Odisha State Board BSE Odisha 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6 Festivals of North-East India Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
BSE Odisha Class 10 English Solutions Chapter 6 Festivals of North-East India
BSE Odisha 10th Class English Festivals of North-East India Text Book Questions and Answers
D. Let’s Understand The Text:
What is North-East India?
( ଉତ୍ତର-ପୂର୍ବ ଭାରତ କ ଣ?)
North-East India is a collective name for the easternmost parts of India.
Which states form North-East India?
( କେଉଁସବୁ ରାଜ୍ୟ ଉତ୍ତର-ପୂର୍ବ ଭାରତକୁ ଗଠନ କରିଛି ?)
The states like Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Sikkim, Tripura, and Nagaland are from North-East India.
Which states are called the “Land of Seven Sisters”?
(କେଉଁସବୁ ରାଜ୍ୟକୁ ‘‘ସାତ ଭଉଣୀ ଭୂମି’’ କୁହାଯାଏ ?)
The contiguous seven states- Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Tripura are called the Land of Seven Sisters.
Why are they called so?
(ସେମାନଙ୍କୁ (ସେସବୁ ରାଜ୍ୟକୁ) ଏଭଳି କୁହାଯାଏ କାହିଁକି ?)
They are called so because of their interdependence on each other.
Why is Sikkim not included among the “Seven Sisters”?
(16 21 1862 ସକିମ୍ ରାଜ୍ୟ କାହିଁକି ସାମିଲ ହୋଇନାହିଁ ?)
Sikkim is. not included among the “Seven Sisters” as it is geographically not a contiguous part of the northeast region. It is separated from the northeast by the Siliguri corridor.
What role does it play?
(ଏହା (ସିକିମ୍) କେଉଁ ଭୂମିକା ଗ୍ରହଣ କରିଛି ?)
It plays the role of being a little brother to these amazing seven sisters.
What is culture?
Culture is the appreciation, and understanding of literature (die), art, and music, besides the customs and civilization of a particular group of people.
People here celebrate their festivals with ____________ and ____________?
(ଏଠାର ଏହି ______ଓ______ ରେ ପାଳନ କରିଥା’ନ୍ତି ।)
People here celebrate their festivals with great enthusiasm and joy.
Many of their festivals are based on _____________?
(ସେମାନଙ୍କର ଅଧିକାଂଶ ପର୍ବ ଉପରେ ଆଧାରିତ ।).
Many of their festivals are based on agriculture.
What are the two important parts of celebrating their festivals?
(6NIAGA ପର୍ବପର୍ବାଣି ପାଳନ କରିବାର ଦୁଇଟି ଗୁରୁତ୍ଵପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ଅଂଶ କ’ଣ ?)
Traditional music and dance are two important parts of celebrating their festivals.
What is the most important festival of Assam?
Bihu is the most important festival in Assam.
Bihu festivals are of three kinds. What are they?
Bihu festivals are of three kinds. They are Rongali Bihu, Kongali Bihu and Bhogali Bihu.
Rongali Bihu is also known as __________?
Rongali Bihu is also known as Bohag Bihu.
Kongali Bihu is also called __________?
Kongali Bihu is also called Karti Bihu.
Do people also name Magh Bihu as __________?
People also name Magh Bihu as Bhogali Bihu
When is Rongali Bihu celebrated?
Rongali Bihu is celebrated in mid-April with the onset of spring and the beginning of the sowing season.
What does Bohag Bihu celebrate?
Bohag Bihu celebrates the start of a New Year in Assam.
When is Kaati Bihu celebrated?
Kongali or Kaati Bihu is celebrated in mid-October when the fields are lush
but the barns are empty.
What do people do during Kongali Bihu?
During Kongali Bihu, people light lamps and pray to God for a thriving (growing) harvest season and to guide souls to heaven.
When is Magh Bihu celebrated?
Magh Bihu is celebrated in Mid-January
Bhogali Bihu marks _______?
Bhogali Bihu marks the end of the harvest season.
Which festival is a thanksgiving for a rich harvest?
Bhogali Bihu or Magh Bihu is a thanksgiving for a rich harvest.
Bihu celebration is incomplete without _______ and _______?
Bihu celebration is incomplete without melodious folk songs and traditional dance.
Which musical instruments are played during the Bihu dance?
During Bihu dance musical instruments like cymbals, bamboo clappers, dhol, and the people are played.
Where is Arunachal Pradesh?
Arunachal Pradesh lies (21990) farther north in the mountain region of the Himalayas.
Name three festivals that Arunachal Pradesh celebrates.
The three festivals that the people of Arunachal Pradesh celebrate are Losar, Mopin and Ziro.
Which is the new-year festival of Arunachal Pradesh?
‘Losar’ is the new-year festival of Arunachal Pradesh.
What do people do on this occasion?
On this occasion, people clean their homes and discard the old to bring in the New Year.
Which festival is the harvest festival here?
Here (in Arunachal Pradesh) the harvest festival is ‘Mopin’.
What do people pray for during Mopin?
During Mopin people worship goddess Mopin and pray to drive away evil spirits and to get prosperity and wealth.
Popir dance is performed on the occasion of _______?
Popir dance is performed on the occasion of Mopin.
Ziro festival is an indoor/outdoor festival. (Tick the correct word.)
Ziro festival is an outdoor festival.
Which festival in Manipur establishes a family bond?
Ningol Chakouba festival in Manipur establishes a family bond.
How are the married daughters and their children treated during Ningol Chakouba?
During Ningol Chakouba the married daughters and their children are given a sumptuous feast and gifts.
Which festival celebrates the new year in Manipur? When?
The festival Cheiraoba celebrates the new year in Manipur. This festival is celebrated in April.
What do the people of Manipur do during the celebration of Cheiraoba?
During the celebration of Cheiraoba the people of Manipur clean and decorate their houses and prepare special festive dishes.
Chapchar Kut is popular in Mizoram as ______?
(A) the Spring festival
(C) the Autumn festival
(B) the Winter festival
(D) the Summer festival
(A) the Spring festival
How do the people of Mizoram celebrate Chapchar Kut?
The people of Mizoram celebrate the festival Chapchar Kut by wearing traditional dresses and headgear and performing folk dances and singing traditional songs.
Wangala is also known as ______?
Wangala is also known as the Hundred-drum Festival.
Where is Wangala celebrated?
Wangala is celebrated in the villages of Meghalaya.
Wangala is a harvest festival. What does it mark?
Wangala is a harvest festival. It marks the end of hard work which naturally brings a good harvest.
Describe the dance performed during Wangala.
The dance performed during Wangala has features like the beating of drums, blowing horns, and traditional dancing. This dance has two parallel lines- one of the men and the other of women and the lines move forward together in a rhythmic manner while the men beat the drums.
How do the people of Tripura celebrate Karachi Puja? When? Where?
The people of Tripura celebrate Karachi Puja by performing the animal sacrifice and worshipping fourteen gods as instructed by Lord Shiva in July in old Agartala or Puran Haveli.
Why do people throng Tripura during the festival?
During the festival, people throng Tripura to enjoy cultural programs and fairs.
What do the dances during festivals in Tripura showcase?
The dances during festivals in Tripura showcase (display) the hunting, food-gathering, and various other activities.
Name two Naga festivals?
The two Naga festivals are ‘Moastu’ and ‘Hornbill’.
Describe the Naga dance during the celebration of Moastu?
During the celebration of Moastu the villagers of Nagaland dance to the traditional music, dressed in colorful clothes and headgear decorated with feathers and wild boar tusks.
Which Naga festival is famous in India? What for?
The Naga festival ‘Hornbill’ is famous in India because it is a 10-day long cultural dance and sporting event which displays the cultural heritage of 16 tribes living in Nagaland.
Which bird is most admired in Nagaland?
The ‘Hornbill’ is a most admired bird in Nagaland.
Which Naga festival is named after the bird?
The Naga festival ‘HombilT is named after the bird.
What does the event showcase?
The event showcases the cultural heritage of 16 tribes living in Nagaland.
Describe the dance by men during the Hornbill festival?
During the Hornbill festival, men clothed in full warrior costumes show off their hunting and warring skills.
What helps Nagaland protect and continue its history?
Celebration of different festivals helps Nagaland protect and continue its history.
Name four Sikkimese festivals?
The four Sikkimese festivals are Saga Dawa, Losoong, Losar, and Tihaar.
Match the festivals under A with their occasions under B.
|a. Losar||festival of light|
|b. Saga Dawa||harvest festival|
|c. Tihaar||New Year festival|
|d. Losing||Buddhist festival|
|a. Losar||New Year festival|
|b. Saga Dawa||Dawa Buddhist festival|
|c. Tihaar||festival of light|
|d. Losing||harvest festival|
What do people do while celebrating Saga Dawa?
While celebrating Saga Dawa, the people of Sikkim visit the monasteries, and offer prayers, water, incense sticks, and butter lamps.
How do the Sikkimese celebrate their harvest festival?
During their harvest festival Losoong, the people of Sikkim, particularly the locals perform the Chaam dance, wearing brightly colored masks, and playing fascinating musical instruments. Archery contest is also held along with feasting and other celebrations.
When is the Tibetan New Year celebrated?
The Tibetan New Year is celebrated in the month of February.
E. Let’s Read Between Beyond / Lines :
1. Many different things make up a society’s culture. These things include:
( ଜିନିଷ ଏକ ସମାଜର ସଂସ୍କୃତି ଗଠନ କରିଥାଏ । ଏଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଅନ୍ତର୍ଭୁକ୍ତ କରିଥାଏ )
food arts language ideas
clothing music literature beliefs
tools dance customs religion
_____ ______ ______ _______
Can you add any more to this list? Write in the blank spaces. ( ତୁମେ କୌଣସି ଅବ୍ଲକ ଉପାଦାନ ଯୋଗ କରିପାରିବ କି ? ଶୂନ୍ୟସ୍ଥାନରେ ଲେଖ ।)
tradition worship games or sports trade
(ପରମ୍ପରା ) (ଉପାସନା ବା ପୂଜା) (ଖେଳ ବା କ୍ରୀଡ଼ା)
2. What is oral history? Why is it important?
(ମୌଖୁ ଇତିହାସ କ’ଣ ? ଏହା କାହିଁକି ଗୁରୁତ୍ବପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ?)
Oral history is the narration of historical events by mouth. It is important since word of mouth existed much earlier before the beginning of written history.
3. Folk songs and traditional dances of Assam have been handed down through many generations. Who passes down these songs and dances? To whom? Why?
(ଆସାମର ଲୋକ ସଙ୍ଗୀତ ଓ ପାରମ୍ପରିକ ନୃତ୍ୟ ଅନେକ ପିଢ଼ିକୁ (ପିଢ଼ି ପରେ ପିଢ଼ିକୁ) ହସ୍ତାନ୍ତର ହୋଇଛି । କେଉଁମାନେ ଏହି ଗୀତ ଓ ନୃତ୍ୟସମୂହକୁ ହସ୍ତାନ୍ତର କରନ୍ତି ? କେଉଁମାନଙ୍କୁ ? କାହିଁକି ?)
The people of Assam are proud of having been blessed with lush greenery and the mighty river Brahmaputra. ‘Bihus’ are among the major festivals of Assam. This dance and song culture of Assam comprises Rongali Bihu, Kongali Bihu, and Bhogali Bihu. Melodious folk songs and traditional dance add to the flavor of joy and jubilation of these dances. The songs of these festivals have been handed down by the people of Assam to the next generation to uphold them to glorify their proud culture of songs and dance.
4. The festivals of northeast India are based on two significant backgrounds. What are they? (Paragraphs – 1 and 14)
(ଉତ୍ତର-ପୂର୍ବ ଭାରତର ପର୍ବଗୁଡ଼ିକ ଦୁଇ ଗୁରୁତ୍ବପୂର୍ଣ ପୃଷ୍ଠଭୂମି ଉପରେ ଆଧାରିତ । ସେଗୁଡ଼ିକ କ’ଣ ?) (ଅନୁଚ୍ଛେଦ – ୧ ଓ ୧୪)
The festivals of northeast India are based on two significant backgrounds. All the eight states of this hilly region of India whose lives thrive (live) on melodious songs, music, and dance represent both geographic and administrative backgrounds. Besides they showcase the cultural heritage of the communities.
5. The people of northeastern India live in the lap of nature. Simplicity is the most beautiful ornamentation on them. They are fatalists. They believe there is some force that controls events and guides them- call it God, destiny, or fate. So they worship, pray and thank Him for the life they live. Which sentence states their religious beliefs? (Paragraph-14)
(ଉତ୍ତର-ପୂର୍ବ ଭାରତର ଅଧିବାସୀମାନେ ପ୍ରକୃତି କୋଳରେ ବାସ କରନ୍ତି । ସରଳତା ହେଉଛି ସେମାନଙ୍କର ସବୁଠାରୁ ସୁନ୍ଦର ଅଳଙ୍କାର ପରିପାଟୀ । ସେମାନେ ଭାଗ୍ୟବାଦୀ । ସେମାନଙ୍କର ବିଶ୍ଵାସ ଯେ ପ୍ରକୃତିରେ ଏଭଳି କିଛି ଶକ୍ତି ରହିଛି ଯାହା ଘଟଣାବଳୀକୁ ନିୟନ୍ତ୍ରିତ କରୁଛି ଓ ସେମାନଙ୍କୁ ସୁପରିଚାଳିତ କରୁଛି – ସେମାନେ ଏହାକୁ ଈଶ୍ଵର, ଦୈବ ବା ଭାଗ୍ୟ ବୋଲି କହନ୍ତି । ତେଣୁ ସେମାନେ ବଞ୍ଚୁଥିବା ଜୀବନ ପାଇଁ ତାଙ୍କୁ ଉପାସନା କରନ୍ତି, ପ୍ରାର୍ଥନା କରନ୍ତି ଏବଂ ଧନ୍ୟବାଦ ଅର୍ପଣ କରନ୍ତି । କେଉଁ ବାକ୍ୟଟି ସେମାନଙ୍କ ଧାର୍ମିକ ବିଶ୍ବାସକୁ ଉଲ୍ଲେଖ କରିଛି ।) (ଅନୁଚ୍ଛେଦ-୧୪)
The sentence “Most of them (these festivals) have a religious importance or significance, as the people offer thanks to the Gods for a good harvest or prosperity, or ask for protection against calamities” states the religious beliefs of the people of Northeastern India. N.B. The sentence that states the religious beliefs of the people of north-eastern India lies in Paragraph- 16, not in Paragraph- 14.)
6. Besides rooting religious beliefs, the festivals help in many other ways. What are they? (Paragraph-16)
(ମୂଳ ଧର୍ମୀୟ ବିଶ୍ଵାସ ବ୍ୟତୀତ ପର୍ବପର୍ବାଣି ଅନେକ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ ସାହାଯ୍ୟ କରିଥାଏ । ସେଗୁଡ଼ିକ କ’ଣ ?)
Besides rooting religious beliefs, the festivals help encourage cultural and artistic activities and bring out the natural talents of the people.
F. Lets Sump Up
The text you read is built up of many ideas. Each idea is described in just one or more than one paragraphs. Match the ideas under ‘A’ with their paragraph number(s) under ‘B\ Write a serial number of each idea in the box against paragraph number(s).
ବା ପ୍ରସଙ୍ଗ ଏକ ବା ଏକାଧିକ ଅନୁଚ୍ଛେଦରେ ବର୍ଣ୍ଣିତ ହୋଇଛି । ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ ଧାରଣା | ସମୂହର କ୍ରମିକ ସଂଖ୍ୟାକୁ ଅନୁଚ୍ଛେଦ କ୍ରମସଂଖ୍ୟା ପାର୍ଶ୍ଵରେ ଥିବା ବାକ୍ସ ମଧ୍ଯରେ ଲେଖ
|1. North East India||[ ]||15|
|2. Festivals of Arunachal Pradesh||[ ]||8|
|3. Assamese festivals||[ ]||10. 11|
|4. Festivals of Manipur||[ ]||12, 13, 14|
|5. Festivals of Meghalaya||[ ]||1, 2|
|6. Festivals of Mizoram||[ ]||3, 4|
|7. Festivals of Nagaland||[ ]||5, 6|
|8. Sikkimese festivals||[ ]||9|
|9. Festivals of Tripura||[ ]||7|
|1. North East India||||15|
|2. Festivals of Arunachal Pradesh||||8|
|3. Assamese festivals||||10,11|
|4. Festivals of Manipur||||12,13,14|
|5. Festivals of Meghalaya||||1,2|
|6. Festivals of Mizoram||||3,4|
|7. Festivals of Nagaland||||5,6|
|8. Sikkimese festivals||||9|
|9. Festivals of Tripura||||7|
G. Let’s Learn Words :
(a) Word Search
While reading a text, we come across some new words or words we are not familiar with. The meaning of such words is available somewhere around the text. Puzzle out the meanings of the words listed in the table below. Use the clues or hints- other words (synonyms, antonyms, examples, expressions, etc.) given in the context to help you understand. Numbers in brackets under column 1 indicate paragraph numbers. Numbers under column 2 show the number of paragraphs where you can get the hints/facts / clues / other words, such as synonyms, antonyms, examples, expressions, etc. Copy and complete the table.
(ଏକ ପାଠ୍ୟବିଷୟ ପଢ଼ିବା ସମୟରେ ଆମେ କେତେକ ପରିଚିତ ନ ଥୁବା ନୂଆ ଶବ୍ଦ ଦେଖିବାକୁ ପାଇଥାଉ । ଏଭଳି ଶବ୍ଦର ଅର୍ଥ ପାଠ୍ୟବିଷୟର ଅନ୍ୟ ସ୍ଥାନରେ ଉପଲବ୍ଧ ହୋଇଥାଏ ।
ନିମ୍ନସ୍ଥ ସାରଣୀରେ ତାଲିକାଭୁକ୍ତ ଶବ୍ଦଗୁଡ଼ିକର ଅର୍ଥ ବାହାର କର । ଏ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରରେ ତୁମକୁ ଦିଆଯାଇଥିବା ସୂଚନା – ଅନ୍ୟ ଶବ୍ଦସମୂହ (ପ୍ରତିଶବ୍ଦ, ବିପରୀତ ଶବ୍ଦ, ଉଦାହରଣ, ଭକ୍ତିସମୂହ) ବୁଝିବାରେ ସହାୟକ ହେବ । ସ୍ତମ୍ଭ ୧ରେ ବନ୍ଧନୀଭୁକ୍ତ ସଂଖ୍ୟା ଅନୁଚ୍ଛେଦର କ୍ରମସଂଖ୍ୟାକୁ ସୂଚିତ କରୁଛି । ସ୍ତମ୍ଭ ୨ରେ ପ୍ରଦତ୍ତ ସଂଖ୍ୟା ଅନୁଚ୍ଛେଦର କ୍ରମ ସଂଖ୍ୟାକୁ ସୂଚିତ କରୁଛି ଯେଉଁଠାରେ ତୁମେ ସୂଚନା | ତଥ୍ୟ | ପ୍ରତିଶବ୍ଦ, ବିପରୀତ ଶବ୍ଦ, ଉଦାହରଣ, ଭକ୍ତିସମୂହ ସମ୍ବଳିତ ଅନ୍ୟାନ୍ୟ ଶବ୍ଦକୁ)
|Words (para no)||Words/clues that helped me. (para no)||What I think the word means.||What the dictionary says.||Put a tick if your meaning is correct, and a X if you are not.|
|thriving (3, 15)||15|
|Words (para no.)||Words/clues that helped me. (para no)||What I think the word means.||What the dictionary says.||Put a tick if your meaning is correct, and a x if you are not.|
|diverse (2)||2||different||different, various||✓|
|thriving (3, 15)||15||lively||growing||✓|
|prominent (3)||6,8,9,13||most important, major, main||significant, chief, main||✓|
|symbolize (3)||11||represent||denote, indicate||✓|
|attire (4)||8,13||headgear||dresses, clothes||x|
|get in (4)||8,13||enter||wearing||x|
|clad (5)||13||dressed||dressed or clothed||✓|
|costume (9)||8,13||principle||dresses or clothes||x|
|hand down (4)||12||pass down||pass down||✓|
|showcase (14)||14||rack of books||show off||x|
|extensive (15)||8||mostly||in large amount||✓|
(b) Word Use
Read the following sentences and notice the words in italics.
(ନିମ୍ନଲିଖ୍ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ପଢ଼ ଓ ଛଟା ଅକ୍ଷରରେ ଲିଖ୍ ଶବ୍ଦକୁ ଲକ୍ଷ୍ୟ କର ।)
Hardly a month passes in the seven states wihout a festival or two.
(ଗୋଟିଏ ବା ଦୁଇଟି ପର୍ବ ପାଳନ ବିନା ସାତ ରାଜ୍ୟରେ ଗୋଟିଏ ମାସ ବି ଯାଏନି ।)
The sentence means:
There is a festival or two in the seven states almost every month.
(ଏହାର ଅର୍ଥ ହେଉଛି : ପ୍ରାୟ ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ ମାସରେ ସାତ ରାଜ୍ୟରେ ଗୋଟିଏ ବା ଦୁଇଟି ପର୍ବ ପାଳିତ ହୁଏ ।
Notice (ଲକ୍ଷ୍ୟ କର) :
Hardly is an adverb which is used to mean almost no(t) (gla ନାହିଁ | ନୁହେଁ), almost none (ପ୍ରାୟ କେହି ନାହାନ୍ତି).
This adverb of negation (ନାସ୍ତିସୂଚକ କ୍ରିୟା ବିଶେଷଣ) usually goes with any, ever, at all, or the modals can or could.
(ମୁଖ୍ୟତଃ any, ever, at all ବା modal ( ସାହାଯ୍ୟକାରୀ କ୍ରିୟା) can ବା could ସହିତ adverb ‘hardly’ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୋଇଥାଏ ।)
There is hardly any tea at home. (any = adjective)
(ଘରେ ପ୍ରାୟ ଚାହା ନାହିଁ ।)
She hardly ever goes to the pictures. (ever = adverb)
(ସେ ପ୍ରାୟ ଚଳଚ୍ଚିତ୍ର ଦେଖ୍ ଯାଏ ନାହିଁ ବା କ୍ଵଚିତ୍ ଯାଏ ।)
How often does it rain in deserts ?
(ମରୂଭୂମିରେ କେତେ ଥର ବର୍ଷା ହୁଏ ? )
Answer:It hardly rains in deserts. (rains = verb)
(ମରୁଭୂମିରେ କ୍ଵଚିତ୍ (ଖୁବ୍ କମ୍ ଥର) ବର୍ଷା ହୁଏ ।
I can hardly walk such a long distance. (can walk = verbs)
(ମୁଁ ଏତେ ଦୀର୍ଘ ଦୂରତାକୁ କ୍ଵଚିତ୍ ଚାଲି ଚାଲି ଯାଇପାରିବି ।)
Here the sentence means –
I can walk such a long distance with lots of difficulties.
(ମୁଁ ଖୁବ୍ କଷ୍ଟରେ ଏତେ ଦୀର୍ଘ ପଥକୁ ଚାଲି ଯାଇପାରିବି ।)
|Wrong (Incorrect)||Right (correct)|
|hardly no / not||hardly any|
|hardly nothing||hardly anything|
|hardly nobody||hardly anybody|
Rewrite the sentences using hardly, barely, or scarcely in them.
(ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକରେ ‘hardly’, ‘barely’ ବା ‘searcely’ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ପୁନର୍ବାର ଲେଖ ।)
(i) I saw almost none in the darkness.
(ii) The team could not score any goal.
(iii) The beggar has nothing to eat.
(iv) Many cities do very little to check air pollution.
(v) I know her very slightly.
(vi) Working children have almost no chance to enjoy themselves.
(vii) There was almost no sugar in the jar.
(viii) Samita cannot wait for her birthday.
(i) I saw hardly anyone in the darkness.
(ii) The team scored barely/hardly any goal.
Or, The team could hardly score any goal.
(iii) The beggar has hardly anything to eat.
(iv) Many cities hardly do little to check air pollution.
(v) Scarcely/Hardly do I know her.
Or, I hardly know her.
(vi) Working children have scarcely / hardly/barely any chance to enjoy.
(vii) There was hardly any sugar in the jar.
(viii) Samita can hardly wait for her birthday.
Or, Scarcely can Samita wait for her birthday
Hardly / Scarcely + auxiliary verbs + subject + main verb
when + sub +_______
Hardly/Scarcely did (auxiliary verb) the peon (subject) ring (main verb) the bell when we (subject) ran into our classroom.
(ପିଅନ୍ ବେଲ୍ ବଜାଇବାମାତ୍ରେ ଆମ୍ଭେମାନେ ଆମ୍ଭ ଶ୍ରେଣୀକକ୍ଷକୁ ଦୌଡ଼ିଗଲୁ ।)
Homophones are the words which have similar sounds but different spellings and meanings.
(ଦୁଇଟି ଶବ୍ଦର ଭିନ୍ନ ବନାନ ବା ଅର୍ଥ ପାଇଁ ସମାନ ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ ଥିଲେ ସେହି ଶବ୍ଦବିଶେଷର ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣକୁ homophones କୁହାଯାଏ ।)
homo – same or equal
phone – sound
(Words having the same or equal sound)
knew – new
flour – flower
Read the sentences, underline the incorrect homophones and replace them with the correct ones.
(ନିମ୍ନଲିଖ୍ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ପଢ଼, ଭୁଲ୍ ସମୋଚ୍ଚାରିତ ଶବ୍ଦଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ରେଖାଙ୍କିତ କର ଏବଂ ସେଗୁଡ଼ିକ ସ୍ଥାନରେ ଠିକ୍ ସମୋଚ୍ଚାରିତ ଶବ୍ଦ ବସାଅ ।)
(i) Assam is a state in the north-eastern reason of India.
(ii) Losar is a new-ear festival in Arunachal Pradesh.
(iii) People prey on gods for prosperity.
(iv) The women and children are given a sumptuous fist
(v) People worship God to rise to a higher plane of life.
(vi) Rich harvest is the result of herd labor.
(vii) Folk dance and traditional music add to the festive heir.
(viii) People throng Tripura to enjoy cultural programs and fares.
(i) Assam is a state in the northeastern region of India.
(ii) Losar is a new-year festival in Arunachal Pradesh.
(iii) People pray to gods for prosperity.
(iv) The women and children are given a sumptuous feast.
(v) People worship God to rise to a higher plane of life.
(vi) Rich harvest is the result of hard labor.
(vii) Folk dance and traditional music add to the festive air.
(viii) People throng Tripura to enjoy cultural programs and fairs.
H. Let’s Learn Grammar:
1. Look at the underlined words in the following sentences.
(ନିମ୍ନଲିଖ୍ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକରେ ରେଖାଙ୍କିତ ଶବ୍ଦଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ଦେଖ ।)
People clean and decorate their houses. (ଘର → nouns ବିଶେଷ୍ୟପଦ)
The temple houses 14 deities. ( ସ୍ଥାନିତ କରିଛି → verb – କ୍ରିୟାପଦ)
‘Noun’ is a naming word denoting names of person, thing, animal, place, quality, action or state.
(ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି, ଦ୍ରବ୍ୟ, ପ୍ରାଣୀ, ସ୍ଥାନ, ଗୁଣ, କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ ବା ଅବସ୍ଥାର ନାମସୂଚକ ଶବ୍ଦ ହେଉଛି Noun ବା ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ ପଦ ।) ‘Verb’ is a doing word or shows action or state or possession of or about the subject.
(କର୍ତ୍ତାର କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ, ଅବସ୍ଥା ବା ଧାରଣସୂଚକ ଶବ୍ଦ ହେଉଛି verb ବା କ୍ରିୟାପଦ ।)
A verb (mainly the main verb) can be used either as a finite verb or a non-finite verb.
Finite verb → tense
Non-finite verb → form
(i) Work is worship, (noun = subject to the verb ‘is’)
He works in this office, (verb = present simple tense = finite verb)
(ii) I gave a bite into the apple, (noun = object word to the verb ‘gave’) (a bite = object)
A barking dog seldom bites. (verb = finite verb = present simple tense)
Mosquito-bite causes malaria, (noun = subject word to the subject ‘mosquito-bite’)
Use each of the following words first as a noun and then as a verb in separate sentences of your own.
(ନିମ୍ନଲିଖତ ଶବ୍ଦଗୁଡ଼ିକରୁ ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ ଶବ୍ଦକୁ ପ୍ରଥମେ ଗୋଟିଏ noun (ବିଶେଷ୍ୟ) ରୂପେ ଓ ପରେ ଗୋଟିଏ verb (କ୍ରିୟା) ରୂପେ ତୁମ ନିଜ ବାକ୍ୟରେ ବ୍ୟବହାର କର ।)
dance, harvest, drive, climb, spring, dress, name, group, mark, help
Odisha is a classical dance.
The dance is captivating.
Look at her dance.
The girl danced beautifully. (Past simple tense)
We hope for a rich harvest.
The harvest of crops failed due to floods.
The farmers of Odisha harvest plenty of paddies every year.
He gave a test drive.
The literacy drive was a huge success.
He drove to his home. (Past simple tense)
Driven by hunger the beggar committed suicide
(Non-finite verb → past participle)
The climb of this wall is very difficult.
He has gone for the hill climb.
He climbed the hill. (Past simple tense)
Spring is the king of all seasons.
Can you see the spring?
He landed with a spring.
This part of the roof has sprung a leak.
Anil usually springs a surprise.
The girl is wearing a pink dress.
The dresses have become dirty.
The man was dressed in a rag. (Past simple tense)
He dressed me down. (Past simple tense)
The name sounds familiar to me.
What is your name?
Did the mother name the baby Dipu?
The group consists of ten people.
The people have been equally grouped.
(Present perfect tense)
Nandini obtained 60 marks in English.
The panther has black marks all over its body.
I marked him absent.
StM-help is the best help.
Mihir helped me.
2. Complete the sentences using appropriate prepositions choosing from the box.
(ବାକ୍ସରୁ ସଠିକ୍ ବିଭକ୍ତିସୂଚକ ଅବ୍ୟୟ ପଦ ବାଛି ଶୂନ୍ୟସ୍ଥାନ ପୂରଣ କର ।)
(to, against, of, for, on, with)
(i) India consists ___________ 28 States and 9 Union Territories.
(ii) The movie is based on __________ a real-life incident
(iii) She is blessed ___________ good health.
(iv) Shall I add some sugar __________ to your tea?
(v) The camel is the only means __________transportation in deserts
(vi) Safety rules prescribe precautions __________ fire.
(i) India consists of 28 States and 9 Union Territories.
(ii) The movie is based on a real-life incident.
(iii) She is blessed with good health.
(iv) Shall I add some sugar to your tea?
(v) The camel is the only means of transportation in deserts.
(vi) Safety rules prescribe precautions against fire.
3. Phrasal Verb
Verb + preposition or particle = phrasal verb
The meaning of phrasal verbs is different from the original verb used.
(Phrasal verbର ଅର୍ଥ ଏଥରେ ଥିବା ମୌଳିକ କ୍ରିୟାପଦର ଅର୍ଥଠାରୁ ସମ୍ପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ଭିନ୍ନ ଅଟେ ।)
Look at the use of the phrasal verbs and their meanings in the following sentences.
(ନିମ୍ନଲିଖ୍ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକରେ ଦିଆଯାଇଥିବା phrasal verb ଓ ସେଗୁଡ଼ିକର ଅର୍ଥକୁ ଲକ୍ଷ୍ୟ କର ।)
What time did you get back last night? (= return)
I’ll get back to you. (= to speak/write to somebody again later, in order to give a reply)
Winter sets in trees start to shed their leaves. (= begins)
Complete the following sentences using the phrasal verbs appropriately.
(Phrasal verbଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ଉପଯୁକ୍ତ ଭାବେ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ନିମ୍ନଲିଖ୍ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ସମ୍ପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ କର ।)
(bring in, show off, hand down, bring out, get in, ask for, take place, drive away, pass down)
(i) Young men and women ________their best traditional attire.
(ii) The festivals _______in the month of July.
(iii) On this occasion, people discard the old to ______the New Year.
(iv) People pray the gods to______ evil spirits.
(v) The songs have been _______through many generations.
(vi) The celebration of these festivals is an effective means of preserving and _______ their oral history.
(vii) Men clad in full warrior costumes_______ their hunting and warring skills.
(viii) People offer thanks to gods and ________ protection against calamities
(ix) These celebrations also help_______the natural talent of people.
(i) Young men and women get in their best traditional attire.
(ii) The festivals take place in the month of July.
(iii) On this occasion, people discard the old to bring in the New Year.
(iv) People pray to the gods to drive away evil spirits.
(v) The songs have been handed down through many generations.
(vi) The celebration of these festivals is an effective means of preserving and passing down their oral history.
(vii) Men clad in full warrior costumes show off their hunting and warring skills.
(viii) People offer thanks to gods and ask for protection against calamities.
(ix) These celebrations also help bring out the natural talent of people
4. Look at the following sentences.
(ନିମ୍ନଲିଖ୍ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ଦେଖ ।)
Rongali Bihu is celebrated in mid-April.
The crops have been harvested.
by + phrase (by + agent or doer of the action)
by + କର୍ମବାଚ୍ୟରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୋଇଛି । କେତେକ କର୍ମବାଚ୍ୟ by + କାରକ ବିନା ମଧ୍ୟ ଗଠିତ ହୁଏ ।
The batsman was declared out. (by + agent = by the umpire)
English is spoken all over the world, (by + agent = by the people)
Put the following sentences into the passive without ‘by-phrase’.
(by phrase ବ୍ୟବହାର ନ କରି ନିମ୍ନଲିଖ୍ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ passive voice ବା କର୍ମବାଚ୍ୟରେ ପରିଣତ କର ।)
(i) Farmers grow grapes in Hyderabad.
(ii) Poachers kill a lot of wild animals every year.
(iii) People make paper from pulp.
(iv) Someone broke the window.
(v) We should respect the elders.
(vi) Somebody stole her purse.
(vii) The police have arrested the miscreant.
(viii) My friend has eaten up all the grapes. (But I want to keep it a secret.)
(i) Grapes are grown in Hyderabad.
(ii) A lot of wild animals are killed every year.
(iii) Paper is made from pulp.
(iv) The window was broken.
(v) The elders should be respected.
(vi) Her purse was stolen.
(vii) The miscreant has been arrested.
(viii) All the grapes have been eaten up.
5. Read the following sentences and notice the underlined verbs.
(ନିମ୍ନଲିଖୂ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁନିକୁ ପଢ଼ ଓ ରେଖାଙ୍କିତ କ୍ରିୟାପଦଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ଲକ୍ଷ୍ୟ କର ।)
(a) The North East India, comprising eight states, is a place of diverse culture.
(b) Blessed with lush greenery and mighty River Brahmaputra, the people of Assam have a lot to celebrate.
(c) They pray to God to guide souls to heaven.
(d) These celebrations also help encourage cultural and aristic activities and bring out the natural talent of people.
ଉପରୋକ୍ତ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁନିକରେ ରେଖାଙ୍କିତ କ୍ରିୟାପଦ ବା verbଗୁଡ଼ିକର tense ବା କାଳ ନାହିଁ । ତେଣୁ ଏ ସମସ୍ତ କ୍ରିୟାପଦ ଗୋଟିଏ ଗୋଟିଏ non-finite verb (ଅସମାପିକା କ୍ରିୟା) ।
|(a) comprising||→ present participle|
|(b) blessed||→ past participle|
|(c) to guide||→ to + infinitive|
|(d) encourage, bring out||→ bare infinitive or zero infinitive|
Underline the non-finite clauses in the following sentences.
( ନିମ୍ନଲିଖିତ ବାକ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକରେ ଅସୀମ ଧାରାକୁ ଅଣ୍ଡରଲାଇନ୍ କରନ୍ତୁ।)
(i) The pepa is a wind instrument made of a buffalo horn.
(ii) Lying farther north in the mountainous region of the Himalayas, Arunachal Pradesh is one of India’s most remote picturesque locations.
(iii) On this occasion, people clean their homes and discard the old to bring in the New Year.
(iv) The villagers climb the nearest hill tops for they believe that this will help them rise to a higher plane in this life.
(v) The Spring Festival or Chapchar Kut is an important occasion, mostly celebrated in Mizoram.
(vi) Men and women of all ages, wearing traditional dresses and head-gear, perform folk dances and sing traditional songs.
(vii) Wangala or the Hundred-drum Festival is celebrated in November to mark the end of hard work
(i) The pepa is a wind instrument made of a buffalo horn (made = non-finite verb)
(ii) Lying farther north in the mountainous region of the Himalayas, Arunachal Pradesh is one of India’s most remote picturesque locations, (lying = non-finite verb)
(iii) On this occasion, people clean their homes and discard the old to bring in the New Year. (to bring in = non-finite verb)
(iv) The villagers climb the nearest hill tops for they believe that this will help them rise to a higher plane in this life. (rise = non-finite verb)
(v) The Spring Festival or Chapchar Kut is an important occasion, mostly celebrated in Mizoram. (celebrated = non-finite verb)
(vi) Men and women of all ages, wearing traditional dresses and head-gear, perform folk dances and sing traditional songs, (wearing = non-finite verb)
(vii) Wangala or the Hundred-drum Festival is celebrated in November to mark the end of hard work. (to mark = nonfinite verb)
6. Read the following sentences.
(a) Pepa is a wind instrument made of buffalo horn.
(‘ପେପା’ ବାଦ୍ୟଯନ୍ତ୍ର ତିଆରି କରିବା ପାଇଁ ଲୋକମାନେ ମଇଁଷି ଶିଙ୍ଗ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରନ୍ତି ।)
Another example: Paper is made from pulp.
(ଅର୍ବତରଳ ଦ୍ରବରୁ କାଗଜ ତିଆରି କରାଯାଏ ।)
made of – if the original material isn’t changed in any significant way
(ତିଆରିରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ମୂଳ ଦ୍ରବ୍ୟର ବିଶେଷ ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତନ ନ ହୋଇଥିଲେ)
made from – if the original material changed significantly
( ରୁ ତିଆରି – ଯଦି ମୂଳ ସାମଗ୍ରୀ ଯଥେଷ୍ଟ ବଦଳିଯାଏ |)
Look: The ring is made of gold, (‘gold’ is found in the ring)
The shirt is made from cotton, (‘cotton’ isn’t seen in the shirt)
(a) Match the things under ‘A” with the materials under ‘B’. Write the serial numbers in brackets.
(ସ୍ତମ୍ଭ ‘A’ ତଳେ ଥିବା ଜିନିଷ ସହିତ ସ୍ତମ୍ଭ ‘B’ ତଳେ ଥିବା ଦ୍ରବ୍ୟ | ସାମଗ୍ରୀକୁ ମିଳାଅ । ବନ୍ଧନୀ ମଧ୍ଯରେ କ୍ରମ ସଂଖ୍ୟା ଲେଖ ।)
|(i) Shoes||[ ] Wood|
|(ii) Blanket||[ ] Milk|
|(iii) House||[ ] Cotton|
|(iv) Ice||[ ] Flour|
|(v) Shirt||[ ] Water|
|(vi) Juice||[ ] Bronze|
|(vii) Bread||[ ] Iron|
|(viii) Statue||[ ] Denim|
|(ix) Gate||[ ] Leather|
|(x) Chair||[ ] Bricks|
|(xi) Cheese||[ ] Fruit|
|(xii) Jeans||[ ] Wool|
|(i) Shoes||[x] Wood|
|(ii) Blanket||[xi] Milk|
|(iii) House||[v] Cotton|
|(iv) Ice||[vii] Flour|
|(v) Shirt||[iv] Water|
|(vi) Juice||[viii] Bronze|
|(vii) Bread||[x] Iron|
|(viii) Statue||[xii] Denim|
|(ix) Gate||[i] Leather|
|(x) Chair||[iii] Bricks|
|(xi) Cheese||[vi] Fruit|
|(xii) Jeans||[ii] Wool|
(b) Now make sentences for each pair using ‘made of’ or ‘made from’.
(160 gồ ଯୋଡ଼ା ପାଇଁ ‘made of” କିମ୍ବ। ‘made from’ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ବାକ୍ୟ ଗଠନ କର ।) One is done for you. (ଗୋଟିଏ ତୁମପାଇଁ କରି ଦିଆଯାଇଛି ।)
(i) Shoes are made of leather.
(ii) The blanket is made from wool.
(iii) The house is made from bricks, (if plastered)
(iv) Ice is made from water.
(v) The shirt is made from cotton.
(vi) Juice is made from fruit.
(vii) Bread is made from flour (a©l).
(viii) The statue is made of bronze. (Coating of bronze is found)
(ix) The gate is made of iron. (Iron is seen in the gate)
(x) The chair is made of wood.
(xi) Cheese is made from milk.
(xii) Jeans are made of denim.
I. Let’s Learn Study Skills
(a) The table below contains necessary facts on the festivals that the eight states of North East India celebrate. But some facts are missing. Copy and complete the table supplying the missing information.
(ନିମ୍ନସ୍ଥ (ସାରଣୀ)ରେ ଉତ୍ତର ପୂର୍ବ ଭାରତର ଆଠୋଟିଯାକ ରାଜ୍ୟରେ ପାଳିତ ହେଉଥିବା ପର୍ବପର୍ବାଣି ସମ୍ବନ୍ଧୀୟ ତଥ୍ୟ ରହିଛି । କିନ୍ତୁ କେତେକ ତଥ୍ୟ ଛାଡ଼ ଅଛି । ଛାଡ଼ଥିବା ତଥ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ବସାଇ ସାରଣୀଟିକୁ ସମ୍ପୂର୍ଣ କର ।)
|State||Festival||Time||Purpose||What people do|
|Rongali Bihu||onset of spring||Mark the start of the New Year, the beginning of the harvest season||put on traditional clothes sing melodious folk songs perform a traditional dance|
|Kongali Bihu||in mid-October||for a thriving harvest season and to guide souls to heaven||light lamps pray to God|
|Bhogali Bihu||in mid-January||Mark the end of the harvest season||Thanksgiving to God|
|Losar||mark the new year’s arrival||clean their homes discard the old to bring in the New Year|
|Mopin||to drive away evil spirits and get prosperity||pray to Goddess Popir dance is performed|
|Manipur||Ningol Chakouba||to revive the relationships between married girls and their parents||women and their children are given a sumptuous feast and gifts|
|Meghalaya||Wangala||in November||to mark the end of hard work||beat drums, blow horns, and dance|
|Mizoram||Chapchar Kut||Spring||perform folk dances and sing traditional songs|
|Nagaland||Moisture||to mark the end of the sowing season||dance to the traditional
|Sikkim||Saga Dawa||between May and June||to commemorate the birth, enlightenment, and death of Buddha||visit monasteries, offer
water, incense sticks, etc.
|Tripura||Karachi Puja||in July||to mark animal sacrifice and worshipping of 14 gods||organize culturally
programs and fairs
(b) Use the information/facts available in the table you have completed above and write a paragraph of 4 to 5 sentences on the festivals of each state.
(ତୁମେ ଉପରେ ପୂରଣ କରିଥିବା ସାରଣୀରେ ଉପଲବ୍ଧ ତଥାବଳୀକୁ ବ୍ୟବହାର କରି ପ୍ରତି ରାଜ୍ୟର ପର୍ବପର୍ବାଣି ଉପରେ ୪ରୁ ୫ଟି ବାକ୍ୟ ଲେଖ ।)
Rongali Bihu :
Rongali Bihu celebrated in Assam, is also known as Bohag Bihu. On the onset of Spring in mid-April and the beginning of the sowing season, it is observed. It marks the start of a New Year in Assam.
Kongali Bihu :
Kongali Bihu or Kaati Bihu is celebrated in Assam in mid-October when the fields are lush green but the barns are empty. People light lamps and pray to God for a growing harvest season and to guide souls to heaven.
Bhogali Bihu :
Bhogali Bihu is also known as ‘Magh Bihu’. It is observed in mid-January in Assam. The festival marks the end of the harvest season. It is a thanks-giving occasion after the crops have been harvested and the bams are full.
Losar is the new-year festival in Arunachal Pradesh. On this occasion, people in certain areas of the state clean their homes and give up the old to bring in the New-year.
Mopin is the harvest festival Galo tribe of Meghalaya people worship Goddess Mopin and pray to drive away evil spirits and for acquiring prosperity and wealth. An indigenous folk dance called Popir is performed by young women.
Ningol Chakouba :
Ningol Chakouba is a charming festival in Manipur. This festival is held to bind and revive the relationships between married girls and their parents. So the women and their children are given a dainty feast and gifts.
Wangala or the Hundred-drum festival is the most important festival celebrated by the Garos in the villages of Meghalaya. It is observed in November to mark the end of hard work which naturally brings a good harvest. The celebration comprises the beating of drums, blowing horns, and traditional dancing.
Chapchar Kut :
Chapchar Kut is the spring festival celebrated in Mizoram. Men and women of all ages in Mizoram, wearing traditional dresses and headgear, perform folk dances. They sing traditional songs.
Saga Dawa :
Saga Dawa is an amazing Buddhist festival in Sikkim. It is celebrated on the full moon day in the Tibetan lunar month between May and June. On this sacred day, people visit monasteries and offer prayers, water, incense sticks, and butter lamps. The festival commemorates the birth, enlightenment, and death of Lord Buddha.
Karachi Puja :
Karachi Puja is a week-long festival in Tripura. It is, marked by animal sacrifice and worship of 14 gods as instructed by Lord Shiva. It takes place in July in old Agartala, the capital of the state. Thousands of people throng Tripura to enjoy cultural programs and fairs.
J. Let’s Write :
You are going to celebrate a popular festival in your locality. Write a letter to your friend inviting him/her to visit your place on the occasion. Mention the important features, such as name, time, preparation, gathering, fun and merry-making, entertainment, sales and purchase, usefulness, etc.
My dear Guduli,
We are all fine at home and hope to hear same from you. You will be glad (very happy) to know that we are going observe (ପାଳନ କରିବାକୁ )the most popular traditional “Maha Vishuba Sankranti” on the 12th of April next. Popularly known as “Pana Yatra”, the fair that is held before Lord Shiva at the Gangeswar fairground (ମେଳଣ ପଡ଼ିଆ) every year marks the beginning of Hindu Nava Varsha. In the three-day-long festival, people from far and near throng (gather) the fair-ground to have a holy glimpse of the feats (କୌଶଳ) of the Patras ( ପଟୁଆମାନଙ୍କର) before the Lord (ଈଶ୍ଵର)Shiva. People make a lot of fun and frolic at the fair. The fairground is dotted with (ପରିପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ)shops, stalls, entertaining( ମନୋରଞ୍ଜନକାରୀ) stages. People return home with lots of purchases. Songs blare out ( ଜୋରରେ ବାଜି ଉଠେ) cheerfully. The festival binds people and reminds them of their glorious past and proud culture. Kindly treat it urgent to drop in at my humble dwelling (ନିରାଡମ୍ବର ଗ୍ରହ ) shortly. ( ନିକଟ ଭବିଷ୍ୟତରେ) Anticipating your arrival.
K. Let’s Do This Activity :
“Festivals of North-East India” is full of many interesting facts. Therefore, your teacher can organize and conduct a quiz activity on the topic in order to revisit the facts/ information for better understanding and learning. The quiz program will have three rounds. The 1st round will be based on a “one-sentence answer”; the 2nd round, on a “True/False response”, and the 3rd one, on a “ word option”.
The sample questions for each round are as follows :
Round 1: What are the different types of Bihu festivals?
(Participants are to answer each question in one complete sentence.)
Round 2: The Rivefferahmaputra flows through the state of Tripura.
(Competitors will answer: ‘True’ or ‘False’.)
Round 3: Which of the following is not a new-year festival?
- Rongali Bihu
Instructions to the Teacher to conduct the quiz :
Prepare 10 questions – two parallel sets, each having 5 questions – for each round. Each set of questions will be legibly written/typed on separate sheets of paper and arranged/ tagged round-wise. In addition, prepare the answer sheet for quick/ready reference at the time of administering the quiz.
Declare the date/time for the quiz when teaching/learning of the lesson is complete in all respects. You may need two or more consecutive periods. In such a situation, seek your colleague’s cooperation to lend you his/her period(s) with the knowledge headmaster/headmistress.
‘If possible, you may arrange for the winner’s award/consolation prize as a token of inspiration/encouragement.
Once again, see that everything is prepared for the show. On the day as scheduled, enter the class, greet the pupils, and welcome them to the program. Divide the class into two groups with equal learning abilities. Tell them about the rules of the quiz. Keep the kids in good humor. Start the session. Yes, one thing more. You are the quiz master. And choose someone, of course not from among the participants, who will act impartially to record the scores- on the blackboard. Why not choose one of your colleagues?
Perhaps you know the rest – how to go on. When the quiz program is over and the winner is declared, invite your institutional head or a senior colleague to give away the prize(s) with a few words of encouragement to the partakers.
BSE Odisha 10th Class English Festivals of North-East India Important Questions and Answers
Very Short& Objective Questions With Answers
Answer The Following Questions In A Word Or A Phrase.
What does North-East India?
a geographic and administrative division
How many states does North-East India comprise?
Which northeast state isn’t figured in the tag the “Land of Seven Sisters”?
What are the seven states of the northeast represented? India commonly described as the “Land of Seven Sisters”?
because of their interdependence on each other
How is Sikkim separated from the northeast?
by Siligudi corridor
Which state in northeast India has accepted itself as a little brother of seven sisters?
How is Sikkim not a contiguous part of the northeast region?
What is a common feature of the northeast region?
What appears incomplete without the traditional music and dance of the northeast region?
celebration of various festivals
In which northeast state does the river Brahmaputra flow?
What is the major cultural festival of Assam?
What is the other name of Magh Bihu?
What is a Bihu celebration considered incomplete without?
melodious folk songs and traditional dance
What is Arunachal Pradesh dotted with?
lush green paddy fields and pine-clad mountains
What has nature provided to the people of Arunachal Pradesh?
a deep feeling of beauty
What do the people of Arunachal Pradesh do on the occasion of Losar?
clean their homes and discard the old to bring in the New Year
What do the people in Arunachal Pradesh worship in the Mopin festival?
What is an indigenous folk dance among the people of Arunachal Pradesh?
When is the Ziro festival of music held?
in September every year
What is the two important festivals of Arunachal Pradesh?
Losar and Ziro
What is the specialty of the Ningol Chakouba festival in Manipur?
Binding and reviving the relationships between married girls and their parents
What is Manipur’s New Year festival?
What is the Spring festival in Mizoram?
Who celebrates ‘Wangala’ in the villages of Meghalaya?
What does the festival Wangala mark in Meghalaya?
the end of hard work with the promise of a good harvest
How many deities are placed in Puran Haveli?
What are the main features of festivals in Tripura?
joining all people in the celebrations
What do many of the dances performed during some of the festivals in Tripur represent?
hunting, food-gathering, and other activities
What forms the soul of Naga festivals?
songs and dances
Which Naga festival is observed after the sowing season?
What is a ten-day-long cultural dance and sporting event in Nagaland?
How are the Sikkimese festivals celebrated?
with a lot of pomp and as per the Buddhist calendar
Which festival in Sikkim commemorates the birth, enlightenment, and death of Lord Buddha?
Which festival in Sikkim is celebrated at the end of the harvest season?
What is the Sikkimese festival ‘Losar’ marked with?
great joy, extensive meals, and merriment
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1. North-East India comprises _____________ states in total.
2. _____________ is not featured in the ‘Land of Seven Sisters’.
3. Sikkim is separated from the northeast by ______________.
4. The ______________ represents both a geographic and administrative division of India.
5. Sikkim is not a contiguous part of the north-east region _______________.
6. The north-east region of India is a place of ______________.
7. Different communities and tribes of north-east India celebrate their unique festival with _____________.
great enthusiasm and joy
8. ____________ flows in Assam.
9. ____________ is a thanksgiving festival in Assam.
Bhogali or Magh Bihu
10. Without sweet songs and traditional dance Bihu celebration is considered ______________.
11. In mid-October ____________ is observed in Assam.
Kaati Bihu or Kongali
12. _____________ is also called Magh Bihu.
13. _____________ is the most important festival of Arunachal Pradesh.
14. ___________ is believed to drive away evil spirits.
15. 30 indie bands join the ____________ in Arunachal Pradesh.
16. _____________ is the new-year festival in Manipur.
17. Chapchar Kut is the ____________ festival.
18. _____________ is the Hundred-drum Festival.
19. The Garos observe ____________ Meghalaya.
20. ____________ is a week-long festival of Tripura.
21. After the sowing season ____________ is observed in Nagaland.
22. 16 tribes take part in ____________ of Nagaland.
23. ____________ is observed at the end of the harvest season in Sikkim.
24. _____________ marks the Tibetan New Year:
25. _____________ is the festival of light in Sikkim.
Multiple Choice Questions With Answers
North-East India represents both a geographic and administrative division of the _____________.
The contiguous seven states in North East India are commonly described as the Land of _____________.
(A) Seven Brothers
(B) Seven Friends
(C) Seven Sisters
(D) Seven Mothers
(C) Seven Sisters
______________ is geographically not a contiguous part of the northeast region.
Sikkim is separated from the north-east by the ______________ corridor.
Sikkim has happily taken up the role of being a _____________ to the amazing seven sisters.
(A) little sister
(B) little brother
(C) little son
(D) little daughter
(B) little brother
The north-eastern part of India is a place of diverse _______________.
The northeastern region comprises ______________ states.
The North-Eastern region of India is called the “Land of Seven Sisters” because of their ______________.
(B) religious similarities
(D) cultural similarities
Many of the festivals in the north-east are based on _______________.
Assam is blessed with lush greenery and the mighty river ______________.
Rongali Bihu is also known as _____________.
(A) Bohag Bihu
(B) Magh Bihu
(C) Kaati Bihu
(D) Kongali Bihu
(A) Bohag Bihu
Kongali Bihu is also known as ______________.
(A) Kaati Bihu
(B) Bhogali Bihu
(C) Magh Bihu
(A) Kaati Bihu
Bhogali Bihu is also known as ____________.
(A) Kaati Bihu
(B) Magh Bihu
(C) Rongali Bihu
(D) Bohag Bihu
(B) Magh Bihu
Rongali Bihu or Bohag Bihu is celebrated in ____________.
With the onset of spring and the beginning of the ____________ Rongali Bihu is celebrated.
(A) winter season
(B) spring season
(C) harvest season
(D) sowing season
(D) sowing season
_____________ is celebrated in mid-October when the fields are lush but the bams are empty.
(A) Rongali Bihu
(B) Magh Bihu
(C) Bohag Bihu
(D) Kaati Bihu
(D) Kaati Bihu
Bhogali or Magh Bihu is observed in _____________.
Bhogali or Magh Bihu symbolizes the end of the _____________.
(A) sowing season
(B) harvest season
(C) rainy season
(D) spring season
(B) harvest season
Young men and women of ____________ perform the Bihu dance with brisk steps and hand movement.
______________ is a wind instrument made of buffalo horn.
‘Losar’ is the ______________ festival celebrated in certain areas of Arunachal Pradesh.
In Arunachal Pradesh people worship ______________.
(A) Goddess Laxmi
(B) Goddess Popin
(C) Goddess Durga
(D) goddess Mopin
(D) goddess Mopin
An indigenous folk dance called ‘Popir’ is performed by the ______________ in Arunachal Pradesh.
(A) young men
(B) young children
(C) young women
(D) old women
(C) young women
____________ is an iconic outdoor musical festival of Arunachal Pradesh.
(B) Ziro festival
(B) Ziro festival
The Ziro festival of music is held in ______________ every year in Arunachal Pradesh.
______________ festival in Manipur revives and binds the relationships between married girls and their parents.
(A) Ningol Chakouba
(C) Chapchar Kut
(A) Ningol Chakouba
Festivals of North-East India Summary in English
As you all know, India is a land of fairs and festivals. People of different communities from different religions live here; they celebrate a number of festivals around the year. The festivals like Ganesh Chaturthi, Basant Panchami, Diwali, Dusshera, Raksha Bandhan, Id-ul-Fitre, Christmas, Buddha Jayanti, and Mahavir Jayanti, etc. are celebrated by different communities in different regions of our country. We can see a festive atmosphere everywhere as people celebrate their festivals with great pomp and splendor. The people of North Eastern states too celebrate their festivals with much interest and enthusiasm.
Paragraph wise Explanation
Para-1: North-East India is a collective name for the easternmost parts of India representing both a geographic and administrative division of the country. The region comprises eight states, namely Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Sikkim, and Tripura. The contiguous seven states -Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Nagaland are commonly described as the “Land of Seven Sisters ” because of their interdependence on each other.
On the other hand, Sikkim is geographically not a contiguous part of the northeast region. It is separated from the northeast by the Siliguri corridor. So it is not included in the “Land of Seven Sisters”. However, Sikkim has happily taken up the role of being a little brother to the amazing seven sisters!
ଅନୁବାଦ : ଭାରତର ଉଭୟ ଭୌଗୋଳିକ ଓ ପ୍ରଶାସନିକ ବିଭାଗକୁ ପ୍ରତିନିଧ୍ୱ କରୁଥିବା ଭାରତର ଅଧିକାଂଶ ପୂର୍ବବର୍ତ୍ତୀ ଅଞ୍ଚଳ ପାଇଁ ଉତ୍ତର-ପୂର୍ବ ଭାରତ ହେଉଛି ଏକ ସମଷ୍ଟିଗତ ବା ସାମୂହିକ ନାମ । ଏହି ଅଞ୍ଚଳ ଆଠଗୋଟି ରାଜ୍ୟକୁ ନେଇ ଗଠିତ; ଯଥା – ଅରୁଣାଚଳ ପ୍ରଦେଶ, ଆସାମ, ମଣିପୁର, ମେଘାଳୟ, ମିଜୋରାମ, ସିକିମ୍ ଓ ତ୍ରିପୁରା । ପରସ୍ପର ସୀମାକୁ ଲାଗି ରହିଥିବା ସାତଗୋଟିଏ ରାଜ୍ୟ – ଅରୁଣାଚଳ ପ୍ରଦେଶ, ଆସାମ, ମଣିପୁର, ମେଘାଳୟ, ମିଜୋରାମ ଓ ନାଗାଲାଣ୍ଡକୁ ସେମାନଙ୍କର ପରସ୍ପର ନିର୍ଭରଶୀଳତା ହେତୁ ‘ସାତ ଭଉଣୀର ଭୂମି’ କୁହାଯାଏ । ଅପରପକ୍ଷରେ, ସିକିମ୍ ଭୌଗୋଳିକ ଦୃଷ୍ଟିରୁ ଉତ୍ତର-ପୂର୍ବ ଅଞ୍ଚଳ ସମୂହର ଏକ ସଂଲଗ୍ନ ରାଜ୍ୟ ନୁହେଁ । ସଂକୀର୍ଣ୍ଣ ସିଲିଗୁଡ଼ି ଭୂଖଣ୍ଡଦ୍ବାରା ଏହା (ସିକିମ୍ ରାଜ୍ୟ) ଉତ୍ତର-ପୂର୍ବରୁ ବିଚ୍ଛିନ୍ନ ହୋଇଛି । ଯାହାହେଉ ପଛେ ଏହି ଆଶ୍ଚର୍ଯ୍ୟଜନକ ସାତ ଭଉଣୀର ଜଣେ ଛୋଟ ଭାଇ ରୂପେ ସିକିମ୍ ଖୁସିରେ ନିଜର ଭୂମିକା ଗ୍ରହଣ କରିଛି ।
Para-2: The northeastern region of India, is a place of diverse cultures. The different communities and tribes of north-east India celebrate their unique festivals with a celebration complete without traditional music and dance.
ସମ୍ପ୍ରଦାୟ ଓ ଗୋଷ୍ଠୀ ସେମାନଙ୍କର ସ୍ଵତନ୍ତ୍ର ପର୍ବପର୍ବାଣିଗୁଡ଼ିକୁ ଖୁବ୍ ଉତ୍ସାହ ଓ ଆନନ୍ଦରେ ପାଳନ କରିଥା’ନ୍ତି । ଏଭଳି ଅଧିକାଂଶ ପର୍ବପର୍ବାଣି କୃଷି ଉପରେ ଆଧାରିତ ଏବଂ ବିନା ପାରମ୍ପରିକ ସଙ୍ଗୀତ ଓ ନୃତ୍ୟରେ କୌଣସି ଉତ୍ସବ ପାଳନ।
Para-3: Blessed with lush greenery and the mighty River Brahmaputra, the people of Assam have a lot to celebrate. Bus is among the major cultural festivals of Assam. They are a series ofthree prominentfestivals- Rongali Bihu, Kongali Bihu and Bhogali Bihu. Rongali Bihu also known as Bohag Bihu is celebrated in mid-April with the onset of spring and the beginning of the sowing season. It also marks the start of a New Year there.
Kongali or Kaati Bihu is celebrated in mid-October when the fields are lush but the barns are empty. On this occasion, people light lamps and pray to God for a thriving harvest season and to guide souls to heaven. Bhogali, called Magh Bihu is observed in mid-January. The festival symbolizes the end of the harvest season. It is thanksgiving when the crops have been harvested and the barns are full.
ଅନୁବାଦ : ସବୁଜିମା ଓ ଶକ୍ତିଶାଳୀ ବ୍ରହ୍ମପୁତ୍ରର ଆଶୀର୍ବାଦ ପ୍ରାପ୍ତିପୂର୍ବକ ଆସାମର ଲୋକମାନଙ୍କର ବହୁତ କିଛି ପାଳନ କରିବାର ଅଛି । ଆସାମର କେତେକ ମୁଖ୍ୟ ପର୍ବ ମଧ୍ଯରେ ‘ବିହୁ’’ ଅନ୍ୟତମ । ଏଗୁଡ଼ିକ ହେଉଛି ତିନୋଟି ମୁଖ୍ୟ ପର୍ବର କ୍ରମ, ଯଥା – ରୋଙ୍ଗାଲୀ ବିହୁ, କୋଙ୍ଗାଲୀ ବିହୁ ଓ ଭୋଗାଲୀ ବିହୁ । ବୋହାଗ୍ ବିହୁ ନାମରେ ପରିଚିତ ରୋଙ୍ଗାଲୀ ସେଠାରେ (ଆସାମରେ) ନୂତନ ବର୍ଷର ଆରମ୍ଭର ସୂଚନା ଦିଏ । କୋଙ୍ଗାଲୀ ବିହୁ ବା କାଟି ବିହୁ ଅକ୍ଟୋବର ମଧ୍ୟ ଭାଗରେ ପାଳନ କରାଯାଏ ଯେତେବେଳେ କ୍ଷେତସବୁ ସବୁଜିମାରେ ଭରି ଉଠିଥାଏ କିନ୍ତୁ ଖାଦ୍ୟାଗାରସବୁ ଶୂନ୍ୟ ପଡ଼ିଥାଏ । ଏହି ପାଇଁ ଈଶ୍ଵରଙ୍କୁ ପ୍ରାର୍ଥନା କରିଥା’ନ୍ତି । ମାଘ ବିହୁ ନାମରେ ପରିଚିତ ‘ଭୋଗାଲି’ ଜାନୁଆରୀର ମଧ୍ୟଭାଗରେ ପାଳିତ ହୁଏ । ଏହି ପର୍ବ ଅମଳ ଋତୁର ସମାପ୍ତିର ଘୋଷଣା କରିଥାଏ । ଏହା ହେଉଛି ଏକ ଧନ୍ୟବାଦ ଅର୍ପଣ ପର୍ବ ଯେତେବେଳେ ଶସ୍ୟ ଅମଳ ହୋଇଥାଏ ଓ ଶସ୍ୟାଗାରସବୁ ପରିପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ହୋଇପଡ଼ିଥାଏ ।
Para-4: Any Bihu celebration is considered incomplete without melodious folk songs and traditional dance. The Bihu dance is a joyous one. Young men and women get in their best traditional attire and perform the dance with brisk steps and hand movements. The tune of traditional musical instruments including cymbals, bamboo clappers, dhol which is similar to a drum, and the pepa which is a wind instrument made of buffalo horn add a different kind of flavor to the dance as well as the atmosphere. The songs have been handed down through many generations.
ଅନୁବାଦ : ମଧୁର ଲୋକଗୀତ ଓ ପାରମ୍ପରିକ ନୃତ୍ୟ ବିନା କୌଣସି ବିହୁ ଉତ୍ସବ ପାଳନ ଅସମ୍ପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ମନେ କରାଯାଏ । କରନ୍ତି ଓ କ୍ଷୀପ୍ର ପାଦଚାଳନା ଓ ହାତର ଭାବଭଙ୍ଗୀ ସହିତ ନୃତ୍ୟ ପରିବେଷଣ କରନ୍ତି । କରତାଳ (ଝାଞ୍ଜ), ଦାସକାଠିଆ, ଢୋଲ, ଯାହାକି ଏକ ଡ୍ରମ୍ ସଦୃଶ ଓ ପେପା ଯାହାକି ମଇଁଷି ଶିଙ୍ଗରୁ ତିଆରି ଏକ ବାୟୁଚାଳିତ ବାଦ୍ୟଯନ୍ତ୍ର ଆଦି ପାରମ୍ପରିକ ସଙ୍ଗୀତର ବାଦ୍ୟଯନ୍ତ୍ରସମୂହର ଧ୍ଵନି ନୃତ୍ୟ ତଥା ପରିବେଶକୁ ଏକ ଭିନ୍ନ ସ୍ବାଦ ପ୍ରଦାନ କରିଥାଏ । ଗୀତଗୁଡ଼ିକ ପିଢ଼ି ପରେ
Para-5: Lying farther north in the mountain region of the Himalayas, Arunachal Pradesh is one of India’s most remote and picturesque locations with lush green paddy fields and pine-clad mountains. Nature has provided the people of this region with a deep feeling of beauty which can be seen in their festivities, songs, and dances.
ଅନୁବାଦ : ହିମାଳୟ ପାର୍ବତ୍ୟାଞ୍ଚଳର ଦୂରବର୍ତ୍ତୀ ଉତ୍ତରରେ ଅବସ୍ଥିତ ଅରୁଣାଚଳ ପ୍ରଦେଶ ଭାରତର ସବୁଠାରୁ ଦୂରନ୍ତ ଓ ସୁନ୍ଦର ଦୃଶ୍ୟ ସମାହିତ ରାଜ୍ୟ ଅଟେ ଯାହାକି ସବୁଜ କ୍ଷେତ ଓ ପାଇନ୍ ବୃକ୍ଷ ଆଚ୍ଛାଦିତ ଅଞ୍ଚଳରେ ପରିପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ । ପ୍ରକୃତି ଏହି ରାଜ୍ୟବାସୀଙ୍କୁ ସୁନ୍ଦରତା ଅନୁଭବର ଏକ ଅଭିନବ ଆଶୀର୍ବାଦ ପ୍ରଦାନ କରିଛି ଯାହାକି ସେମାନଙ୍କର ପର୍ବପର୍ବାଣି, ଗୀତ ଓ ନୃତ୍ୟରେ ଦେଖିବାକୁ ମିଳେ ।
Para-6: The new-year festival, Losar, is perhaps the most important festival in certain areas of Arunachal Pradesh. On this occasion, people clean their homes and discard the old to bring in the New Year. Mopin is the harvest festival of the Galo tribe. People worship goddess Mopin and pray to drive away evil spirits and to acquire prosperity and wealth.
An indigenous folk dance called Popir is performed by young women. An iconic outdoor musical festival of Arunachal Pradesh is the Zirofestival of music held at Ziro in September every year. The congregation features a combination of 30 Indie bands from across the world and top folk acts from across northeast India.
ସବୁଠାରୁ ଗୁରୁତ୍ଵପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ପର୍ବ । ଏହି ପର୍ବରେ ଲୋକମାନେ ସେମାନଙ୍କର ଘର ପରିଷ୍କାର କରନ୍ତି ଓ ପୁରୁଣାକୁ ତ୍ୟାଗ କରି ନବବର୍ଷକୁ ସ୍ଵାଗତ କରନ୍ତି । ଗାଲୋ ସମ୍ପ୍ରଦାୟର ଅମଳ ପର୍ବ ହେଉଛି ‘ମୋପିନ୍’ । ଲୋକେ ଦେବୀ ‘ମୋପିନ୍’ଙ୍କୁ ଦୁଷ୍ଟ ଆତ୍ମାକୁ ତଡ଼ିବାପାଇଁ ଓ ସମୃଦ୍ଧି ଏବଂ ସମ୍ପଦ ନିମିତ୍ତ ପୂଜା ବା ଉପାସନା କରନ୍ତି । ‘ପୋପିର’ ନାମକ ଏକ ଦେଶୀୟ ଲୋକନୃତ୍ୟ ଯୁବତୀମାନଙ୍କଦ୍ୱାରା ପରିବେଷଣ କରାଯାଏ । ପ୍ରତିବର୍ଷ ସେପ୍ଟେମ୍ବର ମାସରେ ଜିରୋଠାରେ ପାଳିତ ହେଉଥିବା ‘ଜିରୋ’ ପର୍ବ ହେଉଛି ଏକ ସଙ୍ଗୀତଭିତ୍ତିକ ପର୍ବ ଯାହାକି ଅରୁଣାଚଳ ପ୍ରଦେଶର ଏକ ଲୋକପ୍ରିୟ ବାହ୍ୟ ସ୍ଵାଗତିକ ପର୍ବ । ଏହି ସଙ୍ଗୀତ ସମାବେଶରେ ସାରା ପୃଥିବୀରୁ ଆସୁଥିବା ତିରିଶଗୋଟି ଇଡ଼ାଇ ବା ପପ୍ ବା ରକ୍ ମ୍ୟୁଜିକ୍ ଦଳ ଏବଂ।
Para-7: A charming festival of Manipur- Ningol Chakouba binds and revives the relationships between married girls and their parents. The women and their children are given a sumptuous feast and gifts. During Cheiraoba, the Manipur new-year festival in April, people clean and decorate the houses and prepare special festive dishes. As part of the ritual, the villagers climb the nearest hilltops for they believe that this will help them rise to a higher plane in this life.
ଅନୁବାଦ : ‘ନିନ୍ଗୋଲ ଚାକୋଉବା’ ନାମକ ମଣିପୁରର ଏକ ଆକର୍ଷଣୀୟ ପର୍ବ ବିବାହିତା ଝିଅ ଓ ସେମାନଙ୍କର ପିତାମାତାମାନଙ୍କ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ଥିବା ସମ୍ପର୍କକୁ ସୁଦୃଢ଼ କରିବା ସହିତ ପୁନଃ କ୍ରିୟାଶୀଳ କରିଥାଏ । ମହିଳା ଓ ସେମାନଙ୍କର ଗ୍ରାମବାସୀମାନେ ନିକଟତମ ପାହାଡ଼ଶୀର୍ଷ ଆରୋହଣ କରନ୍ତି କାରଣ ସେମାନଙ୍କର ବିଶ୍ଵାସ ଯେ ଏହା (ପର୍ବତାରୋହଣ ) ସେମାନଙ୍କୁ ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନର ଜୀବନରେ ଏକ ଉଚ୍ଚତର ଓ ସମୃଦ୍ଧ ସୋପାନରେ ପହଞ୍ଚିବାରେ ସାହାଯ୍ୟ କରିବ ।
Para-8: The Spring Festival or Chapchar Kut is an important occasion, mostly celebrated in Mizoram. Men and women of all ages, wearing traditional dresses and headgear, perform folk dances and sing traditional songs on this occasion. Drums, gongs, and cymbals add to the festive air!
ଅନୁବାଦ : ବସନ୍ତ ଋତୁର ପର୍ବ ବା ‘ଚାପଚାର କୁଟ୍’ ଏକ ଗୁରୁତ୍ବପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ଉତ୍ସବର ସମୟ, ଯାହାକୁ ମୁଖ୍ୟତଃ ମିଜୋରାମରେ ପାଳନ କରାଯାଏ । ସବୁ ବୟସର ପୁରୁଷ ଓ ମହିଳା ପାରମ୍ପରିକ ପୋଷାକ ଓ ମସ୍ତିଷ୍କ ଆବରଣ ପରିଧାନ କରି ଲୋକନୃତ୍ୟ ଓ ପାରମ୍ପରିକ ଗୀତ ପରିବେଷଣ କରନ୍ତି । ଢୋଲ, ଘଣ୍ଟ ଓ ଝାଞ୍ଜ ପର୍ବର ପରିବେଶକୁ ରୋମାଞ୍ଚରେ ଭରିଦିଏ ।
Para-9: Wangala or the Hundred-drum Festival is the most important festival celebrated by the Garos in the villages of Meghalaya. The festival is named so because 100 drums are beaten together during the celebration. This harvest festival is celebrated in November to mark the end of hard work which naturally brings a good harvest.
The celebration features the beating of drums, blowing horns, and traditional dancing. The dance during the festival has two parallel lines one of the men and the other of women, clad in their festive costumes. While the men beat the drums, the lines move forward together in a rhythmic manner.
ଅନୁବାଦ : ମୋଘାଳୟ ରାଜ୍ୟର ଗ୍ରାମାଞ୍ଚଳରେ ଗାରୋ ଜନଜାଥିଙ୍କଦ୍ୱାରା ପାଳିତ ହେଉଥିବା ୱାଙ୍ଗାଲା ବା ଶହେ ଉତ୍ସବକୁ ନଭେମ୍ବର ମାସରେ ପାଳନ କରାଯାଏ । ଢୋଲବାଡ଼ିଆ, ଶିଂଘ ଫୁଙ୍କା ଓ ପାରମ୍ପରିକ ନୃତ୍ୟ ଏହି ପର୍ବର ମୁଖ୍ୟ ଆକର୍ଷଣ । ଏହି ପର୍ବରେ ପ୍ରଦର୍ଶିତ ନୃତ୍ୟରେ ଦୁଇ ସମାନ୍ତରାଳ ଧାଡ଼ି ଥାଏ – ଗୋଟିଏ ଉତ୍ସବକାଳୀନ ବେଶପୋଷାକ ନାରୀମାନେ ଏକ ଛନ୍ଦାୟିତ ଶୈଳୀରେ ଏକତ୍ର ଅଗ୍ରସର ହୁଅନ୍ତି ।
Para-10: Karachi Puja or Tripura is a week-long festival marked by animal sacrifice and worshipping four teen gods as instructed by Lord Shiva. The festival takes place in the month of July in old Agartala or Puran Haveli, where there is a temple that houses 14 deities. Thousands of people throng Tripura during the festival and enjoy cultural programs and fairs.
ଚଉଦ ଦେବତାଙ୍କର ଉପାସନାର ପ୍ରତୀକରୂପେ ପାଳିତ ହୋଇଥାଏ । ଜୁଲାଇ ମାସରେ ଏହି ପର୍ବ ପୁରୁଣା ଅଗରତାଲା ବା ପୁରୁଣା ହାଭେଲୀ ବା ରାଜପ୍ରାସାଦରେ ଅନୁଷ୍ଠିତ ହୁଏ, ଯେଉଁଠାରେ (ଚଉଦ) ଦେବତାଙ୍କର ନିବାସସ୍ଥଳୀ ରୂପେ ଏକ ମନ୍ଦିର ଅଛି । ଏହି ପର୍ବ ସମୟରେ ହଜାର ହଜାର ଲୋକ ତ୍ରିପୁରାରେ ସମାବେଶ ହୁଅନ୍ତି ଓ ସାଂସ୍କୃତିକ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକ୍ରମ ଓ।
Para-11: The main feature of festivals in Tripura is that all the people join in the celebrations. Many of the dances performed during some of the festivals represent hunting, food-gathering, and various other activities.
ଅନୁବାଦ : ତ୍ରିପୁରାରେ ପାଳିତ ପର୍ବପର୍ବାଣିର ମୁଖ୍ୟ ବୈଶିଷ୍ଟ୍ୟ ହେଉଛି ଯେ ସମସ୍ତ ଅଧିବାସୀ ପର୍ବ ପାଳନରେ ଯୋଗ ଦିଅନ୍ତି । କେତେକ ପର୍ବରେ ପ୍ରଦର୍ଶିତ ଅଧିକାଂଶ ନୃତ୍ୟୁ ଶିକାର, ଖାଦ୍ୟ ସଂଗ୍ରହ ଓ ଅନ୍ୟାନ୍ୟ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟାବଳୀକୁ ପ୍ରତିଫଳିତ କରିଥାଏ ।
Para-12: Nagaland consists of different groups of people who are unique in the customs and traditions that they celebrate. Songs and Dances form the soul of these festivals. Celebration of these festivals is an effective means of preserving and passing down their oral history.
ପରମ୍ପରା ପାଳନରେ ଅଦ୍ୱିତୀୟ ଅଟନ୍ତି । ଗୀତ ଓ ନୃତ୍ୟ ଏହି ପର୍ବପର୍ବାଣିଗୁଡ଼ିକର ଆତ୍ମା ସଦୃଶ । ସେମାନଙ୍କର ମୌଖ୍ ଏକ ସଫଳତମ ମାଧ୍ୟମ ।
Para-13: A major Naga festival is Moastu, celebrated mainly in the villages after the sowing season. Dressed in colorful clothes and headgear decorated with feathers and wild boar tusks, the people in villages dance to traditional music.
ଅନୁବାଦ : ବୁଣା ଋତୁ ପରେ ଗ୍ରାମାଞ୍ଚଳରେ ପାଳିତ ହେଉଥିବା ଏକ ପ୍ରଧାନ ନାଗା ପର୍ବ ବା ଉତ୍ସବ ହେଉଛି ମୋଆସ୍ତୁ । ରଙ୍ଗୀନ ପୋଷାକ ଏବଂ ପକ୍ଷୀ ପର ଓ ଜଙ୍ଗଲୀ ବାର୍ହାର ତୀକ୍ଷ୍ଣ ଦାନ୍ତରେ ସଜ୍ଜିତ ଶିରସ୍ତ୍ରାଣ ପରିହିତ କରି କରନ୍ତି । ଗ୍ରାମବାସୀମାନେ ପାରମ୍ପରିକ ସଙ୍ଗୀତର ତାଳେ ତାଳେ ନୃତ୍ୟ
Para-14: One of India’s most colorful and charming festivals is Nagaland’s Hornbill festival. Named after the state’s most admired bird, the event showcases the cultural heritage of 16 tribes there. It is a 10-day-long cultural dance and sporting event held in December every year. Men, clad in full warrior costumes, show off their hunting and warring skills.
ଅନୁବାଦ : ଭାରତର ସବୁଠାରୁ ରଙ୍ଗୀନ ଓ ଆକର୍ଷକ ପର୍ବପର୍ବାଣି ମଧ୍ୟରୁ ଗୋଟିଏ ହେଉଛି ନାଗାଲାଣ୍ଡର ବା ନାଗାମାନଙ୍କର ‘ହଣ୍ଡିବିଲ୍’ ପର୍ବ । ରାଜ୍ୟର ସର୍ବାଧିକ ପ୍ରଶସିତ ଡେଙ୍ଗା ବଗ ବା ବକର ନାମାନୁସାରେ ନାମିତ ଏହି ପର୍ବ ରାଜ୍ୟର ୧୬ ଜନଜାତିଙ୍କର ସାଂସ୍କୃତିକ ଐତିହ୍ୟର ପ୍ରଦର୍ଶନ କରିଥାଏ । ପ୍ରତିବର୍ଷ ଡିସେମ୍ବର ମାସରେ ଅନୁଷ୍ଠିତ ଏହି ‘ହଣ୍ଡିବିଲ୍’ ପର୍ବ ହେଉଛି ଏକ ଦଶଦିନିଆ ସାଂସ୍କୃତିକ ନୃତ୍ୟ ଏବଂ କ୍ରୀଡ଼ା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକ୍ରମ । ସମ୍ପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ଯୋଦ୍ଧାର ବେଶପୋଷାକରେ।
Para-15: Situated in the eastern Himalayas, Sikkim is one of the most beautiful states in India. The Sikkim festivals are celebrated with a lot of pumps and shows as per the Buddhist calendar. Throughout these festivals, people take part in lively dances and music. Saga Dawa is an amazing Buddhist festival celebrated on the full moon day in the Tibetan lunar month between May and June. On this sacred day, people visit the monasteries and offer prayers, water, incense sticks, and butter lamps.
The festival commemorates the birth, enlightenment, and death of the Lord Buddha. Losing is celebrated at the end of the harvest season. Locals wearing brightly colored masks, and playing fascinating musical instruments perform the Cham dance. Archery contest is also held along with feasting and other celebrations. Tibetan New Year, Losar is marked with immense joy, extensive meals, and merriment. It is usually held in February. Tihaar is the festival oflight. It is somewhat like Diwali.
ଅନୁବାଦ : ପୂର୍ବ ହିମାଳୟରେ ଅବସ୍ଥିତ ସିକିମ୍ ହେଉଛି ଭାରତର ସୁନ୍ଦରତମ ରାଜ୍ୟଗୁଡ଼ିକ ମଧ୍ୟରୁ ଅନ୍ୟତମ । ସିକିମ୍ର ପର୍ବପର୍ବାଣିଗୁଡ଼ିକ ବୌଦ୍ଧ ପଞ୍ଜିକା ଅନୁଯାୟୀ ଖୁବ୍ ଜାକଜମକରେ ପାଳିତ ହୁଏ । ଏସବୁ ପର୍ବ ସମୟରେ ଲୋକମାନେ ପ୍ରାଣବନ୍ତ ନୃତ୍ୟ ଓ ସଙ୍ଗୀତରେ ଅଂଶଗ୍ରହଣ କରନ୍ତି । ‘‘ସାଗା ଦାଓ୍ବା’’ ଏକ ଆକର୍ଷଣୀୟ ବୌଦ୍ଧ ପର୍ବ ଯାହାକୁ ମଇ ଓ ଜୁନ୍ ମାସ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ତିବ୍ବତୀୟ ଚାନ୍ଦ୍ରମାସର ପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣମୀ ଦିନ ପାଳନ କରାଯାଏ । ଏହି ପବିତ୍ର ଦିନରେ ଲୋକମାନେ (ସିକିମ୍ଵାସୀ) ବୌଦ୍ଧ ମଠ ପରିଦର୍ଶନ କରନ୍ତି ଓ ଭଗବାନ ବୁଦ୍ଧଙ୍କୁ ପ୍ରାର୍ଥନା ବ୍ୟତିରେକ ଜଳ, ଧୂପକାଠି ଓ ଲହୁଣୀ ଦୀପ ଅର୍ପଣ କରନ୍ତି । ଭଗବାନ୍ ବୁଦ୍ଧଙ୍କର ଜନ୍ମ, ବୁଦ୍ଧତ୍ବ ପ୍ରାପ୍ତି ଓ ମୃତ୍ୟୁର ସ୍ମୃତିକୁ ଏହି ପର୍ବ ଉଜାଗର କରିଥାଏ । ଅମଳ ଋତୁର ଶେଷରେ ‘ଲୋଜୁଙ୍ଗ୍’ ନାମକ ପର୍ବ ପାଳିତ ହୁଏ । ଉଜ୍ଜ୍ଵଳ ରଙ୍ଗର ମୁଖା ପିନ୍ଧି ଓ ଚମତ୍କାର ସଙ୍ଗୀତ ବାଦ୍ୟଯନ୍ତ୍ର ବଜାଇ ଅନୁଷ୍ଠିତ କରାଯାଏ । ତିବ୍ବତୀୟ ନୂଆବର୍ଷ ‘ଲୋସାର’ ପର୍ବ ପ୍ରଚୁର ଆନନ୍ଦ, ବ୍ୟାପକ ଖାଦ୍ୟଗ୍ରହଣ ଓ ଆମୋଦପ୍ରମୋଦରେ ପ୍ରତୀକ ରୂପେ ପାଳିତ ହୋଇଥାଏ । ଏହା (ଲୋସାର) ସାଧାରଣତଃ ଫେବୃୟାରୀ ମାସରେ ପାଳିତ ହୋଇଥାଏ । ‘ତିହାର’ ହେଉଛି ଆଲୋକର ପର୍ବ । ଏହି ପର୍ବ କେତେକାଂଶରେ ଦୀପାବଳୀ ସଦୃଶ ।
Para-16: Hardly a month passes in any of the seven states without a festival or two. Most of them have religious importance or significance, as the people offer thanks to the gods for a good harvest or prosperity, or ask for protection against calamities. But these celebrations also help encourage cultural and artistic activities and bring out the natural talent of the people.
ଅନୁବାଦ : ଏହି ସାତ ରାଜ୍ୟ ମଧ୍ୟରୁ କୌଣସି ରାଜ୍ୟରେ ଏପରି ଗୋଟିଏ ମାସ ନାହିଁ ଯେତେବେଳେ କି ଗୋଟିଏ ବା ଦୁଇଟି ପର୍ବ ପାଳିତ ହୋଇନଥାଏ । ସେଗୁଡ଼ିକ ମଧ୍ୟରୁ ଅଧିକାଂଶ ପର୍ବର କୌଣସି ନା କୌଣସି ଧାର୍ମିକ ଗୁରୁତ୍ୱ ରହିଛି ଯେହେତୁ ଲୋକମାନେ ଏକ ଭଲ ଫସଲ ଅମଳ ନିମିତ୍ତ ଦେବତାମାନଙ୍କୁ ଧନ୍ୟବାଦ ଦେଇଥା’ନ୍ତି ବା ବିପର୍ଯ୍ୟୟ ବିରୋଧରେ
Word Meaning / Glossary:
region – area of a country (Q) What region are youfrom?
comprise – consist, formed from (ଗଠିତ ହୋଇଥାଏ ) Water comprises oxygen and hydrogen.
contiguous – adjoining (ସନ୍ନିହିତ ବା ସଂଲଗ୍ନ) Odisha is contiguous to Andhra Pradesh in the south.
interdependence – act of depending on each other ( ଆନ୍ତଃନିର୍ଭରଶୀଳତା)
corridor – a long narrow strip of land used as a road (ରାସ୍ତାରୂପେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହେଉଥିବା ଏକ ସଂକୀର୍ଣ୍ଣ)
amazing – wonderful The Himalayas present amazing scenery.
culture – habits, traditions, and religious beliefs The Indian culture is diversifying (ବିବିଧତାପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ)
traditional – ancient (ପ୍ରାଚୀନ, ପାରମ୍ପରିକ) ‘Odishi’ is the traditional dance of Odisha.
enthusiasm – great eagerness He lost his enthusiasm for his studies.
lush – thick growing The field is lush green (ସବୁଜିମାରେ ଭରା )
mark – celebrate (ପାଳନ କରନ୍ତି)
brisk – rapid or quick (ଦ୍ରୁତ ବା କ୍ଷିପ୍ର) The leopard chases its prey (ଶିକାର) with brisk feet.
cymbal – round metal plates used as musical tools (ଝାଞ୍ଜ ବା କରତାଳ ( ସଙ୍ଗୀତ ବାଦ୍ୟଯନ୍ତ୍ର)
bamboo clapper – musical tools made of boards of bamboo
generation – all the people born in the same period (ପିଢ଼ି)
picturesque – full of enchanting scenery (ସୁନ୍ଦର ଦୃଶ୍ୟପୂଣ୍ଣ) Chilika is a picturesque lake.
to discard – to use no more I want to discard my old thoughts.( ତ୍ୟାଗ କରିବାପାଇଁ)
prosperity – success with money (ଆର୍ଥିକ ପ୍ରଗତି ବା ଉନ୍ନତି) May you live in peace and prosperit’’.
congregation – a gathering of people (particularly devotees at a sacred place One can see a huge congregation at Pun Badadanda on the occasion of the Car Festival.
feature – include something important The religion features lots of music and dance.
iconic – symbolic (ପ୍ରତୀକାତ୍ମକ)
indie – a pop group or a rock music group (ଏକ ପପ୍ ସଙ୍ଗୀତ ବା ରକ୍ ସଙ୍ଗୀତ ଦଳ)
revive – to renew to bring the past back again (ପୁନରୁତ୍ ଥାନ କରିଥାଏ ) A few hours of rest can revive your energy.
sumptuous – very rich and with a lot of variety( ରମଣୀୟ ଓ ବିଭିନ୍ନତାପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ, ସୁନ୍ଦର )
ritual – religious rites (ଧାମକ ପ୍ରଜାପଦ୍ଧତି / ରୀତିନୀତି) The Hindus have a lot of rituals.
plane – progress
instructed – suggested or told formally (ଆନୁଷ୍ଠାନିକ ଭାବରେ ପରାମର୍ଶ ଦିଆଯାଇଥିବା )
take place – happen / occur I come about In Odisha thirteen festivals take place in twelve months.
rhythmic – having regular pattern of sound and music ( ଛନ୍ଦ ବା ତାଳ (ଧ୍ୱନି ଓ ସଙ୍ଗୀତର )
form the soul of – form the inner part of (ମୂଳପିଣ୍ଡ ଗଠନ କରିଥାଏ)
preserve – to protect ( ସଂରକ୍ଷତ କରିବାପାଇଁ)
oral history – historical information passed from generation to generation by the tongues of people ( ମୋଖୁ ଇତିହାସ )
headgear – clothing on (he head for a religious purpose) (ଧାର୍ମିକ ଉଦ୍ଦେଶ୍ୟରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ)
heritage – history of ancient traditions (ପ୍ରାଚୀନ ଐତିହ୍ୟ) India has a glorious heritage.
sporting event – athletics activity
situated – located (ଅବସ୍ଥିତ ଥିବା) Odisha is situated on the east coast of India.
lunar month – the average time between one new moon and the next (ଚନ୍ଦ୍ର ମାସ)
sacred – holy, auspicious (ପବିତ୍ର) The Veda is a sacred epic
to commemorate – to remind people of something (ସ୍ୱର୍ଗୀୟ କରାଇଦେବା ପାଇଁ)
enlightenment – the act of acquiring heavenly knowledge
fascinating – extremely interesting or attractive (ଆକର୍ଷଣୀୟ) Sikkim is a fascinating state.
extensive – largest, highest in space or amount Harish is having extensive preparation for the examination.
ask for – to beg somebody something I asked the father for fifty rupees.
calamity (N) – unexpected disaster causing a lot of damage Earthquake is a huge natural calamity. (ଦୁର୍ବିପାକ ବା ବିପର୍ଯ୍ୟୟ )
bring out – make / showcase, expose (ଉଜାଗର କରିଥାଏ)
unique – extra-ordinary (ଅଦ୍ଵିତୀୟ, ଅସାଧାରଣ ) It was a unique event God is unique to all.
diverse – manifold (ବିବିଧତାପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ) or various India has diverse cultures.
clad – covered (ଆଚ୍ଛାଦତ ) The ground is clad in snow.
has provided – has given (ଦେଇଛି) He has provided a lot of money for the project.
attire – clothes (ପୋଷାକ) We are in the best attires during festivals.
to drive away – to eliminate We use mosquito nets to drive away mosquitoes.
melodious – very sweet Lata has a melodious voice.
immense – tremendous We get immense joy during festivals.
thriving – growing Monsoon is a crop-thriving season.
BSE Odisha 10th Class English Detailed Text
- Chapter 1 All Things Bright and Beautiful
- Chapter 2 A letter to God
- Chapter 3 The Solitary Reaper
- Chapter 4 At the High School
- Chapter 5 Village Song
- Chapter 6 Festivals of North-East India
- Chapter 7 The Flower-School
- Chapter 8 Air Pollution: A Hidden Menace
- Chapter 9 From the Formalin Jar
- Chapter 10 School’s Goodbye