports are appointed at the helm of affairs.
MANI NATRAJAN, CHENNAI

(c) The fact that only 22 of the 46 probables for the hockey team reached the coaching camp shows the lack of commitment of the players. Though official mismanagement can be blamed, the athletes have to accept part of the responsibility.
B.C. PRAKAS, BANGALORE’

(d) If the story on India’s preparation for the Hiroshima Games had been published a year or two ago, it might have had some effect. To an extent, it is this lack of media coverage of sports, other than cricket and tennis, that is also responsible for India’s debacle in various events. MANISH PATHAK, NEW DELHI

(e) The sports mess is hardly surprising. After all, sports are also managed by the bureaucracy and the bigwigs. Like other plans and programs they implement, how could they deviate from their time-honored practice here – plan with fanfare, implement with nonchalance, forget the monitoring, and don’t worry about the results?
K G JAIN, NEW DELHI

CHSE Odisha Class 11 English Writing Exposition

(i) Read the letters again and make a list of the factors that are responsible for the sorry state of Indian sport is in.
(ii) If possible, think of and add your own points to the list.
(iii) Try to write 3 or 4 sentences on each point.
(iv) Write a short paragraph incorporating suggestions for improvement This should ideally conclude your topic. Now write on the topic “The Sorry State of Indian Sports.”

Answer:
Indian sports is in an extremely sorry state today. It is plagued by manifold problems to which there seems no end in sight. Officialdom and corruption have tarnished our sports bodies so much so that, every achievement is stalled. Moreover, while officials grab the limelight and the financial benefits accruing from an event, sportspersons who made it all possible, are handed over the crumbs. With such a state of affairs presiding, our sportsmen do not have any motivation to shine.

Leave alone prize money, they are often not even paid their due. And so, when they get a good job, they bid goodbye to the sports that they so much loved. After all, they also have to earn their livelihood to feed their families. Budding talents too are not spared. Companies would rather have an established player endorse their products than choose a greenhorn. As a result, young sportspersons take the help of their parents, friends, and relatives to hone their skills at meets both at home and abroad.

But when the money they had diminished to a trickle, they turn their back on sports and look for other options. Besides, the media is at fault too. Come cricket or tennis and they run to cover it. What about football, hockey, polo, kabaddi, handball, basketball, Choko, badminton, table tennis, chess, etc? Are they receiving equal coverage? This is a question that is better not asked by the media. They would shrink and then vanish. Then there’s the ubiquitous red-tapism of the bureaucracy and the official bigwigs.

Their plans for the development of sports in the country sound grand, but they are seldom implemented. They go “bang”, and “bang” in speeches but their implementation always ends in a whimper. However, all blame cannot be laid at the doors of others. Sportspersons too are responsible for this state of affairs. They lack commitment and professionalism. A foreign trip is coveted more for the glamour and the sightseeing than as an opportunity to bring home medals.

Most often, groups lack team spirit and this is very obvious in their game. How can these problems be solved? It is easier said than done. Solutions may be suggested but who will implement them? First, perhaps there should be an attitudinal change among the people who run the sports in this country. They should take it seriously as something concurring with national honor and national pride. Secondly, eminent sportspersons should run sports bodies.

Third, sportspersons must be encouraged by monetary rewards, and their achievements recorded and honored by sports bodies as well as the government. Fourth, the government must ensure the sponsorship of budding talents for national and international meets. Fifth, media coverage should be given equally to all sports and finally, sportspersons must be inspired to total commitment and professionalism. If and only when these changes are implemented in India, will the scene of Indian sports change for the better?

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Ex 9(l)

Odisha State Board Elements of Mathematics Class 12 Solutions CHSE Odisha Chapter 9 Integration Ex 9(l) Textbook Exercise questions and Answers.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Exercise 9(l)

Question 1.
\(\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\)sin10 θ dθ
Solution:
\(\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\)sin10 θ dθ = \(\frac{9}{10} \cdot \frac{7}{8} \cdot \frac{5}{6} \cdot \frac{3}{4} \cdot \frac{1}{2} \cdot \frac{\pi}{2}\) = \(\frac{405 \pi}{7680}\)

Question 2.
\(\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\)cos12 θ dθ
Solution:
\(\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\)cos12 θ dθ = \(\frac{11}{12} \cdot \frac{9}{10} \cdot \frac{7}{8} \cdot \frac{5}{6} \cdot \frac{3}{4} \cdot \frac{1}{2} \cdot \frac{\pi}{2}\) = \(\frac{4455 \pi}{92160}\)

Question 3.
\(\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\)sin11 θ dθ
Solution:
\(\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\)sin11 θ dθ = \(\frac{10}{11} \cdot \frac{8}{9} \cdot \frac{6}{7} \cdot \frac{4}{5} \cdot \frac{2}{3}\) = \(\frac{3840}{4455}\)

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Ex 9(l)

Question 4.
\(\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\)cos9 θ dθ
Solution:
\(\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\)cos9 θ dθ = \(\frac{8}{9} \cdot \frac{6}{7} \cdot \frac{4}{5} \cdot \frac{2}{3}\) = \(\frac{384}{405}\)

Question 5.
\(\int_0^1 \frac{x^7}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}\) dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Ex 9(l) Q.5

Question 6.
\(\int_0^1 \frac{x^5\left(4-x^2\right)}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}\) dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Ex 9(l) Q.6

Question 7.
\(\int_0^a x^3\left(a^2-x^2\right)^{\frac{5}{2}}\) dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Ex 9(l) Q.7

Question 8.
\(\int_0^1 x^5 \sqrt{\frac{1+x^2}{1-x^2}}\) dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Ex 9(l) Q.8

CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Ex 9(l)

Question 9.
\(\int_0^{\infty} \frac{x^2}{\left(1+x^6\right)^n}\) dx
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Ex 9(l) Q.9

Question 10.
\(\int_0^\pi\)sin8 θ dθ
Solution:
CHSE Odisha Class 12 Math Solutions Chapter 9 Integration Ex 9(l) Q.10